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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(4): 1421-1424, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939174

ABSTRACT

We present two ICU-hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis in one eye and variable manifestations of chorioretinitis in the fellow eye. Two diabetic patients (57 and 62 years old) showed anterior uveitis and yellowish-white subretinal infiltrations. The fellow eye of one patient showed patches of choroiditis, while the other showed full retinal thickness infiltrations. A workup yielded high serum titers of galactomannan, diagnostic of aspergillosis. The widespread use of high doses of corticosteroids in the management of COVID-19 may predispose to various secondary fungal opportunistic infections and may manifest in different forms of chorioretinal infiltration.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Chorioretinitis , Endophthalmitis , Uveitis, Anterior , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Chorioretinitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Humans , Middle Aged
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840564

ABSTRACT

A man in mid-50s presented with progressive blurred vision in his left eye for over 6 weeks. He was a known diabetic with history of COVID-19 pneumonia treated with steroids and remdesivir. He had pyelonephritis and urinary culture grown Klebsiella He was referred as a case of non-resolving vitreous haemorrhage. Visual acuity (VA) was hand movements with fundus showing dense vitritis. He underwent pars plana vitrectomy, vitreous biopsy with intraocular antibiotics (imipenem) suspecting as a case of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis. Vitreous biopsy did not yield organisms on the smear/culture. The patient's condition worsened with perception of light and fundus showing dense vitritis with discrete yellowish white deposits on the surface of the retina. A repeat vitreous biopsy done along with intravitreal injection of voriconazole (suspecting fungal aetiology) grown fungal colonies and the organism was identified as Cryptococcus laurentii At 4-month follow-up, the VA improved to 6/24.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Vitrectomy/adverse effects
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1819-1821, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835147

ABSTRACT

Systemic corticosteroids and immunocompromised state following SARS-CoV-2 infection can predispose individuals to endogenous endophthalmitis. A 66-year-old gentleman presented with complaints of diminution of vision and redness one week post discharge after hospitalization for COVID-19 infection. Clinical examination suggested fulminant endogenous endophthalmitis which responded poorly even after aggressive treatment requiring evisceration. Culture and gene sequenced analysis confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus to be the causative organism. A high degree of suspicion is warranted in the presence of recent onset of floaters in COVID-19-infected individuals to facilitate early diagnosis and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Fungal , Aftercare , Aged , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , Visual Acuity
6.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 52(2): 139-141, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818499

ABSTRACT

A 61-year-old woman presented to our clinic with complaints of decreased visual acuity, pain, and redness in her left eye. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in the right eye and counting fingers at 3 meters in the left eye. On slit-lamp examination, 1+ cells were detected in the anterior chamber. Fundus examination revealed 1+ haze in the vitreous and multiple creamy-whitish lesions in the retina and vitreous. Her history included a diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) one month earlier, for which she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit for 20 days and received systemic corticosteroid treatment. Vitreous culture yielded Candida albicans. The patient's nasopharyngeal swab sample was positive for COVID-19 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. BCVA was improved to 20/40 after amphotericin therapy (via intravitreal injection and intravenous routes), and the vitritis and chorioretinitis lesion regressed after 2 weeks of treatment. Two weeks later, intravenous amphotericin was discontinued and oral fluconazole treatment was started at a dose of 400 mg/day. At 3-month follow-up, her BCVA was 20/25 and no inflammatory reaction was observed in the anterior chamber and vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Fungal , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Critical Care , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Steroids
8.
Int Ophthalmol ; 42(7): 2127-2132, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616190

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiological cause distribution in chemical eye injuries during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, the medical records of patients, who presented with chemical eye injuries between March 30, 2020, and March 1, 2021, were evaluated and compared with the data covering 10 years before the pandemic. RESULTS: Twenty-seven eyes of twenty-three patients (19 adults, 4 children) who presented in pandemic period were included. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer was one of the two most common agents (n = 6 eyes) in the pandemic era. In the last 10 years before the pandemic, 137 eyes of 102 patients were treated for chemical eye injuries. Injuries due to alcohol-based hand sanitizer increased from 3.1 to 21.1% among all patients, and from 0 to 75% among pediatric patients during the pandemic era compared to the pre-pandemic period. The increase was statistically significant both in all patients (p = .003) and in the pediatric patient group (p = .048). CONCLUSION: Due to COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol-based hand sanitizer use became more common. Consequently, the frequency of hand sanitizer related chemical injuries showed a 13-fold increase and the age group affected by such accidents is altered during the pandemic. Three out of four pediatric patients (75%) were injured with alcohol-based hand sanitizers, which draws attention to the fact that improperly placed hand sanitizer stations, being just at the eye level of children, can cause chemical eye injuries in the pediatric population even more.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Eye Injuries , Hand Sanitizers , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Demography , Ethanol , Eye Injuries/epidemiology , Eye Injuries/etiology , Hand Sanitizers/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 323-326, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594596

ABSTRACT

A 62-year-old female diabetic recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia after receiving a prolonged course of steroids. She presented with a clinical picture of left-eye panuveitis with white cotton ball chorioretinal lesions and RAPD suggesting an optic neuropathy (VA HM). Diagnostic vitrectomy was performed to take samples for infective screen and to give intravitreal voriconazole empirically. Smear, culture, and PCR for viral DNA confirmed mixed infection of endogenous Candida endophthalmitis and incidental CMV infection. With further treatment, her corrected vision improved to 6/18 with regressing fungal lesions in serial fundus photographs. Prompt diagnosis and intervention preserved her vision and prevented potential life-threatening complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Fungal , Optic Nerve Diseases , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Diseases/drug therapy , Optic Nerve Diseases/etiology , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitrectomy
11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(12): 3664-3676, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538653

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intraocular infection in patients with COVID-19 could be different in the presence of treatment with systemic corticosteroid and immunosuppressive agents. We describe the epidemiology and microbiological profile of intraocular infection in COVID-19 patients after their release from the hospital. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical and microbiological data of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients from April 2020 to January 2021 presenting with features of endogenous endophthalmitis within 12 weeks of their discharge from the hospital in two neighboring states in South India. The data included demography, systemic comorbidities, COVID-19 treatment details, time interval to visual symptoms, the microbiology of systemic and ocular findings, ophthalmic management, and outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age of 24 patients (33 eyes) was 53.6 ± 13.5 (range: 5-72) years; 17 (70.83%) patients were male. Twenty-two (91.6%) patients had systemic comorbidities, and the median period of hospitalization for COVID-19 treatment was 14.5 ± 0.7 (range: 7-63) days. Infection was bilateral in nine patients. COVID-19 treatment included broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics (all), antiviral drugs (22, 91.66% of patients), systemic corticosteroid (21, 87.5% of patients), supplemental oxygen (18, 75% of patients), low molecular weight heparin (17, 70.8% of patients), admission in intensive care units (16, 66.6% of patients), and interleukin-6 inhibitor (tocilizumab) (14, 58.3% of patients). Five (20.8%) patients died of COVID-19-related complications during treatment for endophthalmitis; one eye progressed to pan ophthalmitis and orbital cellulitis; eight eyes regained vision >20/400. Fourteen of 19 (73.7%) vitreous biopsies were microbiologically positive (culture, PCR, and microscopy), and the majority (11 patients, 78.5%) were fungi. CONCLUSION: Intraocular infection in COVID-19 patients is predominantly caused by fungi. We suggest a routine eye examination be included as a standard of care of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Bacterial , Eye Infections, Fungal , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Visual Acuity , Young Adult
12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(12): 3759-3761, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538649

ABSTRACT

We present a case of endogenous fungal endophthalmitis in a nondiabetic, nonhypertensive patient who recovered from COVID-19 infection. Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent individual is quite uncommon. The organism in our patient was resistant to amphotericin and voriconazole and was successfully treated with intravitreal caspofungin. The rarity of an opportunistic nosocomial infection in an immunocompetent person with a drug-resistant organism prompted us to write this report.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Fungal , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Caspofungin/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , SARS-CoV-2 , Voriconazole
13.
Ophthalmology ; 128(11): 1620-1626, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510165

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Routine use of face masks for patients and physicians during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections has increased with the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This study evaluates the impact of universal face mask use on rates and outcomes of post-injection endophthalmitis (PIE). DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, comparative cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Eyes receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections from October 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020, at 12 centers. METHODS: Cases were divided into a "no face mask" group if no face masks were worn by the physician or patient during intravitreal injections or a "universal face mask" group if face masks were worn by the physician, ancillary staff, and patient during intravitreal injections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of endophthalmitis, microbial spectrum, and visual acuity (VA). RESULTS: Of 505 968 intravitreal injections administered in 110 547 eyes, 85 of 294 514 (0.0289%; 1 in 3464 injections) cases of presumed endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group, and 45 of 211 454 (0.0213%; 1 in 4699) cases occurred in the "universal face mask" group (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-1.18; P = 0.097). In the "no face mask" group, there were 27 cases (0.0092%; 1 in 10 908 injections) of culture-positive endophthalmitis compared with 9 cases (0.004%; 1 in 23 494) in the "universal face mask" group (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.99; P = 0.041). Three cases of oral flora-associated endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group (0.001%; 1 in 98 171 injections) compared with 1 (0.0005%; 1 in 211 454) in the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.645). Patients presented a mean (range) 4.9 (1-30) days after the causative injection, and mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) VA at endophthalmitis presentation was 2.04 (~20/2200) for "no face mask" group compared with 1.65 (~20/900) for the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.022), although no difference was observed 3 months after treatment (P = 0.764). CONCLUSIONS: In a large, multicenter, retrospective study, physician and patient face mask use during intravitreal anti-VEGF injections did not alter the risk of presumed acute-onset bacterial endophthalmitis, but there was a reduced rate of culture-positive endophthalmitis. Three months after presentation, there was no difference in VA between the groups.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Eye Infections, Bacterial/prevention & control , N95 Respirators , Comorbidity , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
14.
Retina ; 41(8): 1709-1714, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503647

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our department with any or all of the following complaints: pain, watering, redness, and decreased vision were identified. All relevant data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. All patients had been treated for COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore had received remdesivir and systemic steroids; 2 of the 3 patients received tocilizumab. All patients received vitreous biopsy, vitrectomy, and intraocular antibiotic injection. Patient 1 demonstrated Klebsiella pneumoniae in blood culture, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in urine culture, and K. pneumoniae in vitreous fluid, whereas Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the blood and nasopharyngeal culture, respectively. Correspondingly, the same organism was cultured from vitreous in Patients 2 and 3. The visual acuity at the last follow-up in Patients 1 to 3 was 20/100, 20/80, and 20/40, respectively. The probable source of infection was identified in each as renal calculi, dental caries, and the pharynx, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in the vitreous fluid of Patient 1. CONCLUSION: We report good outcomes of early intervention for endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 infection. We also document the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/virology
15.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 33(1): 28-34, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494046

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endophthamitis following intraocular surgery is rare using current antiseptic techniques, such as single application of 5% povidone-iodine to the ocular surface and adjuvant topical or intracameral antibiotics. Challenges remain, however, including increased multidrug-resistant bacterial endophthalmitis, increased fungal endophthalmitis, and the low but nonzero endophthalmitis rate attributable to the typical bacteria that colonize the ocular surface. RECENT FINDINGS: Povidone-iodine has a wide spectrum of activity, including activity against novel pathogens, such as SARS-CoV-2. Povidone-iodine alternatives, such as hypochlorous acid can have significantly less efficacy in vitro against endophthalmitis isolates. Repetitive application of dilute povidone-iodine has an excellent safety profile and strong evidence base for efficacy. SUMMARY: Povidone-iodine is widely available, inexpensive, and commonly used by ophthalmologists. The repetitive application of dilute povidone-iodine is a well studied, well tolerated, and efficacious way to transiently sterilize the ocular surface during intraocular surgery. Additional benefits include activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and lack of inducible resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Humans , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Povidone-Iodine , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(10): 2869-2871, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441270

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has become a global pandemic. There has been a resurgence in complications involving various organs in patients recovered from COVID-19, and endophthalmitis is one of them. Endophthalmitis-an inflammation of intraocular tissues leading to loss of vision or even loss of eye-has been a rare occurrence in the past, but has been on the rise in the post-COVID-19 times. Here we report seven such cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(10): 2824-2827, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441261

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare the post-cataract endophthalmitis (PCE) rates among eyes undergoing syringing or regurgitation on pressure over the lacrimal sac (ROPLAS) test prior to cataract surgery. Methods: We performed a single-center, retrospective, comparative analysis of eyes developing PCE who underwent syringing prior to cataract surgery (group A) in the pre-COVID-19 era between November 1 2019 and January 31, 2020 and the eyes that underwent ROPLAS test prior to cataract surgery (group B) in the COVID-19 era between November 1, 2020 and January 31, 2021. Results: A total of 87,144 eyes underwent cataract surgery during the two time periods of the study. Syringing was performed in 48,071 eyes, whereas ROPLAS was performed in 39,073 eyes. In group A, 19 eyes (0.039%) developed PCE, whereas 20 eyes (0.051%) developed PCE in group B (P = 0.517). Between the two groups, the grade of anterior chamber cellular reaction (P = 0.675), hypopyon (P = 0.738), and vitreous haze (P = 0.664) were comparable. Gram-positive organisms were detected in 4 eyes in group A and 6 eyes in group B; 2 eyes in group A had gram-negative bacilli. The presenting visual acuity (Group A: LogMAR 1.42 and Group B: LogMAR 1.30) and final visual acuity (Group A: LogMAR 0.52 and Group B: LogMAR 0.5) were comparable between the two groups. (P = 0.544 and 0.384, respectively). Conclusion: The rates of PCE were comparable among the eyes undergoing either syringing test or ROPLAS prior to cataract surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Endophthalmitis , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction , Nasolacrimal Duct , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/diagnosis , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/epidemiology , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/etiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 105(9): 1313-1317, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367419

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess whether pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is an aerosol-generating procedure (AGP) in an ex vivo experimental model. METHODS: In this ex vivo study on 10 porcine eyes, optical particle counter was used to measure particles ≤10 µm using cumulative mode in the six in-built channels: 0.3 µm, 0.5 µm, 1 µm, 2.5 µm, 5 µm and 10 µm aerosols during PPV. Two parts of the study were as follows: (1) to assess the pre-experimental baseline aerosol count in the theatre environment where there are dynamic changes in temperature and humidity and (2) to measure aerosol generation with 23-gauge and 25-gauge set-up. For each porcine eye, five measurements were taken for each consecutive step in the experiment including pre-PPV, during PPV, fluid-air exchange (FAX) and venting using a flute with 23-gauge set-up and a chimney with 25-gauge set-up. Therefore, a total of 200 measurements were recorded. RESULTS: With 23-gauge and 25-gauge PPV, there was no significant difference in aerosol generation in all six channels comparing pre-PPV versus PPV or pre-PPV versus FAX. Venting using flute with 23-gauge PPV showed significant reduction of aerosol ≤1 µm. Air venting using chimney with 25-gauge set-up showed no significant difference in aerosol of ≤1 µm. For cumulative aerosol counts of all particles measuring ≤5 µm, compared with pre-PPV, PPV or FAX, flute venting in 23-gauge set-up showed significant reduction unlike the same comparison for chimney venting in 25-gauge set-up. CONCLUSION: PPV and its associate steps do not generate aerosols ≤10 µm with 23-gauge and 25-gauge set-ups.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/adverse effects , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections/etiology , Microsurgery/adverse effects , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Vitrectomy/adverse effects , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Eye Infections/transmission , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Wound Infection/transmission , Swine , Vitrectomy/methods
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