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BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546474


Brachial plexus injury is a rare but potentially serious complication of laparoscopic surgery. Loss of motor and/or sensory innervation can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life following otherwise successful surgery. A 38-year-old underwent elective laparoscopic management of severe endometriosis during which she was placed in steep head-down tilt Lloyd-Davies position for a prolonged period. On awakening from anaesthesia, the patient had no sensation or movement of her dominant right arm. A total plexus brachialis injury was suspected. As advised by a neurologist, an MRI brachial plexus, nerve conduction study and electromyography were requested. She was managed conservatively and made a gradual recovery with a degree of residual musculocutaneous nerve neuropathy. The incidence of brachial plexus injury following laparoscopy is unknown but the brachial plexus is particularly susceptible to injury as a result of patient positioning and prolonged operative time. Patient positioning in relation to applied clinical anatomy is explored and risk reduction strategies described.

Brachial Plexus Neuropathies , Brachial Plexus , Endometriosis , Adult , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/etiology , Endometriosis/surgery , Female , Humans , Musculocutaneous Nerve , Quality of Life
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 27(5): 1014-1016, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454309


OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate our application of the ghost ileostomy in the setting of laparoscopic segmental bowel resection for symptomatic bowel endometriosis nodule. DESIGN: Technical step-by-step surgical video description (educative video) SETTING: University Tertiary Hospital. Institutional Review Board ruled that approval was not required for this study. Endometriosis affects the bowel in 3% to 37% of all cases, and in 90% of these cases, the rectum or sigmoid colon is also involved. Infiltration up to the rectal mucosa and invasion of >50% of the circumference have been suggested as an indication for bowel resection [1]. Apart from general risks (bleeding, infection, direct organ injuries) and bowel and bladder dysfunctions, anastomotic leakage is one of the most severe complications. In women with bowel and vaginal mucosa endometriosis involvement, there is a risk of rectovaginal fistula after concomitant rectum and vagina resections. Hence, for lower colorectal anastomosis, the use of temporary protective ileostomy is usually recommended to prevent these complications but carries on stoma-related risks, such as hernia, retraction, dehydration, prolapse, and necrosis. Ghost ileostomy is a specific technique, first described in 2010, that gives an easy and safe option to prevent anastomotic leakage with maximum preservation of the patient's quality of life [2]. In case of anastomotic leakage, the ghost (or virtual) ileostomy is converted, under local anesthesia, into a loop (real) ileostomy by extracting the isolated loop through an adequate abdominal wall opening. In principle, avoiding readmission for performing the closure of the ileostomy, with all the costs related, means a considerable saving for the hospital management. Also, applying a protective rectal tube in intestinal anastomosis may have a beneficial effect [3]. These options are performed by general surgeons in oncological scenarios, but their use in endometriosis has never been described. INTERVENTIONS: In a 32-year-old woman with intense dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, dyschesia, and cyclic rectal bleeding, a complete laparoscopic approach was performed using blunt and sharp dissection with cold scissors, bipolar dissector and a 5-mm LigaSure Advance (Covidien, Valley lab, Norwalk, Connecticut). An extensive adhesiolysis restoring the pelvic anatomy and endometriosis excision was done. Afterward, the segmental bowel resection was performed using linear and circular endo-anal stapler technique with immediate end-to-end bowel anastomosis and transit reconstitution. Once anastomosis was done, the terminal ileal loop was identified, and a window was made in the adjacent mesentery. Then, an elastic tape (vessel loop) was passed around the ileal loop, brought out of the abdomen through the right iliac fossa 5-mm port site incision and, fixed to the abdominal wall using nonabsorbable stitches. Finally, a trans-anal tube was placed for 5 days. The patient was discharged on the fifth day postoperatively without any complications. The tape was removed 10 days after surgery, and the loop dropped back. Two months after the intervention, the patient remains asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Ghost ileostomy is a simple, safe, and feasible technique available in the setting of lower colorectal anastomosis following bowel endometriosis resection.

Endometriosis/surgery , Ileostomy/methods , Intestinal Diseases/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Abdominal Wall/pathology , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Adult , Anal Canal/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Anastomotic Leak , Colon, Sigmoid/surgery , Dysmenorrhea/etiology , Dysmenorrhea/surgery , Endometriosis/complications , Endometriosis/pathology , Female , Humans , Intestinal Diseases/complications , Intestinal Diseases/pathology , Pelvis/pathology , Pelvis/surgery , Rectum/pathology , Rectum/surgery
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(4): 1243-1252, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175089


AIM: The scar of cesarean section (CS) is the most common site of abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE), whose tumor degeneration has been reported in an increasing number of cases; the most frequent histological type is clear cell carcinoma (CCC). METHODS: We conducted a systematic research of the literature, collecting data regarding the evidence on tumor degeneration from AWE after CS. Moreover, we reported a case of clear cell borderline tumor (CCBT) originating from AWE. RESULTS: We included data of 37 patients with diagnosis of CCC. The average time between the last CS and the diagnosis of CCC was around 15 years. Overall, 26.0% and 73.9% patients received exclusive local abdominal resection of the lesion and additional surgery, respectively. Lymph nodes involvement was detected in 26.0 % patients and adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 52.0 % cases. During follow-up period, 15.2% patients died of disease, 32.6% had no evidence of disease, and 17.4% recurred. We diagnosed a CCBT arose in a patients with AWE and a personal history of several surgical procedures for endometriosis, a CS and a subsequent transverse laparotomy. We performed an open bilateral ovariectomy and a large excision of the endometriotic abdominal lesion. CONCLUSION: Tumor degeneration from AWE seems to be a real occurrence with an increasing number of events. Considering the lack of risk factors and diagnostic instruments for tumor degeneration, the removal of AWE localization could be advisable, even though there was long average time between the trigger surgery and the tumor finding.

Abdominal Wall , Endometriosis , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cicatrix/pathology , Endometriosis/pathology , Endometriosis/surgery , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies