Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(2): 307-320, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712991

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications are common in COVID-19. Although SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in patients' brain tissues, its entry routes and resulting consequences are not well understood. Here, we show a pronounced upregulation of interferon signaling pathways of the neurovascular unit in fatal COVID-19. By investigating the susceptibility of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived brain capillary endothelial-like cells (BCECs) to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we found that BCECs were infected and recapitulated transcriptional changes detected in vivo. While BCECs were not compromised in their paracellular tightness, we found SARS-CoV-2 in the basolateral compartment in transwell assays after apical infection, suggesting active replication and transcellular transport of virus across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. Moreover, entry of SARS-CoV-2 into BCECs could be reduced by anti-spike-, anti-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-, and anti-neuropilin-1 (NRP1)-specific antibodies or the transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 (TMPRSS2) inhibitor nafamostat. Together, our data provide strong support for SARS-CoV-2 brain entry across the BBB resulting in increased interferon signaling.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Antibodies/pharmacology , Benzamidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Guanidines/pharmacology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Models, Biological , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Internalization/drug effects
2.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(3): 538-555, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692861

ABSTRACT

To date, the direct causative mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-induced endotheliitis remains unclear. Here, we report that human ECs barely express surface ACE2, and ECs express less intracellular ACE2 than non-ECs of the lungs. We ectopically expressed ACE2 in hESC-ECs to model SARS-CoV-2 infection. ACE2-deficient ECs are resistant to the infection but are more activated than ACE2-expressing ones. The virus directly induces endothelial activation by increasing monocyte adhesion, NO production, and enhanced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK), NF-κB, and eNOS in ACE2-expressing and -deficient ECs. ACE2-deficient ECs respond to SARS-CoV-2 through TLR4 as treatment with its antagonist inhibits p38 MAPK/NF-κB/ interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) activation after viral exposure. Genome-wide, single-cell RNA-seq analyses further confirm activation of the TLR4/MAPK14/RELA/IL-1ß axis in circulating ECs of mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Circulating ECs could serve as biomarkers for indicating patients with endotheliitis. Together, our findings support a direct role for SARS-CoV-2 in mediating endothelial inflammation in an ACE2-dependent or -independent manner.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Toll-Like Receptor 4/antagonists & inhibitors , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0073521, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596765

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause compromised respiratory function and thrombotic events. SARS-CoV-2 binds to and mediates downregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on cells that it infects. Theoretically, diminished enzymatic activity of ACE2 may result in increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory molecules, angiotensin II, and Bradykinin, contributing to SARS-CoV-2 pathology. Using immunofluorescence microscopy of lung tissues from uninfected, and SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals, we find evidence that ACE2 is highly expressed in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells and significantly reduced along the alveolar lining of SARS-CoV-2 infected lungs. Ex vivo analyses of primary human cells, indicated that ACE2 is readily detected in pulmonary alveolar epithelial and aortic endothelial cells. Exposure of these cells to spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was sufficient to reduce ACE2 expression. Moreover, exposure of endothelial cells to spike protein-induced dysfunction, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Exposure of endothelial cells to bradykinin caused calcium signaling and endothelial dysfunction (increased expression of von Willibrand Factor and decreased expression of Krüppel-like Factor 2) but did not adversely affect viability in primary human aortic endothelial cells. Computer-assisted analyses of molecules with potential to bind bradykinin receptor B2 (BKRB2), suggested a potential role for aspirin as a BK antagonist. When tested in our in vitro model, we found evidence that aspirin can blunt cell signaling and endothelial dysfunction caused by bradykinin in these cells. Interference with interactions of spike protein or bradykinin with endothelial cells may serve as an important strategy to stabilize microvascular homeostasis in COVID-19 disease. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 causes complex effects on microvascular homeostasis that potentially contribute to organ dysfunction and coagulopathies. SARS-CoV-2 binds to, and causes downregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on cells that it infects. It is thought that reduced ACE2 enzymatic activity can contribute to inflammation and pathology in the lung. Our studies add to this understanding by providing evidence that spike protein alone can mediate adverse effects on vascular cells. Understanding these mechanisms of pathogenesis may provide rationale for interventions that could limit microvascular events associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Aorta/cytology , Aorta/metabolism , Aorta/virology , Apoptosis , Bradykinin/chemistry , Bradykinin/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Microcirculation , Receptors, Bradykinin/chemistry , Receptors, Bradykinin/genetics , Receptors, Bradykinin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512379

ABSTRACT

The research presented herein follows an urgent global need for the development of novel surface engineering techniques that would allow the fabrication of next-generation cardiovascular stents, which would drastically reduce cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The combination of hydrothermal treatment (HT) and treatment with highly reactive oxygen plasma (P) allowed for the formation of an oxygen-rich nanostructured surface. The morphology, surface roughness, chemical composition and wettability of the newly prepared oxide layer on the Ti substrate were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle (WCA) analysis. The alteration of surface characteristics influenced the material's bio-performance; platelet aggregation and activation was reduced on surfaces treated by hydrothermal treatment, as well as after plasma treatment. Moreover, it was shown that surfaces treated by both treatment procedures (HT and P) promoted the adhesion and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, while at the same time inhibiting the adhesion and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The combination of both techniques presents a novel approach for the fabrication of vascular implants, with superior characteristics.


Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells/cytology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Plasma/chemistry , Titanium/chemistry , Cell Adhesion , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Nanostructures , Particle Size , Stents , Surface Properties , Wettability
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502439

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is causing a global pandemic. The virus primarily affects the upper and lower respiratory tracts and raises the risk of a variety of non-pulmonary consequences, the most severe and possibly fatal of which are cardiovascular problems. Data show that almost one-third of the patients with a moderate or severe form of COVID-19 had preexisting cardiovascular comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, heart failure, or coronary artery disease. SARS-CoV2 causes hyper inflammation, hypoxia, apoptosis, and a renin-angiotensin system imbalance in a variety of cell types, primarily endothelial cells. Profound endothelial dysfunction associated with COVID-19 can be the cause of impaired organ perfusion that may generate acute myocardial injury, renal failure, and a procoagulant state resulting in thromboembolic events. We discuss the most recent results on the involvement of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in patients with cardiometabolic diseases in this review. We also provide insights on treatments that may reduce the severity of this viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/etiology
6.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(23): e2103266, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479368

ABSTRACT

Activation of endothelial cells following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is thought to be the primary driver for the increasingly recognized thrombotic complications in coronavirus disease 2019 patients, potentially due to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein binding to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). Vaccination therapies use the same Spike sequence or protein to boost host immune response as a protective mechanism against SARS-CoV-2 infection. As a result, cases of thrombotic events are reported following vaccination. Although vaccines are generally considered safe, due to genetic heterogeneity, age, or the presence of comorbidities in the population worldwide, the prediction of severe adverse outcome in patients remains a challenge. To elucidate Spike proteins underlying patient-specific-vascular thrombosis, the human microcirculation environment is recapitulated using a novel microfluidic platform coated with human endothelial cells and exposed to patient specific whole blood. Here, the blood coagulation effect is tested after exposure to Spike protein in nanoparticles and Spike variant D614G in viral vectors and the results are corroborated using live SARS-CoV-2. Of note, two potential strategies are also examined to reduce blood clot formation, by using nanoliposome-hACE2 and anti-Interleukin (IL) 6 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies/chemistry , Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/chemistry , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Fibrin/chemistry , Fibrin/metabolism , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Liposomes/chemistry , Microfluidics/methods , Mutation , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Platelet Aggregation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12157, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263508

ABSTRACT

Endothelial cells (ECs) play a crucial role in the development and propagation of the severe COVID-19 stage as well as multiorgan dysfunction. It remains, however, controversial whether COVID-19-induced endothelial injury is caused directly by the infection of ECs with SARS-CoV-2 or via indirect mechanisms. One of the major concerns is raised by the contradictory data supporting or denying the presence of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 binding receptor, on the EC surface. Here, we show that primary human pulmonary artery ECs possess ACE2 capable of interaction with the viral Spike protein (S-protein) and demonstrate the crucial role of the endothelial glycocalyx in the regulation of the S-protein binding to ACE2 on ECs. Using force spectroscopy method, we directly measured ACE2- and glycocalyx-dependent adhesive forces between S-protein and ECs and characterized the nanomechanical parameters of the cells exposed to S-protein. We revealed that the intact glycocalyx strongly binds S-protein but screens its interaction with ACE2. Reduction of glycocalyx layer exposes ACE2 receptors and promotes their interaction with S-protein. These results indicate that the susceptibility of ECs to COVID-19 infection may depend on the glycocalyx condition.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Protein Binding , Pulmonary Artery/cytology
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3886-3897, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Platelets, blood coagulation along with fibrinolysis are greatly involved in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases induced by bacteria, parasites and virus. This phenomenon is not surprising since both the innate immunity and the hemostatic systems are two ancestral mechanisms which closely cooperate favoring host's defense against foreign invaders. However, the excessive response of these systems may be dangerous for the host itself. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched and retrieved the articles, using the following electronic database: MedLine and Embase. We limited our search to articles published in English, but no restrictions in terms of article type, publication year, and geography were adopted. RESULTS: The hemostatic phenotype of the infectious diseases is variable depending on the points of attack of the different involved pathogens. Infectious diseases which show a prothrombotic phenotype are bacterial sepsis, SARS-CoV-2 and malaria. However, among the bacterial sepsis, Yersinia Pestis is characterized by a profibrinolytic behavior. On the contrary, the hemorrhagic fevers, due to Dengue and Ebola virus, mainly exploit the activation of fibrinolysis secondary to a huge endothelial damage which can release a large amount of t-PA in the early phase of the diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis are greatly activated based on the strategy of the different infectious agents which exploit the excess of response of both systems to achieve the greatest possible virulence.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/pathology , Fibrinolysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Erythrocytes/cytology , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Humans , Monocytes/cytology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Viruses/pathogenicity
9.
Stroke ; 52(5): 1895-1904, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166638

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID)-19 pandemic has already affected millions worldwide, with a current mortality rate of 2.2%. While it is well-established that severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections, a number of neurological sequelae have now been reported in a large proportion of cases. Additionally, the disease causes arterial and venous thromboses including pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and a significant number of cerebrovascular complications. The increasing incidence of large vessel ischemic strokes as well as intracranial hemorrhages, frequently in younger individuals, and associated with increased morbidity and mortality, has raised questions as to why the brain is a major target of the disease. COVID-19 is characterized by hypercoagulability with alterations in hemostatic markers including high D-dimer levels, which are a prognosticator of poor outcome. Together with findings of fibrin-rich microthrombi, widespread extracellular fibrin deposition in affected various organs and hypercytokinemia, this suggests that COVID-19 is more than a pulmonary viral infection. Evidently, COVID-19 is a thrombo-inflammatory disease. Endothelial cells that constitute the lining of blood vessels are the primary targets of a thrombo-inflammatory response, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 also directly infects endothelial cells through the ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor. Being highly heterogeneous in their structure and function, differences in the endothelial cells may govern the susceptibility of organs to COVID-19. Here, we have explored how the unique characteristics of the cerebral endothelium may be the underlying reason for the increased rates of cerebrovascular pathology associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Coagulation , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Fibrin/chemistry , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/chemistry , Hemostasis , Humans , Hypoxia , Incidence , Inflammation , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Pandemics , Prognosis
11.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(10): 2404-2407, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015733

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alveolar-capillary endothelial cells can be activated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection leading to cytokine release. This could trigger endothelial dysfunction, pyroptosis, and thrombosis, which are the vascular changes, commonly referred to as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) endotheliopathy. Thus, this study aimed to identify tissue biomarkers associated with endothelial activation/dysfunction and the pyroptosis pathway in the lung samples of patients with COVID-19 and to compare them to pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 subtype 2009 and control cases. Approach and Results: Postmortem lung samples (COVID-19 group =6 cases; H1N1 group =10 cases, and control group =11 cases) were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and the following monoclonal primary antibodies: anti-IL (interleukin)-6, anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α, anti-ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), and anticaspase-1. From the result, IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and caspase-1 showed higher tissue expression in the COVID-19 group than in the H1N1 and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated endothelial dysfunction and suggested the participation of the pyroptosis pathway in the pulmonary samples. These conditions might lead to systemic thrombotic events that could impair the clinical staff's efforts to avoid fatal outcomes. One of the health professionals' goals should be to identify the high risk of thrombosis patients early to block endotheliopathy and its consequences.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Vascular Diseases/pathology , Autopsy , Biopsy, Needle , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Assessment , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/mortality , Vascular Diseases/mortality , Vascular Diseases/physiopathology
12.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(12): 1042, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969908

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is an acute and rapidly developing pandemic, which leads to a global health crisis. SARS-CoV-2 primarily attacks human alveoli and causes severe lung infection and damage. To better understand the molecular basis of this disease, we sought to characterize the responses of alveolar epithelium and its adjacent microvascular endothelium to viral infection under a co-culture system. SARS-CoV-2 infection caused massive virus replication and dramatic organelles remodeling in alveolar epithelial cells, alone. While, viral infection affected endothelial cells in an indirect manner, which was mediated by infected alveolar epithelium. Proteomics analysis and TEM examinations showed viral infection caused global proteomic modulations and marked ultrastructural changes in both epithelial cells and endothelial cells under the co-culture system. In particular, viral infection elicited global protein changes and structural reorganizations across many sub-cellular compartments in epithelial cells. Among the affected organelles, mitochondrion seems to be a primary target organelle. Besides, according to EM and proteomic results, we identified Daurisoline, a potent autophagy inhibitor, could inhibit virus replication effectively in host cells. Collectively, our study revealed an unrecognized cross-talk between epithelium and endothelium, which contributed to alveolar-capillary injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection. These new findings will expand our understanding of COVID-19 and may also be helpful for targeted drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cell Communication/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Coculture Techniques , Down-Regulation , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mitochondria/pathology , Mitochondria/virology , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , Pulmonary Alveoli/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Up-Regulation
14.
Circulation ; 142(12): 1190-1204, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) converts angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, to angiotensin-(1-7) and is also a membrane protein that enables coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infectivity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation of ACE2 enhances ACE2 stability. This mode of posttranslational modification of ACE2 in vascular endothelial cells is causative of a pulmonary hypertension (PH)-protective phenotype. The oncoprotein MDM2 (murine double minute 2) is an E3 ligase that ubiquitinates its substrates to cause their degradation. In this study, we investigated whether MDM2 is involved in the posttranslational modification of ACE2 through its ubiquitination of ACE2, and whether an AMPK and MDM2 crosstalk regulates the pathogenesis of PH. METHODS: Bioinformatic analyses were used to explore E3 ligase that ubiquitinates ACE2. Cultured endothelial cells, mouse models, and specimens from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension were used to investigate the crosstalk between AMPK and MDM2 in regulating ACE2 phosphorylation and ubiquitination in the context of PH. RESULTS: Levels of MDM2 were increased and those of ACE2 decreased in lung tissues or pulmonary arterial endothelial cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and rodent models of experimental PH. MDM2 inhibition by JNJ-165 reversed the SU5416/hypoxia-induced PH in C57BL/6 mice. ACE2-S680L mice (dephosphorylation at S680) showed PH susceptibility, and ectopic expression of ACE2-S680L/K788R (deubiquitination at K788) reduced experimental PH. Moreover, ACE2-K788R overexpression in mice with endothelial cell-specific AMPKα2 knockout mitigated PH. CONCLUSIONS: Maladapted posttranslational modification (phosphorylation and ubiquitination) of ACE2 at Ser-680 and Lys-788 is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension and experimental PH. Thus, a combined intervention of AMPK and MDM2 in the pulmonary endothelium might be therapeutically effective in PH treatment.


Subject(s)
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2/metabolism , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/pathology , Ubiquitination , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/deficiency , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Disease Susceptibility , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2/genetics , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Rats
15.
Cell Res ; 31(4): 415-432, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759580

ABSTRACT

Aging is a major risk factor for many diseases, especially in highly prevalent cardiopulmonary comorbidities and infectious diseases including Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Resolving cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with aging in higher mammals is therefore urgently needed. Here, we created young and old non-human primate single-nucleus/cell transcriptomic atlases of lung, heart and artery, the top tissues targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Analysis of cell type-specific aging-associated transcriptional changes revealed increased systemic inflammation and compromised virus defense as a hallmark of cardiopulmonary aging. With age, expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was increased in the pulmonary alveolar epithelial barrier, cardiomyocytes, and vascular endothelial cells. We found that interleukin 7 (IL7) accumulated in aged cardiopulmonary tissues and induced ACE2 expression in human vascular endothelial cells in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with vitamin C blocked IL7-induced ACE2 expression. Altogether, our findings depict the first transcriptomic atlas of the aged primate cardiopulmonary system and provide vital insights into age-linked susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that geroprotective strategies may reduce COVID-19 severity in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aging , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Interleukin-7/metabolism , Interleukin-7/pharmacology , Macaca fascicularis , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/drug effects
16.
Cell Stress Chaperones ; 25(5): 701-705, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743774

ABSTRACT

Near the end of 2019, SARS-CoV-2, a novel highly contagious coronavirus phylogenetically related to the SARS virus, entered the human population with lethal consequences. This special issue devoted to the resulting disease COVID-19 was not planned but instead the articles accumulated organically as researchers in the cell stress response field noticed similarities among the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infections and the responses that they studied in contexts unrelated to viral infection. We preface the issue with an introductory article which begins with a brief review of the structure and biology of SARS-CoV-2. As we collected and compared the COVID-19 articles, several shared themes emerged. In the second part of the introduction, each article is summarized briefly and the common themes that link each into a spontaneously arising chain of ideas and hypotheses are emphasized. These themes include growing evidence of molecular mimicry among the viral proteins and the proteins of patients. The realization that much of the consequences of such immune mimicry may play out on the plasma membrane of vascular endothelial cells raised the specter of autoimmune-induced vascular endothelial damage in multiple organs. Proposals of new therapeutic approaches have coalesced around the theme of inducing protection of the vascular endothelium. New chemical treatments that are proposed include stannous chloride, inducers of the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide such as sodium thiosulfate and inducers of the cytoprotective stress protein heme oxygenase. Oxygen delivered by ventilators is already in extensive use to provide life support for patients with severe COVID-19. Two articles propose to advance the use of oxygen to the level of a therapeutic treatment early in the detection of the virus in infected patients by delivering oxygen under elevated pressure in hyperbaric chambers. At elevated blood plasma concentrations, hyperbaric oxygen is capable of achieving results far beyond the capability of ventilators as it promotes the activation of transcription factors that control the establishment of inducible cellular defense systems.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Viral Proteins/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/immunology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Humans , Pandemics
17.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(5): e146-e147, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620429

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread and poses a great challenge to researchers, both in elucidating its pathogenic mechanism and developing effective treatments. It has been recently proposed that COVID-19 is an endothelial disease. Indeed, the COVID-19 virus binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2), which is expressed in endothelial cells. ACE2 could be implicated in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by endothelial dysfunction due to viral damage. Consequently, oxidative stress could prime these cells to acquire a pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory phenotype, predisposing patients to thromboembolic and vasculitic events and to disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). This implies a pivotal role played by oxygen in the pathogenetic mechanism of COVID-19 disease, in that its availability would tune the oxidant state and consequent damage.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Humans , Needs Assessment , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Survival Analysis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL