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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1188079, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237314

ABSTRACT

Background: Immune cell recruitment, endothelial cell barrier disruption, and platelet activation are hallmarks of lung injuries caused by COVID-19 or other insults which can result in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Basement membrane (BM) disruption is commonly observed in ARDS, however, the role of newly generated bioactive BM fragments is mostly unknown. Here, we investigate the role of endostatin, a fragment of the BM protein collagen XVIIIα1, on ARDS associated cellular functions such as neutrophil recruitment, endothelial cell barrier integrity, and platelet aggregation in vitro. Methods: In our study we analyzed endostatin in plasma and post-mortem lung specimens of patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS. Functionally, we investigated the effect of endostatin on neutrophil activation and migration, platelet aggregation, and endothelial barrier function in vitro. Additionally, we performed correlation analysis for endostatin and other critical plasma parameters. Results: We observed increased plasma levels of endostatin in our COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS cohort. Immunohistochemical staining of ARDS lung sections depicted BM disruption, alongside immunoreactivity for endostatin in proximity to immune cells, endothelial cells, and fibrinous clots. Functionally, endostatin enhanced the activity of neutrophils, and platelets, and the thrombin-induced microvascular barrier disruption. Finally, we showed a positive correlation of endostatin with soluble disease markers VE-Cadherin, c-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and interleukin (IL)-6 in our COVID-19 cohort. Conclusion: The cumulative effects of endostatin on propagating neutrophil chemotaxis, platelet aggregation, and endothelial cell barrier disruption may suggest endostatin as a link between those cellular events in ARDS pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Endostatins/adverse effects , Endostatins/metabolism , Capillary Permeability , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Inflammation/metabolism
2.
Elife ; 122023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236082

ABSTRACT

We sought to define the mechanism underlying lung microvascular regeneration in a model of severe acute lung injury (ALI) induced by selective lung endothelial cell ablation. Intratracheal instillation of DT in transgenic mice expressing human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor targeted to ECs resulted in ablation of >70% of lung ECs, producing severe ALI with near complete resolution by 7 days. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, eight distinct endothelial clusters were resolved, including alveolar aerocytes (aCap) ECs expressing apelin at baseline and general capillary (gCap) ECs expressing the apelin receptor. At 3 days post-injury, a novel gCap EC population emerged characterized by de novo expression of apelin, together with the stem cell marker, protein C receptor. These stem-like cells transitioned at 5 days to proliferative endothelial progenitor-like cells, expressing apelin receptor together with the pro-proliferative transcription factor, Foxm1, and were responsible for the rapid replenishment of all depleted EC populations by 7 days post-injury. Treatment with an apelin receptor antagonist prevented ALI resolution and resulted in excessive mortality, consistent with a central role for apelin signaling in EC regeneration and microvascular repair. The lung has a remarkable capacity for microvasculature EC regeneration which is orchestrated by newly emergent apelin-expressing gCap endothelial stem-like cells that give rise to highly proliferative, apelin receptor-positive endothelial progenitors responsible for the regeneration of the lung microvasculature.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Transcriptome , Mice , Animals , Humans , Apelin/metabolism , Apelin Receptors/metabolism , Lung , Mice, Transgenic , Endothelial Cells/metabolism
3.
Mol Biol Rep ; 50(7): 6039-6047, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often have a higher probability of organ failure and mortality. The potential cellular mechanisms through which blood glucose exacerbates tissue damage due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We cultured endothelial cells within differing glucose mediums with an increasing concentration gradient of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (S protein). S protein can cause the reduction of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and activation of NOX2 and NOX4. A high glucose medium was shown to aggravate the decrease of ACE2 and activation of NOX2 and NOX4 in cultured cells, but had no effect on TMPRSS2. S protein mediated activation of the ACE2-NOX axis induced oxidative stress and apoptosis within endothelial cells, leading to cellular dysfunction via the reduction of NO and tight junction proteins which may collectively be exacerbated by elevated glucose. In addition, the glucose variability model demonstrated activation of the ACE2-NOX axis in a similar manner observed in the high glucose model in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our present study provides evidence for a mechanism through which hyperglycemia aggravates endothelial cell injury resulting from S protein mediated activation of the ACE2-NOX axis. Our research thus highlights the importance of strict monitoring and control of blood glucose levels within the context of COVID-19 treatment to potentially improve clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Glucose , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
4.
Elife ; 122023 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327355

ABSTRACT

Proinflammatory agonists provoke the expression of cell surface adhesion molecules on endothelium in order to facilitate leukocyte infiltration into tissues. Rigorous control over this process is important to prevent unwanted inflammation and organ damage. Protein L-isoaspartyl O-methyltransferase (PIMT) converts isoaspartyl residues to conventional methylated forms in cells undergoing stress-induced protein damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of PIMT in vascular homeostasis. PIMT is abundantly expressed in mouse lung endothelium and PIMT deficiency in mice exacerbated pulmonary inflammation and vascular leakage to LPS(lipopolysaccharide). Furthermore, we found that PIMT inhibited LPS-induced toll-like receptor signaling through its interaction with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and its ability to methylate asparagine residues in the coiled-coil domain. This interaction was found to inhibit TRAF6 oligomerization and autoubiquitination, which prevented NF-κB transactivation and subsequent expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. Separately, PIMT also suppressed ICAM-1 expression by inhibiting its N-glycosylation, causing effects on protein stability that ultimately translated into reduced EC(endothelial cell)-leukocyte interactions. Our study has identified PIMT as a novel and potent suppressor of endothelial activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that therapeutic targeting of PIMT may be effective in limiting organ injury in inflammatory vascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Lipopolysaccharides , Protein D-Aspartate-L-Isoaspartate Methyltransferase , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 , Animals , Mice , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/genetics , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/metabolism , Protein D-Aspartate-L-Isoaspartate Methyltransferase/genetics , Protein D-Aspartate-L-Isoaspartate Methyltransferase/metabolism
5.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285770, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319825

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia, always a major malady, became the main public health and economic disaster of historical proportions with the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was based on a premise that pathology of lung metabolism in inflammation may have features invariant to the nature of the underlying cause. Amino acid uptake by the lungs was measured from plasma samples collected pre-terminally from a carotid artery and vena cava in mice with bleomycin-induced lung inflammation (N = 10) and compared to controls treated with saline instillation (N = 6). In the control group, the difference in concentrations between the arterial and venous blood of the 19 amino acids measured reached the level of statistical significance only for arginine (-10.7%, p = 0.0372) and phenylalanine (+5.5%, p = 0.0266). In the bleomycin group, 11 amino acids had significantly lower concentrations in the arterial blood. Arginine concentration was decreased by 21.1% (p<0.0001) and only that of citrulline was significantly increased (by 20.1%, p = 0.0002). Global Arginine Bioavailability Ratio was decreased in arterial blood by 19.5% (p = 0.0305) in the saline group and by 30.4% (p<0.0001) in the bleomycin group. Production of nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline from arginine by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is greatly increased in the immune system's response to lung injury. Deprived of arginine, the endothelial cells downstream may fail to provide enough NO to prevent the activation of thrombocytes. Thrombotic-related vascular dysfunction is a defining characteristic of pneumonia, including COVID-19. This experiment lends further support to arginine replacement as adjuvant therapy in pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Mice , Humans , Animals , Arginine/metabolism , Bleomycin/toxicity , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Citrulline/metabolism , Pandemics , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316764

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI), caused by intrapulmonary or extrapulmonary factors such as pneumonia, shock, and sepsis, eventually disrupts the alveolar-capillary barrier, resulting in diffuse pulmonary oedema and microatasis, manifested by refractory hypoxemia, and respiratory distress. Not only is ALI highly lethal, but even if a patient survives, there are also multiple sequelae. Currently, there is no better treatment than supportive care, and we urgently need to find new targets to improve ALI. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetically important enzymes that, together with histone acetylases (HATs), regulate the acetylation levels of histones and non-histones. While HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) play a therapeutic role in cancer, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases, there is also a large body of evidence suggesting the potential of HDACs as therapeutic targets in ALI. This review explores the unique mechanisms of HDACs in different cell types of ALI, including macrophages, pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (VECs), alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), and neutrophils.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/metabolism
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(8)2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294520

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused the death of almost 7 million people worldwide. While vaccinations and new antiviral drugs have greatly reduced the number of COVID-19 cases, there remains a need for additional therapeutic strategies to combat this deadly disease. Accumulating clinical data have discovered a deficiency of circulating glutamine in patients with COVID-19 that associates with disease severity. Glutamine is a semi-essential amino acid that is metabolized to a plethora of metabolites that serve as central modulators of immune and endothelial cell function. A majority of glutamine is metabolized to glutamate and ammonia by the mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase (GLS). Notably, GLS activity is upregulated in COVID-19, favoring the catabolism of glutamine. This disturbance in glutamine metabolism may provoke immune and endothelial cell dysfunction that contributes to the development of severe infection, inflammation, oxidative stress, vasospasm, and coagulopathy, which leads to vascular occlusion, multi-organ failure, and death. Strategies that restore the plasma concentration of glutamine, its metabolites, and/or its downstream effectors, in conjunction with antiviral drugs, represent a promising therapeutic approach that may restore immune and endothelial cell function and prevent the development of occlusive vascular disease in patients stricken with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Diseases , Humans , Glutamine/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Glutaminase/metabolism
8.
Ann Hematol ; 102(6): 1307-1322, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303196

ABSTRACT

The coagulation, fibrinolytic, anticoagulation, and complement systems are in delicate balance with the vessel wall endothelium ensuring appropriate hemostasis. Coagulopathy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not a simple disorder of one hemostatic component but a complicated process affecting most of the hemostasis system. COVID-19 disturbs the balance between the procoagulant systems and the regulatory mechanisms. Here, we investigate the effect of COVID-19 on key hemostatic components, including platelets, endothelial cells, coagulation factors, fibrinolytic system, anticoagulant protein system, and complement system, to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological processes underlying COVID-19 coagulopathy based on evidence.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Humans , Hemostatics/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Hemostasis , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Fibrinolysis
9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(7): 1799-1811, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288051

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The risk is related to the cytokine storm, a major contributor to multiorgan failure and a pathological character of COVID-19 patients with obesity. While the exact cause of the cytokine storm remains elusive, disorders in energy metabolism has provided insights into the mechanism. Emerging data suggest that adipose tissue in obesity contributes to the disorders in several ways. First, adipose tissue restricts the pulmonary function by generation of mechanical pressures to promote systemic hypoxia. Second, adipose tissue supplies a base for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 entry by overexpression of viral receptors [angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4]. Third, impaired antiviral responses of adipocytes and immune cells result in dysfunction of immunologic surveillance as well as the viral clearance systems. Fourth, chronic inflammation in obesity contributes to the cytokine storm by secreting more proinflammatory cytokines. Fifth, abnormal levels of adipokines increase the risk of a hyperimmune response to the virus in the lungs and other organs to enhance the cytokine storm. Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes, immune cells, and other cell types (endothelial cells and platelets, etc) is a common cellular mechanism for the development of cytokine storm, which leads to the progression of mild COVID-19 to severe cases with multiorgan failure and high mortality. Correction of energy surplus through various approaches is recommended in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in the obese patients.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , COVID-19 , Obesity , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Obesity/complications
10.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273008

ABSTRACT

Neurological effects of COVID-19 and long-COVID-19, as well as neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2, still pose several questions and are of both clinical and scientific relevance. We described the cellular and molecular effects of the human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in vitro exposure by SARS-CoV-2 to understand the underlying mechanisms of viral transmigration through the blood-brain barrier. Despite the low to non-productive viral replication, SARS-CoV-2-exposed cultures displayed increased immunoreactivity for cleaved caspase-3, an indicator of apoptotic cell death, tight junction protein expression, and immunolocalization. Transcriptomic profiling of SARS-CoV-2-challenged cultures revealed endothelial activation via NF-κB non-canonical pathway, including RELB overexpression and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 led to altered secretion of key angiogenic factors and to significant changes in mitochondrial dynamics, with increased mitofusin-2 expression and increased mitochondrial networks. Endothelial activation and remodeling can further contribute to neuroinflammatory processes and lead to further BBB permeability in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , NF-kappa B , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/metabolism , Brain , Blood-Brain Barrier , Mitochondria/metabolism
11.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 49(3): 305-313, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272949

ABSTRACT

Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a SERPIN inhibitor, is primarily known for its regulation of fibrinolysis. However, it is now known that this inhibitor functions and contributes to many (patho)physiological processes including inflammation, wound healing, cell adhesion, and tumor progression.This review discusses the past, present, and future roles of PAI-1, with a particular focus on the discovery of this inhibitor in the 1970s and subsequent characterization in health and disease. Throughout the past few decades diverse functions of this serpin have unraveled and it is now considered an important player in many disease processes. PAI-1 is expressed by numerous cell types, including megakaryocytes and platelets, adipocytes, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, and smooth muscle cells. In the circulation PAI-1 exists in two pools, within plasma itself and in platelet α-granules. Platelet PAI-1 is secreted following activation with retention of the inhibitor on the activated platelet membrane. Furthermore, these anucleate cells contain PAI-1 messenger ribonucleic acid to allow de novo synthesis.Outside of the traditional role of PAI-1 in fibrinolysis, this serpin has also been identified to play important roles in metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and most recently, acute respiratory distress syndrome, including coronavirus disease 2019 disease. This review highlights the complexity of PAI-1 and the requirement to ascertain a better understanding on how this complex serpin functions in (patho)physiological processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serpins , Humans , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Fibrinolysis , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/physiology , Serpins/metabolism
12.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 324(5): L722-L736, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271860

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 viremia is associated with increased acute lung injury (ALI) and mortality in children and adults. The mechanisms by which viral components in the circulation mediate ALI in COVID-19 remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (E) protein induces Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated ALI and lung remodeling in a model of neonatal COVID-19. Neonatal C57BL6 mice given intraperitoneal E protein injections revealed a dose-dependent increase in lung cytokines [interleukin 6 (Il6), tumor necrosis factor (Tnfα), and interleukin 1 beta (Il1ß)] and canonical proinflammatory TLR signaling. Systemic E protein induced endothelial immune activation, immune cell influx, and TGFß signaling and lung matrix remodeling inhibited alveolarization in the developing lung. E protein-mediated ALI and transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) signaling was repressed in Tlr2-/-, but not Tlr4-/- mice. A single dose of intraperitoneal E protein injection induced chronic alveolar remodeling as evidenced by a decrease in radial alveolar counts and increase in mean linear intercepts. Ciclesonide, a synthetic glucocorticoid, inhibited E protein-induced proinflammatory TLR signaling and ALI. In vitro, E protein-mediated inflammation and cell death were TLR2-dependent in human primary neonatal lung endothelial cells and were rescued by ciclesonide. This study provides insight into the pathogenesis of ALI and alveolar remodeling with SARS-CoV-2 viremia in children, whereas revealing the efficacy of steroids.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We reveal that the envelope protein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates acute lung injury (ALI) and alveolar remodeling through Toll-like receptor activation, which is rescued by the glucocorticoid, ciclesonide.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Animals , Child , Humans , Mice , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , COVID-19/complications , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Glucocorticoids , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Viremia/complications , Viral Envelope/metabolism
13.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 185, 2023 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumour in adults, is a highly vascular tumour characterised by abnormal angiogenesis. Additional mechanisms of tumour vascularisation have also been reported in glioblastoma, including the formation of tumour cell-derived vessels by vasculogenic mimicry (VM) or the transdifferentiation of tumour cells to endothelial cells. VM and endothelial transdifferentiation have frequently been reported as distinct processes, however, the use of both terms to describe a single process of vascularisation also occurs. Some overlapping characteristics have also been reported when identifying each process. We therefore aimed to determine the markers consistently attributed to VM and endothelial transdifferentiation in the glioblastoma literature. METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid Embase were searched for studies published between January 1999 and July 2021 that assessed VM or tumour to endothelial transdifferentiation in human glioblastoma. The online systematic review tool Covidence was used for screening and data extraction. Extracted data included type of tumour-derived vasculature reported, methods and techniques used, and markers investigated. Studies were grouped based on type of vasculature reported for further assessment. RESULTS: One hundred and thirteen of the 419 unique records identified were included for analysis. VM was reported in 64/113 studies, while tumour to endothelial transdifferentiation was reported in 16/113 studies. The remaining studies used both terms to describe a single process, did not define the process that occurred, or concluded that neither VM nor endothelial transdifferentiation occurred. Absence of CD34 and/or CD31 in vascular structures was the most common indicator of VM, while expression of CD34 and/or CD31, in addition to various other endothelial, stem cell or tumour cell markers, indicated tumour to endothelial transdifferentiation. CONCLUSION: Cells derived from tumour to endothelial transdifferentiation express typical endothelial markers including CD34 and CD31, while tumour cells contributing to VM lack CD34 and CD31 expression. Additional tumour markers are required to identify transdifferentiation in glioblastoma tissue, and this process requires further characterisation.


Subject(s)
Glioblastoma , Adult , Humans , Glioblastoma/pathology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Cell Transdifferentiation , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Biomarkers, Tumor
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 311: 116423, 2023 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270017

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jingfang granules (JF), one famous traditional Chinese formula in "She Sheng Zhong Miao Fang" written by Shi-Che Zhang during the Ming Dynasty era, has been widely used to prevent epidemic diseases in history and now was recommended for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, the roles of JF against acute lung injury and its mechanisms remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: Acute lung injury (ALI) and its progressive acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are a continuum of lung inflammatory disease with high morbidity and mortality in clinic, especially in COVID-19 patients. The present study aims to investigate the effect of JF on ALI and clarify its underlying mechanisms for clinical application in COVID-19 control. METHODS: Bleomycin-induced ALI mice were given oral gavage daily for seven days with or without Jingfang granules (2, 4 g/kg). The body weight, lung wet/dry weight ratios, lung appearance and tissue histopathology were evaluated. Quantitative real-time PCR, biochemical bronchoalveolar lavage fluids analysis was used to determine the gene expression of proinflammation factor and infiltrated inflammatory cells in lung. Immunofluorescence image and western blot were used to detect the markers of alveolar macrophages (AMs), endothelial cell apoptosis and changes of CD200-CD200R pathway. RESULTS: Firstly, histopathological analysis showed that JF significantly attenuated pulmonary injury and inflammatory response in ALI mice. Then, cytokine detection, inflammatory cells assay, and JNKs and p38 pathway analysis indicated that the recruitment and activation of alveolar macrophages was the main reason to cause ALI and JF could reverse this variation. Next, immunofluorescence staining and TUNEL assay showed that JF upregulated the expression of CD200 and suppressed the apoptosis of alveolar endothelial cells. Finally, double immunofluorescence staining of CD200 and CD11c indicated that the seriously damaged tissue had the lower CD200 while more AMs infiltration, which was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of CD200/CD200R. CONCLUSIONS: Jingfang granules can protect lung from acu te injury and mitigate the recruitment and overactive AMs-induced inflammation via CD200-CD200R immunoregulatory signal axis, which will provide an experimental basis for Jingfang granules clinical applications in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Female , Mice , Animals , Bleomycin/toxicity , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lipopolysaccharides
15.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1098665, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269468

ABSTRACT

Platelet factor 4 (PF4), also known as chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4 (CXCL4), is a specific protein synthesized from platelet α particles. The combination of PF4 and heparin to form antigenic complexes is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), but vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) related to the COVID-19 vaccine makes PF4 a research hotspot again. Similar to HIT, vaccines, bacteria, and other non-heparin exposure, PF4 can interact with negatively charged polyanions to form immune complexes and participate in thrombosis. These anions include cell surface mucopolysaccharides, platelet polyphosphates, DNA from endothelial cells, or von Willebrand factor (VWF). Among them, PF4-VWF, as a new immune complex, may induce and promote the formation of immune-associated thrombosis and is expected to become a new target and therapeutic direction. For both HIT and VITT, there is no effective and targeted treatment except discontinuation of suspected drugs. The research and development of targeted drugs based on the mechanism of action have become an unmet clinical need. Here, this study systematically reviewed the characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms of PF4 and VWF, elaborated the potential mechanism of action of PF4-VWF complex in immune-associated thrombosis, summarized the current status of new drug research and development for PF4 and VWF, and discussed the possibility of this complex as a potential biomarker for early immune-associated thrombosis events. Moreover, the key points of basic research and clinical evaluation are put forward in the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Humans , Acceleration , Antigen-Antibody Complex , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Heparin/metabolism , Immunologic Factors , Platelet Factor 4 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , von Willebrand Factor
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282855

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular complications are seen among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals, who now survive longer due to successful antiretroviral therapies. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease characterized by increased blood pressure in the lung circulation. The prevalence of PAH in the HIV-positive population is dramatically higher than that in the general population. While HIV-1 Group M Subtype B is the most prevalent subtype in western countries, the majority of HIV-1 infections in eastern Africa and former Soviet Union countries are caused by Subtype A. Research on vascular complications in the HIV-positive population in the context of subtype differences, however, has not been rigorous. Much of the research on HIV has focused on Subtype B, and information on the mechanisms of Subtype A is nonexistent. The lack of such knowledge results in health disparities in the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent/treat HIV complications. The present study examined the effects of HIV-1 gp120 of Subtypes A and B on human pulmonary artery endothelial cells by performing protein arrays. We found that the gene expression changes caused by gp120s of Subtypes A and B are different. Subtype A is a more potent downregulator of perostasin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and ErbB than Subtype B, while Subtype B is more effective in downregulating monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2), MCP-3, and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine proteins. This is the first report of gp120 proteins affecting host cells in an HIV subtype-specific manner, opening up the possibility that complications occur differently in HIV patients throughout the world.


Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells , Gene Expression , HIV Envelope Protein gp120 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Humans , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Familial Primary Pulmonary Hypertension/virology , Glycoproteins/metabolism , HIV Envelope Protein gp120/metabolism , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261590

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease COVID-19, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. In addition to being a respiratory disease, COVID-19 is a 'vascular disease' since it causes a leaky vascular barrier and increases blood clotting by elevating von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels in the blood. In this study, we analyzed in vitro how the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 induces endothelial cell (EC) permeability and its vWF secretion, and the underlying molecular mechanism for it. We showed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 receptor-binding domain (RBD) is sufficient to induce endothelial permeability and vWF-secretion through the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 in an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)6 activation-dependent manner. However, the mutants, including those in South African and South Californian variants of SARS-CoV-2, in the spike protein did not affect its induced EC permeability and vWF secretion. In addition, we have identified a signaling cascade downstream of ACE2 for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced EC permeability and its vWF secretion by using pharmacological inhibitors. The knowledge gained from this study could be useful in developing novel drugs or repurposing existing drugs for treating infections of SARS-CoV-2, particularly those strains that respond poorly to the existing vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor/genetics , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Endothelial Cells/metabolism
18.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 102, 2023 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the past decades studies on anti-tumoral drugs inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) were disappointing. Recently, we demonstrated that mature endothelial cells (ECs) and endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) can switch between invasion modes to cope with challenging environments, performing the "amoeboid angiogenesis" in the absence of proteases activity. METHODS: We first set out to investigate by ELISA if the inhibitors of the main protease family involved in angiogenesis were differently expressed during breast cancer progression. We used Marimastat, a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, as a means of inducing amoeboid characteristics and studied VEGF role in amoeboid angiogenesis. Thus, we performed invasion and capillary morphogenesis assay, morphological, cell signaling and in vivo mouse studies. RESULTS: Our data showed that TIMP1, TIMP2, alpha2-antiplasmin, PAI-1 and cystatin increase in breast cancer serum of patients with primary cancer and lymph node positive compared to healthy women. In vitro results revealed that the most high-powered protease inhibitors able to induce amoeboid invasion of ECFCs were TIMP1, 2 and 3. Surprisingly, Marimastat promotes ECFC invasion and tubular formation in vitro and in vivo, inducing amoeboid characteristics. We observed that the combination of Marimastat plus VEGF doesn't boost neither cell invasion nor vessel formation capacity. Moreover, inhibition of VEGF activity with Bevacizumab in the presence of Marimastat confirmed that amoeboid angiogenesis is independent from the stimulus of the main vascular growth factor, VEGF. CONCLUSIONS: We underline the importance to consider the amoeboid mechanism of endothelial and cancer cell invasion, probably responsible for the failure of synthetic metalloproteinase inhibitors as cancer therapy and tumor resistance to VEGF-targeted therapies, to set-up new drugs to be used in cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Amoeba , Neoplasms , Animals , Female , Mice , Amoeba/metabolism , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Morphogenesis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1869(5): 166707, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269405

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic provide the opportunities to explore the numerous similarities in clinical symptoms with Kawasaki disease (KD), including severe vasculitis. Despite this, the underlying mechanisms of vascular injury in both KD and COVID-19 remain elusive. To identify these mechanisms, this study employs single-cell RNA sequencing to explore the molecular mechanisms of immune responses in vasculitis, and validate the results through in vitro experiments. METHOD: The single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms of immune responses in vasculitis in KD and COVID-19. The analysis was performed on PBMCs from six children diagnosed with complete KD, three age-matched KD healthy controls (KHC), six COVID-19 patients (COV), three influenza patients (FLU), and four healthy controls (CHC). The results from the scRNA-seq analysis were validated through flow cytometry and immunofluorescence experiments on additional human samples. Subsequently, monocyte adhesion assays, immunofluorescence, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to analyze the damages to endothelial cells post-interaction with monocytes in HUVEC and THP1 cultures. RESULTS: The scRNA-seq analysis revealed the potential cellular types involved and the alterations in genetic transcriptions in the inflammatory responses. The findings indicated that while the immune cell compositions had been altered in KD and COV patients, and the ratio of CD14+ monocytes were both elevated in KD and COV. While the CD14+ monocytes share a large scale of same differentiated expressed geens between KD and COV. The differential activation of CD14 and CD16 monocytes was found to respond to both endothelial and epithelial dysfunctions. Furthermore, SELL+/CCR1+/XAF1+ CD14 monocytes were seen to enhance the adhesion and damage to endothelial cells. The results also showed that different types of B cells were involved in both KD and COV, while only the activation of T cells was recorded in KD. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study demonstrated the role of the innate immune response in the regulation of endothelial dysfunction in both KD and COVID-19. Additionally, our findings indicate that the adaptive immunity activation differs between KD and COVID-19. Our results demonstrate that monocytes in COVID-19 exhibit adhesion to both endothelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells, thus providing insight into the mechanisms and shared phenotypes between KD and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Vasculitis , Child , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Pandemics , RNA-Seq , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Vasculitis/genetics , Vasculitis/metabolism , Receptors, CCR1
20.
ACS Nano ; 17(3): 2761-2781, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221751

ABSTRACT

Vascular disorders, characterized by vascular endothelial dysfunction combined with inflammation, are correlated with numerous fatal diseases, such as coronavirus disease-19 and atherosclerosis. Achieving vascular normalization is an urgent problem that must be solved when treating inflammatory vascular diseases. Inspired by the vascular regulatory versatility of nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzing l-arginine (l-Arg), the eNOS-activating effects of l-Arg, and the powerful anti-inflammatory and eNOS-replenishing effects of budesonide (BUD), we constructed a bi-prodrug minimalist nanoplatform co-loaded with BUD and l-Arg via polysialic acid (PSA) to form BUD-l-Arg@PSA. This promoted vascular normalization by simultaneously regulating vascular endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Mediated by the special affinity between PSA and E-selectin, which is highly expressed on the surface of activated endothelial cells (ECs), BUD-l-Arg@PSA selectively accumulated in activated ECs, targeted eNOS expression and activation, and promoted NO production. Consequently, the binary synergistic regulation of the NO/eNOS signaling pathway occurred and improved vascular endothelial function. NO-induced nuclear factor-kappa B alpha inhibitor (IκBα) stabilization and BUD-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) response gene site occupancy achieved dual-site blockade of the NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby reducing the inflammatory response and inhibiting the infiltration of inflammation-related immune cells. In a renal ischemia-reperfusion injury mouse model, BUD-l-Arg@PSA reduced acute injury. In an atherosclerosis mouse model, BUD-l-Arg@PSA decreased atherosclerotic plaque burden and improved vasodilation. This represents a revolutionary therapeutic strategy for inflammatory vascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Animals , Mice , Arginine , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy
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