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Iatreia ; 34(4): 375-382, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1573008


RESUMEN Introducción: el SARS-CoV-2 es un nuevo coronavirus descrito por primera vez en China y con alta capacidad de propagación. Su presentación clínica más frecuente son los síntomas respiratorios, aunque se han descrito otros como los gastrointestinales. La transmisión ocurre por gotas, aerosoles, vía fecal oral, conjuntiva, fómites y por contacto directo con fluidos corporales del paciente. En este sentido, los procedimientos realizados en las salas de endoscopia deben considerarse de alto riesgo. Objetivo: describir y analizar las medidas de prevención frente al SARS-CoV-2 para la práctica endoscópica-anestésica u otros procedimientos que requieran sedación, con el fin de disminuir la exposición y así minimizar el contagio del personal de salud. Resultados: la respuesta global se ha enfocado en la utilización de elementos de protección personal para tratar de disminuir el riesgo al que se encuentra expuesto el personal de salud. Sin embargo, debido a la prontitud de la emergencia, no se han podido generar evidencias de alta calidad que permitan dar recomendaciones definitivas. Reflexión: el personal de salud debe tomar todas las medidas de protección que puedan ser consideradas como efectivas, además deconstruir protocolos y fomentar la adherencia a los mismos.

SUMMARY Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is a new coronavirus described for the first time in China, with high capacity of propagation. Its most frequent clinical presentation is respiratory symptoms; however, others have been described as gastrointestinal. Transmission occurs by droplets, aerosols, oral fecal route, conjunctiva, fomites and by direct contact with body fluids of the patient. In this sense, the procedures performed in endoscopy rooms should be considered high risk. Objective: To describe and analyze preventive measures against SARS-CoV-2 for endoscopic-anesthesia practice or other procedures that require sedation, in order to reduce exposure and thus minimize contagion of health personnel. Results: The global response has focused on the use of personal protective equipment to try to reduce the risk to which health care personnel are exposed, but due to the urgency of the emergency, it has not been possible to generate high quality evidence to give definitive recommendations. Reflection: Health personnel should take all protective measures that can be considered effective, and also deconstruct protocols and encourage adherence to them.

Humans , Coronavirus , Personal Protection , Endoscopy , Conscious Sedation , Anesthesia
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(10): 879-887, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524376


BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) pandemic has markedly restricted endoscopic and clinical activities in gastroenterology (GI), with a negative impact on trainee education. We aimed to inve stigate how and to what extent has GI trainees in Turkey are affected by the current pandemic in terms of general, psychological, and educational status. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey sent electronically to 103 official GI trainees in Turkey from 37 centers. The 32-item survey included questions to capture demographic (5-questions), endoscopic (7-questions), personal protective equipment (PPE) (3-questions), psychological and general well-being (11-questions), and educational (6-questions) data. RESULTS: Ninety-six (93.2%) trainees completed the survey, of which 56.3% (n = 54) reported a decrease in independently performed endoscopic procedures. Due to pandemic, 91.7% of standard diagnostic endoscopic procedures, 57.2% of standard therapeutic procedures, and 67.7% of advanced endoscopic procedures were decreased. Out of 96 respondents, we detected signs of anxiety in 88.5%, exposure concern in 92.7%, concerns for prolongation of training period in 49%, loss of concentration and interest in 47.9%, and burnout syndrome in 63.5%. Female gender (odds-ratio: 3.856, 95% confidence interval: 1.221-12.174, P = .021) was the only independently associated factor with pandemic-related anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic has led to high amounts of anxiety and non-negligible rates of burnout syndrome among GI trainees, with a significant reduction in endoscopic activities. More effort and novel strategies are required to deliver sufficient competence and general-psychological well-being to GI trainees.

COVID-19 , Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Fellowships and Scholarships , Gastroenterology/education , Pandemics , Adult , Education, Medical, Graduate , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(7): 974-976, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494102


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires appropriate measures for containing infection spreading. Endoscopic procedures are considered at increased risk of infection transmission. We evaluated organizational aspects and personal behaviours in Italian Endoscopic Units during phase II of the pandemic. METHODS: A questionnaire on organizational aspects and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) were e-mailed to gastroenterologists working in Endoscopic Units. Data were analysed accordingly to the National Health Institute and Gastroenterology Societies recommendations. RESULTS: Data of 117 centres were collected, and different shortcomings emerged. Specific protocols for containing infection and training programs for operators were lacking in 20 and 30% of centres, respectively, and telephone triage 24-72 h before the endoscopy was not implemented in 25% of hospitals. In 30% of centres, the slot time for endoscopies and between examinations was not prolonged. PPE, masks, shirts and gloves were universally adopted, although with some differences. In 20% of centres, a FFPE-FFP3 mask was not adopted during endoscopic examinations. Postendoscopy patient tracking/contact was completed in only one-third of centres. CONCLUSIONS: Our survey provides information on organizational and medical behaviours during COVID-19 phase II in Italy, which could be useful for adopting appropriate measures for containing COVID-19 spread during phase II.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy , Personal Protective Equipment , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
Obes Surg ; 31(12): 5486-5493, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474099


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has led health institutions to cancel many of the activities including training in different fields. Most practices and training programs have been encouraged to use teleproctoring as an alternative method to enhance physician's ability and assure training. We aimed to evaluate remote training program for endoscopy sleeve gastroplasty (ESG). METHODS: Ten consecutive patients underwent an endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty procedure guided by a proctor expert using an online platform. A stepwise approach was created to assure skill acquisition. RESULTS: All cases were safely performed with no serious adverse events under teleproctoring. The average surgical and suturing times significantly decreased during the training model. From the first 5 cases to the last 5 ones, the endoscopic procedure time decreased from 120 to 93.4 min while suturing time from 92.8 to 68.4 min. The effect size was large in both cases, and the changes were meaningful according to the fitted learning curves. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed teleproctoring program was effective to deliver advanced endoscopic skills such as endosuturing for ESG, despite the restrictions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Gastroplasty , Obesity, Morbid , Endoscopy , Humans , Obesity/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e930200, 2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456529


BACKGROUND Hairy polyps are rare tumors mainly comprising fatty tissues covered by skin and hair follicles, with varied localizations and sizes. Early excision of the polyps by surgery is an effective treatment resulting in a permanent cure. We present a case of successful management of severe obstruction of the oropharynx in a newborn who presented with a large mass of congenital hairy polyp. CASE REPORT A vaginally delivered infant, weighing 3 kg, presented immediately after birth with cyanosis symptoms, failure of the first cry, and respiratory distress signs. The newborn was born to a mother with an uneventful pregnancy. Screening tests during the pregnancy reported no congenital anomalies. The newborn's hematological and biochemical test results were normal. After presenting these symptoms, the newborn was immediately intubated and put on a nasogastric feeding tube, which revealed a small portion of a polyp-like mass. A computed tomography (CT) scan further confirmed a large pedunculated mass, measuring 3×2 cm, arising from the soft palate, and obstructing the oropharynx. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of a hairy polyp. The polyp was wholly removed transorally using the Covidien LigaSure device without the need for endoscopy. This procedure allowed safe extubation, and the baby was discharged home without symptoms 4 days after birth. CONCLUSIONS This case sheds light on the importance of considering hairy polyp in the differential diagnosis of pharyngeal mass with respiratory distress in pediatric patients. This report also describes our experience using the LigaSure surgical device without needing endoscopic visualization to successfully resect the hairy polyp without complications.

Airway Obstruction , Polyps , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Child , Endoscopy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Palate, Soft/pathology , Polyps/complications , Polyps/diagnosis , Polyps/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Surg Endosc ; 35(9): 5124-5129, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453744


BACKGROUND: Flexible endoscopy allows use of the vessel-tissue sealer Ligasure™ (Covidien, Massachusetts, USA) to perform diverticulotomy. Few studies have used this endoscopic approach in the uncommon disorder Zenker's diverticulum. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of flexible endoscopy treatment assisted by Ligasure™. METHODS: The single-center prospective and descriptive study included patients treated by flexible endoscopy using Ligasure™ for resection of Zenker's diverticulum. Consecutive patients were included from March 2009 to April 2018. Patients were censored until the end of follow-up or death. Complications, symptoms before treatment, type of sedation, and number of interventions needed to resolve Zenker's diverticulum were analyzed. Bleeding complications were considered when a case required a second endoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 46 symptomatic patients with Zenker's diverticulum were included in the final analysis (41.3% women, median age of 73.7 ± 11 years). The median follow-up period was 37.21 ± 28 months. Of all cases, 58.7% were considered small (< 3 cm). Solid or semi-solid food-related dysphagia was present in 55.6% of patients previously to the procedure. The technique was successful in a single procedure in 78.3% of cases. However, the success rate increased to 89.1% with a second procedure, and we had a complication rate of 4.3% with this technique. Most patients (79.66%) were managed as out-patients or with short (< 24 h) admission. CONCLUSION: In this large case series, treatment of Zenker's diverticulum based on flexible endoscopy assisted by Ligasure™ was a safe and effective procedure with a high success rate in a few endoscopy sessions and low complication rate.

Deglutition Disorders , Zenker Diverticulum , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Esophagoscopy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Zenker Diverticulum/surgery
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(9): 2463-2467, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453731


PURPOSE: Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation (ESPAL) is known as an effective treatment for posterior epistaxis. Anatomical variations of the intranasal branching may result in long operative time and possible inadequate cauterization. A modification of ESPAL by cauterization at the sphenopalatine foramen (SPF), has been performed by our group. Our study assessed the clinical benefit of endoscopic sphenopalatine foramen cauterization (ESFC) and compared it to ESPAL. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted. Patients who received ESFC for posterior epistaxis from 2016 to 2018 at a tertiary hospital were recruited. Middle meatal antrostomy was done. After ethmoidal crest was identified and nipped, pterygopalatine fossa was entered through the SPF. Sphenopalatine artery (SPA) and its branches within the SPF were cauterized without identification of any SPA distal branches in the nasal cavity. Patients receiving conventional ESPAL by the same surgeon were recruited and compared as control. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Success rate, operative time, and complication were assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were identified. Recurrent epistaxis was absent in 90.0% and 100% of patients receiving ESPAL (9/10 patients) and ESFC (24/24 patients) respectively, p = 0.294. Median operative time was 115 and 60 min, respectively, p < 0.001. Ipsilateral hard palatal or anterior palatal numbness were found in one and three patients, respectively. All resolved spontaneously within 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: ESFC is effective in treating posterior epistaxis. It requires significantly less amount of time while the success rate was comparable to conventional ESPAL.

Cautery , Epistaxis , Arteries/surgery , Endoscopy , Epistaxis/surgery , Humans , Ligation , Retrospective Studies
Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am ; 31(4): xiii-xiv, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446657

Endoscopy , Humans
Repert. med. cir ; 29((Núm. Supl.1.)): 15-21, 2020. Il., dibujos, tablas
Article in English, Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1436547


A finales de 2019 surgió en Wuhan (China) el SARS-CoV-2, un nuevo coronavirus causante del COVID-19. Al 13 de abril 2020 ha causado en el mundo 1.807.308 infecciones y 119.410 muertes. Por la forma de transmisión del virus y teniendo en cuenta que los servicios de gastroenterología y endoscopia digestiva son una fuente de fácil diseminación, dado a la exposición con aerosoles de manera constante que se emiten durante los procedimientos generando un mayor riesgo tanto para los profesionales de la salud como para los pacientes intervenidos. Es de gran importancia establecer herramientas de prevención dentro de los servicios de gastroenterología y endoscopia digestiva , teniendo en cuenta la evidencia al día de hoy y reconociendo que se está en una búsqueda constante de medidas que disminuyan el riesgo de contagio que permitan generar un ambiente seguro al personal de salud y pacientes. Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed con los siguientes términos: ("COVID-19" OR "coronavirus" OR "SARS-Cov-2") y ("gastrointestinal" OR "transmission" OR "intestinal" OR "digestive" OR "endoscopy" OR "esophagogastroduodenoscopy" OR "colonoscopy"). Por lo anterior se debe considerar que todos los pacientes llevados a procedimientos endoscópicos son de alto riesgo y se dará a conocer las herramientas de prevención actuales a nivel mundial.

In late 2019, SARS-CoV-2, a new coronavirus causing COVID-19, emerged in Wuhan (China). As of April 13 2020 it has caused 1.807.308 infections and 119.410 deaths worldwide. Due to the way this virus is transmitted and considering gastroenterology and digestive endoscopy services are a source of easy dissemination given the constant exposure with aerosols that are emitted during procedures there is an increased risk for both health care professionals and patients undergoing endoscopy. It is of great importance to establish prevention tools within the gastroenterology and digestive endoscopy services, based on the evidence gathered to date and recognizing that we are in a constant search for measures to reduce risk of infection that will provide a safe environment to staff and patients. Pubmed database was searched for the following terms: ("COVID-19" OR "coronavirus" OR "SARS-Cov-2") and "gastrointestinal" OR "transmission" OR "intestinal" OR "digestive" OR "endoscopy" OR "esophagogastroduodenoscopy" OR "colonoscopy"). Therefore, all patients brought in to undergo endoscopic procedures should be considered high-risk and current prevention tools will be made known worldwide.

Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Endoscopy , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Aerosols , Protection , Gastroenterology , Hypertension
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 344, 2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411492


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to disruptions in elective and outpatient procedures. Guidance from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services provided a framework for gradual reopening of outpatient clinical operations. As the infrastructure to restart endoscopy has been more clearly described, patient concerns regarding viral transmission during the procedure have been identified. Moreover, the efficacy of the measures in preventing transmission have not been clearly delineated. METHODS: We identified patients with pandemic-related procedure cancellations from 3/16/2020 to 4/20/2020. Patients were stratified into tier groups (1-4) by urgency. Procedures were performed using our hospital risk mitigation strategies to minimize transmission risk. Patients who subsequently developed symptoms or tested for COVID-19 were recorded. RESULTS: Among patients requiring emergent procedures, 57.14% could be scheduled at their originally intended interval. COVID-19 concerns represented the most common rescheduling barrier. No patients who underwent post-procedure testing were positive for COVID-19. No cases of endoscopy staff transmission were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Non-COVID-19 related patient care during the pandemic is a challenging process that evolved with the spread of infection, requiring dynamic monitoring and protocol optimization. We describe our successful model for reopening endoscopy suites using a tier-based system for safe reintroduction of elective procedures while minimizing transmission to patients and staff. Important barriers included financial and transmission concerns that need to be addressed to enable the return to pre-pandemic utilization of elective endoscopic procedures.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Endoscopy , Humans , Medicare , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e31224, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406798


BACKGROUND: Owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing has become mandatory. Wireless endoscopy in contactless examinations promises to protect health care workers and reduce viral spread. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to introduce a contactless endoscopic diagnosis system using a wireless endoscope resembling a mask. METHODS: The Wi-Fi-based contactless mask endoscopy system comprises a disposable endoscope and a controller. First, the effective force applied by the tip during insertion was evaluated in a simple transoral model consisting of a force sensor on a simulated oropharynx wall. Second, the delay in video streaming was evaluated by comparing the frame rate and delays between a movement and its image over direct and Wi-Fi connections. Third, the system was applied to a detailed laryngopharyngeal tract phantom. RESULTS: The smartphone-controlled wireless endoscopy system was successfully evaluated. The mean, maximum, and minimum collision forces against the wall of the transoral model were 296 mN (30 gf), 363 mN (37 gf), and 235 mN (24 gf), respectively. The delay resulting from the wireless connection was 0.72 seconds. Using the phantom, an inexperienced user took around 1 minute to orient the endoscope to a desired area via the app. CONCLUSIONS: Device articulation does not pose a significant risk of laryngopharyngeal wall penetration, and latency does not significantly impede its use. Contactless wireless video streaming was successful within the access point range regardless of the presence of walls. The mask endoscope can be controlled and articulated wirelessly, minimizing contact between patients and device operators. By minimizing contact, the device can protect health care workers from infectious viruses like the coronavirus.

COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Endoscopy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401162


BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.

COVID-19/immunology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(10): 897-903, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368885


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare treatment outcomes in patients with laryngeal and tracheal stenosis treated during and prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic period. METHOD: Patients treated for laryngotracheal lesions with impending airway compromise during the active pandemic period were matched with those treated for similar lesions in the preceding years in a monocentric tertiary hospital setting. RESULTS: During the pandemic period of 55 days, 31 patients underwent 47 procedures. Seven patients (2 children, 5 adults) had open airway surgery, and one had an operation-specific complication. Twenty-four patients (10 children, 14 adults) underwent 40 endoscopic interventions without any complications. Operation specific results during and prior to the pandemic were comparable. CONCLUSION: The management strategy in patients with laryngotracheal lesions and impending airway compromise should not be altered during periods of risk from coronavirus disease 2019. Avoiding a tracheostomy by performing primary corrective surgery or proceeding with a definitive decannulation would be beneficial in these patients to reduce the risk of contagion.

COVID-19/transmission , Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Laryngostenosis/surgery , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Catheterization/adverse effects , Child, Preschool , Clinical Decision-Making/ethics , Endoscopy/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(6): 1703, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362844

Endoscopy , Masks , Humans
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(4): 410-419, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338283


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has been estimated that approximately 10% of health care professionals (HCPs) have been diagnosed contacting  COVID-19. Aerosol-generating procedures have led to change in safety practices among HCPs. We thus evaluated the efficacy of the endoscopic safety measures among HCPs posted in the endoscopy unit. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all endoscopic procedures performed over a period of 4 months, from 1 April to 31 July 2020 were included. We noted indications and number of COVID-positive procedures as well as comprehensive screening of HCPs posted in our endoscopy unit. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence and outcome of COVID-19 among HCPs. RESULTS: Three thousand four hundred and sixty procedures were included in the analysis. Indications were divided as urgent (n = 190, 5.49%), semi-urgent (n = 553, 16%) and non-urgent group (n = 2717, 78.52%). Thirty-four procedures (0.98%) were done on diagnosed COVID-19 patients. The most common indications were gastrointestinal bleed (n = 12/34, 35.30%) followed by biliary sepsis (n = 9/34, 26.5%). Among the HCPs, the incidence of symptomatic COVID-19 was 6.58% (n = 5/76). All HCPs recovered with excellent outcomes. A comprehensive screening showed 7.90% (n = 6/76) HCPs having Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody in their sera. CONCLUSION: Addition of safety measures in endoscopy leads to low risk of transmission among HCPs.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy/methods , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Incidence , India , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Health/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am ; 31(4): 625-640, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326988


Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy units tend to be busy environments in which numerous categories of staff provide moderately complex procedural care to high volumes of patients. The prevention of infections of both patients and staff is a never-ending endeavor for both inpatient and outpatient environments. Necessary considerations must address patient-to-staff, staff-to-patient, environmental, and device-related transmission of infection. In addition to the typical environmental and interpersonal infection risks present in all medical environments, the major concern within the endoscopy suite relates to contamination and potential transmission via reusable devices and endoscopes. Our understanding of this ever-present issue has evolved over time and has become a major focus of scrutiny in the past 5 years. This significant problem has stimulated guidance and ingenuity by regulators, investigators, and industry. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 to 21 has also added significant burdens to our infection control efforts in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Infection Control , SARS-CoV-2