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2.
Ann Hematol ; 102(6): 1307-1322, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303196

ABSTRACT

The coagulation, fibrinolytic, anticoagulation, and complement systems are in delicate balance with the vessel wall endothelium ensuring appropriate hemostasis. Coagulopathy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not a simple disorder of one hemostatic component but a complicated process affecting most of the hemostasis system. COVID-19 disturbs the balance between the procoagulant systems and the regulatory mechanisms. Here, we investigate the effect of COVID-19 on key hemostatic components, including platelets, endothelial cells, coagulation factors, fibrinolytic system, anticoagulant protein system, and complement system, to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological processes underlying COVID-19 coagulopathy based on evidence.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Humans , Hemostatics/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Hemostasis , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Fibrinolysis
3.
J Hypertens ; 41(6): 951-957, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258584

ABSTRACT

AIM: The pulse wave response to salbutamol (PWRS) - change in augmentation index (AIx) - provides a means to assess endothelial vasodilator function in vivo . Endothelial dysfunction plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease and appears to underlie many of the complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, to what degree this persists after recovery is unknown. METHODS: Individuals previously hospitalized with COVID-19, those recovered from mild symptoms and seronegative controls with well known risk factors for endothelial dysfunction were studied. To assess the involvement of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway (NO-cGMP) on PWRS, sildenafil was also administrated in a subsample. RESULTS: One hundred and one participants (60 men) aged 47.8 ±â€Š14.1 (mean ±â€ŠSD) years of whom 33 were previously hospitalized with COVID-19 were recruited. Salbutamol had minimal effect on haemodynamics including blood pressure and heart rate. It reduced AIx in controls ( n  = 34) and those recovered from mild symptoms of COVID-19 ( n  = 34) but produced an increase in AIx in those previously hospitalized: mean change [95% confidence interval] -2.85 [-5.52, -0.188] %, -2.32 [-5.17,0.54] %, and 3.03 [0.06, 6.00] % for controls, those recovered from mild symptoms and those previously hospitalized, respectively ( P  = 0.001). In a sub-sample ( n  = 22), sildenafil enhanced PWRS (change in AIx 0.05 [-2.15,2.24] vs. -3.96 [-7.01. -2.18], P  = 0.006) with no significant difference between hospitalized ( n  = 12) and nonhospitalized participants ( n  = 10). CONCLUSIONS: In patients previously hospitalized with COVID-19, there is long-lasting impairment of endothelial function as measured by the salbutamol-induced stimulation of the NO-cGMP pathway that may contribute to cardiovascular complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Male , Humans , Vasodilation , Sildenafil Citrate/pharmacology , Sildenafil Citrate/therapeutic use , Adrenergic Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular , COVID-19/complications , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Albuterol/pharmacology , Albuterol/therapeutic use
4.
J Med Virol ; 95(3): e28678, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252186

ABSTRACT

Statins may protect against adverse outcomes from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through their pleiotropic effects. Endothelial dysfunction seems to be implicated in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, and can be attenuated by statins. This study assessed the role of preadmission statin therapy and its interaction with endothelial function, measured using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at hospital admission, in predicting in-hospital outcomes among patients with COVID-19 having high-to-very high cardiovascular (CV) risk. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 having high-to-very high CV risk, including a subgroup of patients who underwent FMD assessment. Among 342 patients, 119 (35%) were treated with statins at study baseline. Preadmission statin therapy was independently associated with a 75% risk reduction of intensive care unit admission/in-hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio 0.252, 95% confidence interval 0.122-0.521, p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients with an FMD assessment (245 patients, 40% statin-treated), preadmission statin therapy was independently associated with higher FMD values (ß = 0.159, p = 0.013). However, preadmission statin therapy × FMD interaction was not associated with in-hospital outcomes (F = 0.002, pinteraction = 0.960). Preadmission statin therapy is associated with better in-hospital outcomes among patients with COVID-19 having high-to-very high CV risk, independent of the endothelium-protective effects of these drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Prognosis , Endothelium, Vascular , Hospitals , Heart Disease Risk Factors
5.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 137(7): 543-559, 2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285529

ABSTRACT

Poor disease outcomes and lethality are directly related to endothelial dysfunction in betacoronavirus infections. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the vascular dysfunction caused by the betacoronaviruses MHV-3 and SARS-CoV-2. Wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and knockout mice for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS-/-) or TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1-/-) were infected with MHV-3, and K18-hACE2 transgenic mice expressing human ACE2 were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Isometric tension was used to evaluate vascular function. Protein expression was determined by immunofluorescence. Tail-cuff plethysmography and Doppler were used to assess blood pressure and flow, respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) was quantified with the DAF probe. ELISA was used to assess cytokine production. Survival curves were estimated using Kaplan-Meier. MHV-3 infection reduced aortic and vena cava contractility, arterial blood pressure, and blood flow, resulting in death. Resistance mesenteric arteries showed increased contractility. The contractility of the aorta was normalized by removing the endothelium, inhibiting iNOS, genetically deleting iNOS, or scavenging NO. In the aorta, iNOS and phospho-NF-kB p65 subunit expression was enhanced, along with basal NO production. TNF production was increased in plasma and vascular tissue. Genetic deletion of TNFR1 prevented vascular changes triggered by MHV-3, and death. Basal NO production and iNOS expression were also increased by SARS-CoV-2. In conclusion, betacoronavirus induces an endothelium-dependent decrease in contractility in macro-arteries and veins, leading to circulatory failure and death via TNF/iNOS/NO. These data highlight the key role of the vascular endothelium and TNF in the pathogenesis and lethality of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Shock , Mice , Humans , Animals , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/genetics , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Mesenteric Arteries/metabolism
6.
Shock ; 58(6): 514-523, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191214

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Background: Severe progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes respiratory failure and critical illness. Recently, COVID-19 has been associated with heparanase (HPSE)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction and inflammation, so called endothelitis, and therapeutic treatment with heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) targeting HPSE has been postulated. Because, up to this date, clinicians are unable to measure the severity of endothelitis, which can lead to multiorgan failure and concomitant death, we investigated plasma levels of HPSE and heparin-binding protein (HBP) in COVID-19 intensive care patients to render a possible link between endothelitis and these plasma parameters. Therefore, a prospective prolonged cohort study was conducted, including 47 COVID-19 patients from the intensive care unit. Plasma levels of HPSE, and HBP were measured daily by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in survivors (n = 35) and nonsurvivors (n = 12) of COVID-19 from admission until discharge or death. All patients were either treated with heparin or LMWH, aiming for an activated partial thromboplastin time of ≥60 seconds or an anti-Xa level of >0.8 IU/mL using enoxaparin, depending on the clinical status of the patient (patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or >0.1 µg/kg/min noradrenaline received heparin, all others enoxaparin). Results: We found significantly higher plasma levels of HPSE and HBP in survivors and nonsurvivors of COVID-19, compared with healthy controls. Still, interestingly, plasma HPSE levels were significantly higher ( P < 0.001) in survivors compared with nonsurvivors of COVID-19. In contrast, plasma HBP levels were significantly reduced ( P < 0.001) in survivors compared with nonsurvivors of COVID-19. Furthermore, when patients received heparin, they had significantly lower HPSE ( P = 2.22 e - 16) and significantly higher HBP ( P = 0.00013) plasma levels as when they received LMWH. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that patients, who recover from COVID-19-induced vascular and pulmonary damage and were discharged from the intensive care unit, have significantly higher plasma HPSE level than patients who succumb to COVID-19. Therefore, HPSE is not suitable as marker for disease severity in COVID-19 but maybe as marker for patient's recovery. In addition, patients receiving therapeutic heparin treatment displayed significantly lower heparanse plasma level than upon therapeutic treatment with LMWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endothelium, Vascular , Glucuronidase , Lung , Vascular Diseases , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enoxaparin , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Glucuronidase/blood , Recovery of Function , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Vascular Diseases/diagnosis , Vascular Diseases/virology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
7.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 144: 106975, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is implicated by active endotheliitis, and cardiovascular morbidity. The long-COVID-19 syndrome implications in atherosclerosis have not been elucidated yet. We assessed the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of COVID-19 on endothelial function. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, patients hospitalized for COVID-19 at the medical ward or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were enrolled and followed up to 6 months post-hospital discharge. Medical history and laboratory examinations were performed while the endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Comparison with propensity score-matched cohort (control group) was performed at the acute (upon hospital admission) and follow-up (1 and 6 months) stages. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (37% admitted in ICU) were recruited. FMD was significantly (p < 0.001) impaired in the COVID-19 group (1.65 ± 2.31%) compared to the control (6.51 ± 2.91%). ICU-treated subjects presented significantly impaired (p = 0.001) FMD (0.48 ± 1.01%) compared to those treated in the medical ward (2.33 ± 2.57%). During hospitalization, FMD was inversely associated with Interleukin-6 and Troponin I (p < 0.05 for all). Although, a significant improvement in FMD was noted during the follow-up (acute: 1.75 ± 2.19% vs. 1 month: 4.23 ± 2.02%, vs. 6 months: 5.24 ± 1.62%; p = 0.001), FMD remained impaired compared to control (6.48 ± 3.08%) at 1 month (p < 0.001) and 6 months (p = 0.01) post-hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients develop a notable endothelial dysfunction, which is progressively improved over a 6-month follow-up but remains impaired compared to healthy controls subjects. Whether chronic dysregulation of endothelial function following COVID-19 could be accompanied by a residual risk for cardiovascular and thrombotic events merits further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Prospective Studies , Vasodilation/physiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
8.
Physiol Rep ; 10(24): e15552, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204042

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is known to instigate a range of physiologic perturbations, including vascular dysfunction. However, little work has concluded how long these effects may last, especially among young adults with mild symptoms. To determine potential recovery from acute vascular dysfunction in young adults (8 M/8F, 21 ± 1 yr, 23.5 ± 3.1 kg⋅m-2 ), we longitudinally tracked brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and reactive hyperemia (RH) in the arm and hyperemic response to passive limb movement (PLM) in the leg, with Doppler ultrasound, as well as circulating biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyl), antioxidant capacity (superoxide dismutase), and nitric oxide bioavailability (nitrite) monthly for a 6-month period post-SARS-CoV-2 infection. FMD, as a marker of macrovascular function, improved from month 1 (3.06 ± 1.39%) to month 6 (6.60 ± 2.07%; p < 0.001). FMD/Shear improved from month one (0.10 ± 0.06 AU) to month six (0.18 ± 0.70 AU; p = 0.002). RH in the arm and PLM in the leg, as markers of microvascular function, did not change during the 6 months (p > 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide bioavailability did not change during the 6 months (p > 0.05). Together, these results suggest some improvements in macrovascular, but not microvascular function, over 6 months following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The data also suggest persistent ramifications for cardiovascular health among those recovering from mild illness and among young, otherwise healthy adults with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperemia , Humans , Young Adult , Antioxidants , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Vasodilation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Brachial Artery/physiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Regional Blood Flow/physiology
9.
Heart Lung ; 58: 210-216, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may cause vascular (e.g., endothelial dysfunction, and arterial stiffness), cardiac, autonomic (e.g., heart rate variability [HRV]), and systemic inflammatory response via direct viral attack, hypoxia-induced injury, or immunological dysregulation, especially in those patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, to date, no study has shown prevalence of endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness and heart rate variability assessed by bedside peripheral arterial tonometry in patients with previous CVD hospitalized in the acute phase of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and altered HRV in patients with CVD hospitalized due to COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2020 to February 2021. Included male and female adult patients aged 40 to 60 years with previous CVD and diagnosed with COVID-19. Anthropometric data, comorbidities, and blood tests were analyzed. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and HRV were assessed using peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and the statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Fourteen (51.8%) patients presented endothelial dysfunction (reactive hyperemia index = 1.2 ± 0.3) and enhancement in the high-frequency component of HRV (p < 0.05). There was a high prevalence of endothelial dysfunction, especially in patients with chronic heart failure (10 (71.4%)). Patients with preserved endothelial function showed a high augmentation index normalized to a heart rate of 75 bpm (p < 0.01), suggesting arterial stiffness. CONCLUSION: Patients with CVD hospitalized due to COVID-19 presented endothelial dysfunction assessed using PAT, which could be used as a biomarker for arterial stiffness and altered HRV. The possibility of detecting vascular and autonomic changes during phase II of COVID-19 may help to prevent possible long-term complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Vascular Stiffness , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Heart Rate , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endothelium, Vascular , COVID-19/complications
10.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115975

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in numerous physiological processes, including vascular homeostasis. Reduced NO bioavailability is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction, a prequel to many cardiovascular diseases. Biomarkers of an early NO-dependent endothelial dysfunction obtained from routine venous blood sampling would be of great interest but are currently lacking. The direct measurement of circulating NO remains a challenge due by its high reactivity and short half-life. The current techniques measure stable products from the NO signaling pathway or metabolic end products of NO that do not accurately represent its bioavailability and, therefore, endothelial function per se. In this review, we will concentrate on an original technique of low temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy capable to directly measure the 5-α-coordinated heme nitrosyl-hemoglobin in the T (tense) state (5-α-nitrosyl-hemoglobin or HbNO) obtained from fresh venous human erythrocytes. In humans, HbNO reflects the bioavailability of NO formed in the vasculature from vascular endothelial NOS or exogenous NO donors with minor contribution from erythrocyte NOS. The HbNO signal is directly correlated with the vascular endothelial function and inversely correlated with vascular oxidative stress. Pilot studies support the validity of HbNO measurements both for the detection of endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects and for the monitoring of such dysfunction in patients with known cardiovascular disease. The impact of therapies or the severity of diseases such as COVID-19 infection involving the endothelium could also be monitored and their incumbent risk of complications better predicted through serial measurements of HbNO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nitric Oxide , Humans , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism
13.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 73(2)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002832

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an urgent need to find effective treatment. It is widely known that virus attacks and damages mostly the lungs, but also infect vascular endothelial cells. Therefore, the protection of the endothelium is a promising target in the therapy of COVID-19 and its complications. In this review article, we focused on several groups of drugs with potential to protect the endothelium. The most promising ones are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, drugs targeting angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, heparins, sulodexide, acetylsalicylic acid, statins, tocilizumab, baricitinib, and defibrotide. Although the short period of trials and the lack of data necessitate further research, endothelial protection remains a promising target for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(11): e13859, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this context, vascular impairment in COVID-19 might be associated with clinical manifestations and could refine risk stratification in these patients. METHODS: This systematic review aims to synthesize current evidence on the frequency and the prognostic value of vascular dysfunction during acute and post-recovery COVID-19. After systematically searching the MEDLINE, clinicaltrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from 1 December 2019 until 05 March 2022, we identified 24 eligible studies with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 and a thorough examination of vascular function. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed in 5 and 12 studies in acute and post-recovery phase respectively; pulse wave velocity (PWV) was the marker of interest in three studies in the acute and four studies in the post-recovery phase. RESULTS: All studies except for one in the acute and in the post-recovery phase showed positive association between vascular dysfunction and COVID-19 infection. Endothelial dysfunction in two studies and increased arterial stiffness in three studies were related to inferior survival in COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Overall, a detrimental effect of COVID-19 on markers of endothelial function and arterial stiffness that could persist even for months after the resolution of the infection and provide prognostic value was congruent across published studies. Further research is warranted to elucidate clinical implications of this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Stiffness , Brachial Artery , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Pulse Wave Analysis
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(33): e30001, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001502

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is a highly infectious pathogenic coronavirus, which has appeared toward the end of 2019. The virus seen all over the world caused a pandemic of an acute respiratory disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). It has been shown that the virus that uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors is causing endothelial dysfunction resulting in vascular inflammation and coagulopathy. It is possible to assess endothelial dysfunction by the flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) technique. Our study aimed to demonstrate the effect of endothelial dysfunction assessed using the FMD on prognosis and mortality in the patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of Covid-19. In this prospective observational study, endothelial functions of 94 patients hospitalized due to the Covid-19 in the ward or intensive care unit (ICU) were evaluated by FMD. The relationship among endothelial dysfunction and prognosis of disease, biochemical parameters, lung involvement, and mortality was investigated. We found that the FMD% values of the Covid-19 ICU patients compared to those followed up in the ward (2.66 ± 0.62 vs. 5.23 ± 1.46/P < .001) and those who died due to Covid-19 compared to those who were discharged alive (2.57 ± 0.22 vs. 4.66 ± 1.7/P < .001) were significantly lower. There were moderate negative correlation between FMD% and peak values of D-dimer (r = -0.52, P < .001), troponin (r = -0.45, P < .001), ferritin (r = -0.47, P < .001), lactate dehydrogenase (r = -0.49, P < .001), and white blood cells count (r = -0.23, P = .024). Lower FMD% was associated with higher lung parenchymal involvement (P < .001). The optimum cutoff point of FMD in predicting mortality was found to be 3.135% (sensitivity: 1, selectivity: 0.70). According to our results, lower FMD% was associated with higher lung parenchyma involvement, ICU admission, and mortality rate in Covid-19 patients. The best cutoff point for predicting mortality of FMD was 3.135%. Nevertheless, largescale, multicenter studies are needed to evaluate lower FMD values as a risk factor for mortality in Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Brachial Artery , COVID-19 , Dilatation , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Vasodilation/physiology
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994078

ABSTRACT

The vascular endothelium has several important functions, including hemostasis. The homeostasis of hemostasis is based on a fine balance between procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins and between fibrinolytic and antifibrinolytic ones. Coagulopathies are characterized by a mutation-induced alteration of the function of certain coagulation factors or by a disturbed balance between the mechanisms responsible for regulating coagulation. Homeostatic therapies consist in replacement and nonreplacement treatments or in the administration of antifibrinolytic agents. Rebalancing products reestablish hemostasis by inhibiting natural anticoagulant pathways. These agents include monoclonal antibodies, such as concizumab and marstacimab, which target the tissue factor pathway inhibitor; interfering RNA therapies, such as fitusiran, which targets antithrombin III; and protease inhibitors, such as serpinPC, which targets active protein C. In cases of thrombophilia (deficiency of protein C, protein S, or factor V Leiden), treatment may consist in direct oral anticoagulants, replacement therapy (plasma or recombinant ADAMTS13) in cases of a congenital deficiency of ADAMTS13, or immunomodulators (prednisone) if the thrombophilia is autoimmune. Monoclonal-antibody-based anti-vWF immunotherapy (caplacizumab) is used in the context of severe thrombophilia, regardless of the cause of the disorder. In cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation, the treatment of choice consists in administration of antifibrinolytics, all-trans-retinoic acid, and recombinant soluble human thrombomodulin.


Subject(s)
Factor V/metabolism , Thrombophilia , von Willebrand Factor , Anticoagulants , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Factor VIII/genetics , Factor VIII/therapeutic use , Homeostasis , Humans , Protein C/therapeutic use , Thrombophilia/genetics , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
17.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 22(10): 639-649, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984398

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) is a life-threatening complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms driving this condition are unclear. Evidence supports the concept that CAC involves complex interactions between the innate immune response, the coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, and the vascular endothelium, resulting in a procoagulant condition. Understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition at the genomic, molecular and cellular levels is needed in order to mitigate thrombosis formation in at-risk patients. In this Perspective, we categorize our current understanding of CAC into three main pathological mechanisms: first, vascular endothelial cell dysfunction; second, a hyper-inflammatory immune response; and last, hypercoagulability. Furthermore, we pose key questions and identify research gaps that need to be addressed to better understand CAC, facilitate improved diagnostics and aid in therapeutic development. Finally, we consider the suitability of different animal models to study CAC.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology
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