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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(5): 936-947, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ANCA autoantigens proteinase 3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are exclusively expressed by neutrophils and monocytes. ANCA-mediated activation of these cells is the key driver of the vascular injury process in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), and neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) are disease mediators. Cathepsin C (CatC) from zymogens activates the proteolytic function of NSPs, including PR3. Lack of NSP zymogen activation results in neutrophils with strongly reduced NSP proteins. METHODS: To explore AAV-relevant consequences of blocking NSP zymogen activation by CatC, we used myeloid cells from patients with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, a genetic deficiency of CatC, to assess NSPs and NSP-mediated endothelial cell injury. We also examined pharmacologic CatC inhibition in neutrophil-differentiated human hematopoietic stem cells, primary human umbilical vein cells, and primary glomerular microvascular endothelial cells. RESULTS: Patients with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome showed strongly reduced NSPs in neutrophils and monocytes. Neutrophils from these patients produced a negative PR3-ANCA test, presented less PR3 on the surface of viable and apoptotic cells, and caused significantly less damage in human umbilical vein cells. These findings were recapitulated in human stem cells, in which a highly specific CatC inhibitor, but not prednisolone, reduced NSPs without affecting neutrophil differentiation, reduced membrane PR3, and diminished neutrophil activation upon PR3-ANCA but not MPO-ANCA stimulation. Compared with healthy controls, neutrophils from patients with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome transferred less proteolytically active NSPs to glomerular microvascular endothelial cells, the cell type targeted in ANCA-induced necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. Finally, both genetic CatC deficiency and pharmacologic inhibition, but not prednisolone, reduced neutrophil-induced glomerular microvascular endothelial cell damage. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may offer encouragement for clinical studies of adjunctive CatC inhibitor in patients with PR3-AAV.


Subject(s)
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Papillon-Lefevre Disease , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Cathepsin C/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Enzyme Precursors/metabolism , Humans , Myeloblastin/genetics , Neutrophils/metabolism , Papillon-Lefevre Disease/metabolism , Peroxidase
2.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 1118195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138216

ABSTRACT

Background: Mitochondria have been involved in host defense upon viral infections. Factor Xa (FXa), a coagulating factor, may also have influence on mitochondrial functionalities. The aim was to analyze if in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC), the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike protein subunits, S1 and S2 (S1+S2), could alter mitochondrial metabolism and what is the role of FXA. Methods: HPMEC were incubated with and without recombinants S1+S2 (10 nmol/L each). Results: In control conditions, S1+S2 failed to modify FXa expression. However, in LPS (1 µg/mL)-incubated HPMEC, S1+S2 significantly increased FXa production. LPS tended to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential with respect to control, but in higher and significant degree, it was reduced when S1+S2 were present. LPS did not significantly modify cytochrome c oxidase activity as compared with control. Addition of S1+S2 spike subunits to LPS-incubated HPMEC significantly increased cytochrome c oxidase activity with respect to control. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was also increased by S1+S2 with respect to control and LPS alone. Protein expression level of uncoupled protein-2 (UCP-2) was markedly expressed when S1+S2 were added together to LPS. Rivaroxaban (50 nmol/L), a specific FXa inhibitor, significantly reduced all the above-mentioned alterations induced by S1+S2 including UCP-2 expression. Conclusions: In HPMEC undergoing to preinflammatory condition, COVID-19 S1+S2 spike subunits promoted alterations in mitochondria metabolism suggesting a shift from aerobic towards anaerobic metabolism that was accompanied of high FXa production. Rivaroxaban prevented all the mitochondrial metabolic changes mediated by the present COVID-19 S1 and S2 spike subunits suggesting the involvement of endogenous FXa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Factor Xa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Rivaroxaban/pharmacology , Rivaroxaban/metabolism , Electron Transport Complex IV/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism
3.
Ups J Med Sci ; 1272022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121083

ABSTRACT

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) marks the birth of a new era in physiology and medicine. Within foreseeable future, we will know exactly what genes are expressed - and at what levels - in all the different cell types and subtypes that make up our bodies. We will also learn how a particular cell state, whether it occurs during development, tissue repair, or disease, reflects precise changes in gene expression. While profoundly impacting all areas of life science, scRNAseq may lead to a particular leap in vascular biology research. Blood vessels pervade and fulfill essential functions in all organs, but the functions differ. Innumerable organ-specific vascular adaptations and specializations are required. These, in turn, are dictated by differential gene expression by the two principal cellular building blocks of blood vessels: endothelial cells and mural cells. An organotypic vasculature is essential for functions as diverse as thinking, gas exchange, urine excretion, and xenobiotic detoxification in the brain, lung, kidney, and liver, respectively. In addition to the organotypicity, vascular cells also differ along the vascular arterio-venous axis, referred to as zonation, differences that are essential for the regulation of blood pressure and flow. Moreover, gene expression-based molecular changes dictate states of cellular activity, necessary for angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and immune cell trafficking, i.e. functions necessary for development, inflammation, and repair. These different levels of cellular heterogeneity create a nearly infinite phenotypic diversity among vascular cells. In this review, I summarize and exemplify what scRNAseq has brought to the picture in just a few years and point out where it will take us.


Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Humans , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/genetics , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Brain , Liver , Sequence Analysis, RNA
4.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 136(21): 1571-1590, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117548

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease, it may affect also the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disorder (CVD) develop a more severe disease course with a significantly higher mortality rate than non-CVD patients. A common denominator of CVD is the dysfunction of endothelial cells (ECs), increased vascular permeability, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, coagulation, and inflammation. It has been assumed that clinical complications in COVID-19 patients suffering from CVD are caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection of ECs through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and the cellular transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and the consequent dysfunction of the infected vascular cells. Meanwhile, other factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells have been described, including disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17), the C-type lectin CD209L or heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Here, we discuss the current data about the putative entry of SARS-CoV-2 into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, we highlight the potential role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) affecting vascular permeability in CVD, a process that might exacerbate disease in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
5.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 61: 152057, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085913

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing Alzheimer's disease is a risk factor for severe/fatal COVID-19 and infection by SARS-CoV2 virus has been associated with an increased incidence of un-masked Alzheimer's disease. The molecular basis whereby SARS-CoV2 may amplify Alzheimer's disease is not well understood. This study analyzed the molecular changes in autopsy brain tissues from people with pre-existing dementia who died of COVID-19 (n = 5) which was compared to equivalent tissues of people who died of COVID-19 with no history of dementia (n = 8), Alzheimer's disease pre-COVID-19 (n = 10) and aged matched controls (n = 10) in a blinded fashion. Immunohistochemistry analyses for hyperphosphorylated tau protein, α-synuclein, and ß-amyloid-42 confirmed the diagnoses of Alzheimer's disease (n = 4), and Lewy body dementia (n = 1) in the COVID-19 group. The brain tissues from patients who died of COVID-19 with no history of dementia showed a diffuse microangiopathy marked by endocytosis of spike subunit S1 and S2 in primarily CD31+ endothelia with strong co-localization with ACE2, Caspase-3, IL6, TNFα, and Complement component 6 that was not associated with SARS-CoV2 RNA. Microglial activation marked by increased TMEM119 and MCP1 protein expression closely paralleled the endocytosed spike protein. The COVID-19 tissues from people with no pre-existing dementia showed, compared to controls, 5-10× fold increases in expression of neuronal NOS and NMDAR2 as well as a marked decrease in the expression of proteins whose loss is associated with worsening Alzheimer's disease: MFSD2a, SHIP1, BCL6, BCL10, and BACH1. In COVID-19 tissues from people with dementia the widespread spike-induced microencephalitis with the concomitant microglial activation co-existed in the same areas where neurons had hyperphosphorylated tau protein suggesting that the already dysfunctional neurons were additionally stressed by the SARS-CoV2 induced microangiopathy. ACE2+ human brain endothelial cells treated with high dose (but not vaccine equivalent low dose) spike S1 protein demonstrated each of the molecular changes noted in the in vivo COVID-19 and COVID-19/Alzheimer's disease brain tissues. It is concluded that fatal COVID-19 induces a diffuse microencephalitis and microglial activation in the brain due to endocytosis of circulating viral spike protein that amplifies pre-existing dementia in at least two ways: 1) modulates the expression of proteins that may worsen Alzheimer's disease and 2) stresses the already dysfunctional neurons by causing an acute proinflammatory/hypercoagulable/hypoxic microenvironment in areas with abundant hyperphosphorylated tau protein and/or ßA-42.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , tau Proteins/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , COVID-19/complications , RNA, Viral , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071501

ABSTRACT

In SARS-CoV-2-infected humans, disease progression is often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome involving severe lung injury, coagulopathy, and thrombosis of the alveolar capillaries. The pathogenesis of these pulmonary complications in COVID-19 patients has not been elucidated. Autopsy study of these patients showed SARS-CoV-2 virions in pulmonary vessels and sequestrated leukocytes infiltrates associated with endotheliopathy and microvascular thrombosis. Since SARS-CoV-2 enters and infects target cells by binding its spike (S) protein to cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and there is evidence that vascular endothelial cells and neutrophils express ACE2, we investigated the effect of S-proteins and cell-cell communication on primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMEC) and neutrophils expression of thrombogenic factors and the potential mechanisms. Using S-proteins of two different SARS-CoV-2 variants (Wuhan and Delta), we demonstrate that exposure of HLMEC or neutrophils to S-proteins, co-culture of HLMEC exposed to S-proteins with non-exposed neutrophils, or co-culture of neutrophils exposed to S-proteins with non-exposed HLMEC induced transcriptional upregulation of tissue factor (TF), significantly increased the expression and secretion of factor (F)-V, thrombin, and fibrinogen and inhibited tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), the primary regulator of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, in both cell types. Recombinant (r)TFPI and a thiol blocker (5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) prevented S-protein-induced expression and secretion of Factor-V, thrombin, and fibrinogen. Thrombomodulin blocked S-protein-induced expression and secretion of fibrinogen but had no effect on S-protein-induced expression of Factor-V or thrombin. These results suggests that following SARS-CoV-2 contact with the pulmonary endothelium or neutrophils and endothelial-neutrophil interactions, viral S-proteins induce coagulopathy via the TF pathway and mechanisms involving functional thiol groups. These findings suggest that using rTFPI and/or thiol-based drugs could be a viable therapeutic strategy against SARS-CoV-2-induced coagulopathy and thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cell Communication , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium/metabolism , Fibrinogen , Humans , Lipoproteins , Lung/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sulfhydryl Compounds , Thrombin , Thrombomodulin , Thromboplastin , Thrombosis/etiology
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16878, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062259

ABSTRACT

Recent reports demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 utilizes cell surface heparan sulfate as an attachment factor to facilitate the initial interaction with host cells. Heparan sulfate interacts with the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, and blocking this interaction can decrease cell infection. We and others reported recently that the family of compounds of 2,5-dihydroxyphenylic acid interferes with the binding of the positively charged groove in growth factor molecules to negatively charged cell surface heparan sulfate. We hypothesized that Calcium Dobesilate (CaD)-calcium salt of 2,5-dihydroxyphenylic acid-may also interfere with the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to heparan sulfate. Using lentiviral SARS-CoV-2 spike protein pseudotyped particles we show that CaD could significantly reduce pseudovirus uptake into endothelial cells. On the contrary, CaD did not affect cell infection with VSVG-expressing lentivirus. CaD could also prevent retention of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in ex vivo perfused mouse kidney. Using microfluidic culture of endothelial cells under flow, we show that CaD prevents spike protein interaction with heparan sulfate glycocalyx. Since CaD has no adverse side effects and is approved in humans for other medical indications, our findings can rapidly translate into clinical studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Calcium Dobesilate , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Heparitin Sulfate/pharmacology , Humans , Mice , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 156: 113783, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060453

ABSTRACT

Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is the prototype of the long pentraxin subfamily, an acute-phase protein consisting of a C-terminal pentraxin domain and a unique N-terminal domain. PTX3 was initially isolated from human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human FS-4 fibroblasts. It was subsequently found to be also produced by synoviocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, myeloid dendritic cells, epithelial cells, and tumor cells. Various modulatory factors, such as miRNAs, cytokines, drugs, and hypoxic conditions, could regulate the expression level of PTX3. PTX3 is essential in regulating innate immunity, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. Besides, PTX3 may play dual (pro-tumor and anti-tumor) roles in oncogenesis. PTX3 is involved in the occurrence and development of many non-cancerous diseases, including COVID-19, and might be a potential biomarker indicating the prognosis, activity,and severity of diseases. In this review, we summarize and discuss the potential roles of PTX3 in the oncogenesis and pathogenesis of non-cancerous diseases and potential targeted therapies based on PTX3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , C-Reactive Protein/genetics , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Carcinogenesis
10.
Sci Adv ; 8(38): eabo6783, 2022 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038224

ABSTRACT

In the initial process of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects respiratory epithelial cells and then transfers to other organs the blood vessels. It is believed that SARS-CoV-2 can pass the vascular wall by altering the endothelial barrier using an unknown mechanism. In this study, we investigated the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the endothelial barrier using an airway-on-a-chip that mimics respiratory organs and found that SARS-CoV-2 produced from infected epithelial cells disrupts the barrier by decreasing Claudin-5 (CLDN5), a tight junction protein, and disrupting vascular endothelial cadherin-mediated adherens junctions. Consistently, the gene and protein expression levels of CLDN5 in the lungs of a patient with COVID-19 were decreased. CLDN5 overexpression or Fluvastatin treatment rescued the SARS-CoV-2-induced respiratory endothelial barrier disruption. We concluded that the down-regulation of CLDN5 expression is a pivotal mechanism for SARS-CoV-2-induced endothelial barrier disruption in respiratory organs and that inducing CLDN5 expression is a therapeutic strategy against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Claudin-5/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Claudin-5/genetics , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Fluvastatin/metabolism , Fluvastatin/pharmacology , Humans , Tight Junction Proteins/metabolism
11.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274427, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by a novel coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than 18 million people worldwide. The activation of endothelial cells is a hallmark of signs of SARS-CoV-2 infection that includes altered integrity of vessel barrier and endothelial inflammation. OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary endothelial activation is suggested to be related to the profound neutrophil elastase (NE) activity, which is necessary for sterilization of phagocytosed bacterial pathogens. However, unopposed activity of NE increases alveolocapillary permeability and extracellular matrix degradation. The uncontrolled protease activity of NE during the inflammatory phase of lung diseases might be due to the resistance of exosome associated NE to inhibition by alpha-1 antitrypsin. METHOD: 31 subjects with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV2 infection were recruited in the disease group and samples from 30 voluntaries matched for age and sex were also collected for control. RESULTS: We measured the plasma levels of exosome-associated NE in SARS-CoV-2 patients which, were positively correlated with sign of endothelial damage in those patients as determined by plasma levels of LDH. Notably, we also found strong correlation with plasma levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin and exosome-associated NE in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Using macrovascular endothelial cells, we also observed that purified NE activity is inhibited by purified alpha-1 antitrypsin while, NE associated with exosomes are resistant to inhibition and show less sensitivity to alpha-1 antitrypsin inhibitory activity, in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our results point out the role of exosome-associated NE in exacerbation of endothelial injury in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We have demonstrated that exosome-associated NE could be served as a new potential therapeutic target of severe systemic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/metabolism
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 951614, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022733

ABSTRACT

The vascular endothelium consists of a highly heterogeneous monolayer of endothelial cells (ECs) which are the primary target for bacterial and viral infections due to EC's constant and close contact with the bloodstream. Emerging evidence has shown that ECs are a key cell type for innate immunity. Like macrophages, ECs serve as sentinels when sensing invading pathogens or microbial infection caused by viruses and bacteria. It remains elusive how ECs senses danger signals, transduce the signal and fulfil immune functions. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I, gene name also known as DDX58) is an important member of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family that functions as an important pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) to execute immune surveillance and confer host antiviral response. Recent studies have demonstrated that virus infection, dsRNA, dsDNA, interferons, LPS, and 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) can increase RIG-1 expression in ECs and propagate anti-viral response. Of translational significance, RIG-I activation can be inhibited by Panax notoginseng saponins, endogenous PPARγ ligand 15-PGJ2, tryptanthrin and 2-animopurine. Considering the pivotal role of inflammation and innate immunity in regulating endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, here we provided a concise review of the role of RIG-I in endothelial cell function and highlight future direction to elucidate the potential role of RIG-I in regulating cardiovascular diseases as well as virus infectious disease, including COVID-19. Furthered understanding of RIG-I-mediated signaling pathways is important to control disorders associated with altered immunity and inflammation in ECs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Signal Transduction
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 945016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022724

ABSTRACT

Immune system is a versatile and dynamic body organ which offers survival and endurance of human beings in their hostile living environment. However, similar to other cells, immune cells are hijacked by senescence. The ageing immune cells lose their beneficial functions but continue to produce inflammatory mediators which draw other immune and non-immune cells to the senescence loop. Immunosenescence has been shown to be associated with different pathological conditions and diseases, among which atherosclerosis has recently come to light. There are common drivers of both immunosenescence and atherosclerosis; e.g. inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), chronic viral infections, genomic damage, oxidized-LDL, hypertension, cigarette smoke, hyperglycaemia, and mitochondrial failure. Chronic viral infections induce inflammaging, sustained cytokine signaling, ROS generation and DNA damage which are associated with atherogenesis. Accumulating evidence shows that several DNA and RNA viruses are stimulators of immunosenescence and atherosclerosis in an interrelated network. DNA viruses such as CMV, EBV and HBV upregulate p16, p21 and p53 senescence-associated molecules; induce inflammaging, metabolic reprogramming of infected cells, replicative senescence and telomere shortening. RNA viruses such as HCV and HIV induce ROS generation, DNA damage, induction of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), metabolic reprogramming of infected cells, G1 cell cycle arrest, telomere shortening, as well as epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones. The newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 virus is also a potent inducer of cytokine storm and SASP. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 promotes senescence phenotype in endothelial cells by augmenting p16, p21, senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) and adhesion molecules expression. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 mega-inflammation on atherogenesis, however, remains to be investigated. In this review we focus on the common processes in immunosenescence and atherogenesis caused by chronic viral infections and discuss the current knowledge on this topic.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Immunosenescence , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Hum Cell ; 35(6): 1633-1639, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014580

ABSTRACT

Endothelial dysfunction is one of the key cornerstone complications of emerging and re-emerging viruses which lead to vascular leakage and a high mortality rate. The mechanism that regulates the origin of endothelial dysregulation is not completely elucidated. Currently, there are no potential pharmacological treatments and curable management for such diseases. In this sense, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) has been emerging to be a promising therapeutic strategy in restoring endothelial barrier function in various lung disease, including ALI and ARDS. The mechanism of the role of MSCs in restoring endothelial integrity among single-strand RNA (ssRNA) viruses that target endothelial cells remains elusive. Thus, we have discussed the therapeutic role of MSCs in restoring vascular integrity by (i) inhibiting the metalloprotease activity thereby preventing the cleavage of tight junction proteins, which are essential for maintaining membrane integrity (ii) possessing antioxidant properties which neutralize the excessive ROS production due to virus infection and its associated hyper host immune response (iii) modulating micro RNAs that regulate the endothelial activation and its integrity by downregulating the inflammatory response during ssRNA infection.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Virus Diseases , Antioxidants/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Metalloproteases/metabolism , RNA , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Tight Junction Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism
15.
J Pathol ; 258(3): 211-212, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013710

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus, the cause of COVID-19 disease, establishes infection in the human body via interaction with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on cell membranes. The lung is the major organ affected, and all respiratory epithelium from nose to alveolus is infectable. A recent study published in The Journal of Pathology looked at a wide range of other human tissues, mostly autopsy-derived, to identify susceptible cells. The virus (associated with ACE2) is found in all endothelial cells (an important finding), renal and biliary epithelium, in megakaryocytes, and occasionally in hepatocytes. It was not found in heart myofibres or brain neurones but is present in gut myenteric plexus cells. This work confirms previous work on SARS-CoV-2-infectable cells, and so supports investigations into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease as it affects (or does not directly affect) the different organs. © 2022 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Tropism
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010118

ABSTRACT

T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) has been recently identified as one of the factors involved in the internalization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in human cells, in addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), neuropilin-1, and others. We hypothesized that specific microRNAs could target TIM-1, with potential implications for the management of patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). By combining bioinformatic analyses and functional assays, we identified miR-142 as a specific regulator of TIM-1 transcription. Since TIM-1 has been implicated in the regulation of endothelial function at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its levels have been shown to be associated with stroke and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, we validated miR-142 as a functional modulator of TIM-1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs). Taken together, our results indicate that miR-142 targets TIM-1, representing a novel strategy against cerebrovascular disorders, as well as systemic complications of SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections.


Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells/pathology , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1/metabolism , MicroRNAs , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Dengue , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Humans , Immunoglobulins , MicroRNAs/genetics , Mucins , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection
17.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 142: 106946, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondria play a central role in the host response to viral infection and immunity, being key to antiviral signaling and exacerbating inflammatory processes. Mitochondria and Toll-like receptor (TLR) have been suggested as potential targets in SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the involvement of TLR9 in SARS-Cov-2-induced endothelial dysfunction and potential contribution to cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 have not been demonstrated. This study determined whether infection of endothelial cells by SARS-CoV-2 affects mitochondrial function and induces mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release. We also questioned whether TLR9 signaling mediates the inflammatory responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 in endothelial cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were infected by SARS-CoV-2 and immunofluorescence was used to confirm the infection. Mitochondrial function was analyzed by specific probes and mtDNA levels by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Inflammatory markers were measured by ELISA, protein expression by western blot, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) by FLUOR-4, and vascular reactivity with a myography. KEY RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infected HUVECs, which express ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins, and promoted mitochondrial dysfunction, i.e. it increased mitochondria-derived superoxide anion, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mtDNA release, leading to activation of TLR9 and NF-kB, and release of cytokines. SARS-CoV-2 also decreased nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and inhibited Ca2+ responses in endothelial cells. TLR9 blockade reduced SARS-CoV-2-induced IL-6 release and prevented decreased eNOS expression. mtDNA increased vascular reactivity to endothelin-1 (ET-1) in arteries from wild type, but not TLR9 knockout mice. These events were recapitulated in serum samples from COVID-19 patients, that exhibited increased levels of mtDNA compared to sex- and age-matched healthy subjects and patients with comorbidities. CONCLUSION AND APPLICATIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs mitochondrial function and activates TLR9 signaling in endothelial cells. TLR9 triggers inflammatory responses that lead to endothelial cell dysfunction, potentially contributing to the severity of symptoms in COVID-19. Targeting mitochondrial metabolic pathways may help to define novel therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA, Mitochondrial , Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mitochondria/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 9/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 9/metabolism
18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 626: 66-71, 2022 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966379

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests incomplete recovery of COVID-19 patients, who continue to suffer from cardiovascular diseases, including cerebral vascular disorders (CVD) and neurological symptoms. Recent findings indicate that some of the damaging effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, especially in the brain, may be induced by the spike protein, leading to the disruption of the initial blood-brain barrier (BBB). SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and animals exhibit age-dependent pathogenesis. In this study, we identified endothelial BACE1 as a critical mediator of BBB disruption and cellular senescence induced by the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 subunit protein. Increased BACE1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVEC) decreases the levels of tight junction proteins, including ZO-1, occludin, and claudins. Moreover, BACE1 overexpression leads to the accumulation of p16 and p21, typical hallmarks of cellular senescence. Our findings show that the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 subunit protein upregulated BACE1 expression in HBMVECs, causing endothelial leakage. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 subunit protein induced p16 and p21 expression, indicating BACE1-mediated cellular senescence, confirmed by ß-Gal staining in HBMVECs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that BACE1-mediated endothelial cell damage and senescence may be linked to CVD after COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/metabolism , Animals , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
Cells ; 11(12)2022 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963750

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a new coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 is characterized by progressive respiratory failure resulting from diffuse alveolar damage, inflammatory infiltrates, endotheliitis, and pulmonary and systemic coagulopathy forming obstructive microthrombi with multi-organ dysfunction, indicating that endothelial cells (ECs) play a central role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. The glycocalyx is defined as a complex gel-like layer of glycosylated lipid-protein mixtures, which surrounds all living cells and acts as a buffer between the cell and the extracellular matrix. The endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) plays an important role in vascular homeostasis via regulating vascular permeability, cell adhesion, mechanosensing for hemodynamic shear stresses, and antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory functions. Here, we review the new findings that described EGL damage in ARDS, coagulopathy, and the multisystem inflammatory disease associated with COVID-19. Mechanistically, the inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), the glycocalyx fragments, and the viral proteins may contribute to endothelial glycocalyx damage in COVID-19. In addition, the potential therapeutic strategies targeting the EGL for the treatment of severe COVID-19 are summarized and discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glycocalyx , COVID-19/drug therapy , Capillary Permeability , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11855, 2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960495

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains to spread worldwide. COVID-19 is characterized by the striking high mortality in elderly; however, its mechanistic insights remain unclear. Systemic thrombosis has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and lung microangiopathy in association with endothelial cells (ECs) injury has been reported by post-mortem analysis of the lungs. Here, we experimentally investigated the SARS-CoV-2 infection in cultured human ECs, and performed a comparative analysis for post-infection molecular events using early passage and replicative senescent ECs. We found that; (1) SARS-CoV-2 infects ECs but does not replicate and disappears in 72 hours without causing severe cell damage, (2) Senescent ECs are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, (3) SARS-CoV-2 infection alters various genes expression, which could cause EC dysfunctions, (4) More genes expression is affected in senescent ECs by SARS-CoV-2 infection than in early passage ECs, which might causes further exacerbated dysfunction in senescent ECs. These data suggest that sustained EC dysfunctions due to SARS-CoV-2 infection may contribute to the microangiopathy in the lungs, leading to deteriorated inflammation and thrombosis in COVID-19. Our data also suggest a possible causative role of EC senescence in the aggravated disease in elder COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Aged , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/pathology
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