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1.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 75(1): 7-11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581406

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that COVID-19 not only affects the lungs but beyond that the endothelial system. Recent studies showed that this can lead to microcirculatory impairments and in consequence to functional disorders of all inner organs. The combination of endothelial dysfunction with a generalized inflammatory state and complement elements may together contribute to the overall pro-coagulative state described in COVID-19 patients leading to venular as well as to arteriolar occlusions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
FASEB J ; 36(1): e22052, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550589

ABSTRACT

The glycocalyx surrounds every eukaryotic cell and is a complex mesh of proteins and carbohydrates. It consists of proteoglycans with glycosaminoglycan side chains, which are highly sulfated under normal physiological conditions. The degree of sulfation and the position of the sulfate groups mainly determine biological function. The intact highly sulfated glycocalyx of the epithelium may repel severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through electrostatic forces. However, if the glycocalyx is undersulfated and 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B (3OST-3B) is overexpressed, as is the case during chronic inflammatory conditions, SARS-CoV-2 entry may be facilitated by the glycocalyx. The degree of sulfation and position of the sulfate groups will also affect functions such as immune modulation, the inflammatory response, vascular permeability and tone, coagulation, mediation of sheer stress, and protection against oxidative stress. The rate-limiting factor to sulfation is the availability of inorganic sulfate. Various genetic and epigenetic factors will affect sulfur metabolism and inorganic sulfate availability, such as various dietary factors, and exposure to drugs, environmental toxins, and biotoxins, which will deplete inorganic sulfate. The role that undersulfation plays in the various comorbid conditions that predispose to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is also considered. The undersulfated glycocalyx may not only increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but would also result in a hyperinflammatory response, vascular permeability, and shedding of the glycocalyx components, giving rise to a procoagulant and antifibrinolytic state and eventual multiple organ failure. These symptoms relate to a diagnosis of systemic septic shock seen in almost all COVID-19 deaths. The focus of prevention and treatment protocols proposed is the preservation of epithelial and endothelial glycocalyx integrity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular , Glycocalyx , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Glycocalyx/pathology , Glycocalyx/virology , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Sulfotransferases/metabolism
3.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(11): 73, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Headache is a common symptom of COVID-19 with emerging literature being published on the subject. Although it may seem unspecific, scientific evidence has allowed a better definition of this headache type, revealing relevant associations with other COVID-19 symptoms and prognoses. We therefore sought to highlight the most remarkable findings concerning headache secondary to COVID-19, specifically focusing on epidemiology, characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The real prevalence of headache as a symptom of COVID-19 is still unclear ranging from 10 to 70%. Headache mainly has a tension-type-like phenotype, although 25% of individuals present with migraine-like features that also occur in patients without personal migraine history. This finding suggests that a likely pathophysiological mechanism is the activation of the trigeminovascular system. SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism can occur by trans-synaptic invasion through the olfactory route from the nasal cavity, leading to anosmia which has been associated with headache. SARS-CoV-2 protein has been found not only in olfactory mucosa and bulbs but also in trigeminal branches and the trigeminal ganglion, supporting this hypothesis. However, other mechanisms such as brain vessels inflammation due to SARS-CoV-2 damage to the endothelium or systemic inflammation in the context of cytokine storm cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, headache has been associated with lower COVID-19 mortality. No specific treatment for COVID-19 headache is available at present. Studies show that investigating COVID-19 headache represents an opportunity not only to better understand COVID-19 in general but also to advance in the knowledge of both secondary and primary headaches. Future research is therefore warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Migraine Disorders/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tension-Type Headache/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/virology , Trigeminal Nerve/physiopathology , Trigeminal Nerve/virology , Viral Tropism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512382

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic with a great impact on social and economic activities, as well as public health. In most patients, the symptoms of COVID-19 are a high-grade fever and a dry cough, and spontaneously resolve within ten days. However, in severe cases, COVID-19 leads to atypical bilateral interstitial pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and systemic thromboembolism, resulting in multiple organ failure with high mortality and morbidity. SARS-CoV-2 has immune evasion mechanisms, including inhibition of interferon signaling and suppression of T cell and B cell responses. SARS-CoV-2 infection directly and indirectly causes dysregulated immune responses, platelet hyperactivation, and endothelial dysfunction, which interact with each other and are exacerbated by cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the pathogenic basis of thromboinflammation and endothelial injury in COVID-19. We highlight the distinct contributions of dysregulated immune responses, platelet hyperactivation, and endothelial dysfunction to the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In addition, we discuss potential therapeutic strategies targeting these mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Thrombosis/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
5.
Elife ; 102021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485451

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 infection leads to severe disease associated with cytokine storm, vascular dysfunction, coagulation, and progressive lung damage. It affects several vital organs, seemingly through a pathological effect on endothelial cells. The SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes 29 proteins, whose contribution to the disease manifestations, and especially endothelial complications, is unknown. We cloned and expressed 26 of these proteins in human cells and characterized the endothelial response to overexpression of each, individually. Whereas most proteins induced significant changes in endothelial permeability, nsp2, nsp5_c145a (catalytic dead mutant of nsp5), and nsp7 also reduced CD31, and increased von Willebrand factor expression and IL-6, suggesting endothelial dysfunction. Using propagation-based analysis of a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, we predicted the endothelial proteins affected by the viral proteins that potentially mediate these effects. We further applied our PPI model to identify the role of each SARS-CoV-2 protein in other tissues affected by coronavirus disease (COVID-19). While validating the PPI network model, we found that the tight junction (TJ) proteins cadherin-5, ZO-1, and ß-catenin are affected by nsp2, nsp5_c145a, and nsp7 consistent with the model prediction. Overall, this work identifies the SARS-CoV-2 proteins that might be most detrimental in terms of endothelial dysfunction, thereby shedding light on vascular aspects of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Capillary Permeability , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Protein Interaction Maps , Tight Junction Proteins/metabolism
6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211042940, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484251

ABSTRACT

The world is in a hard battle against COVID-19. Endothelial cells are among the most critical targets of SARS-CoV-2. Dysfunction of endothelium leads to vascular injury following by coagulopathies and thrombotic conditions in the vital organs increasing the risk of life-threatening events. Growing evidences revealed that endothelial dysfunction and consequent thrombotic conditions are associated with the severity of outcomes. It is not yet fully clear that these devastating sequels originate directly from the virus or a side effect of virus-induced cytokine storm. Due to endothelial dysfunction, plasma levels of some biomarkers are changed and relevant clinical manifestations appear as well. Stabilization of endothelial integrity and supporting its function are among the promising therapeutic strategies. Other than respiratory, COVID-19 could be called a systemic vascular disease and this aspect should be scrutinized in more detail in order to reduce related mortality. In the present investigation, the effects of COVID-19 on endothelial function and thrombosis formation are discussed. In this regard, critical players, laboratory findings, clinical manifestation, and suggestive therapies are presented.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/virology , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Signal Transduction , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
7.
Int J Cardiol ; 345: 153-155, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is one of the underlying mechanisms to vascular and cardiac complications in patients with COVID-19. We sought to investigate the systemic vascular endothelial function and its temporal changes in COVID-19 patients from a non-invasive approach with reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). METHODS: This is a prospective, observational, case-control and blinded study. The population was comprised by 3 groups: patients investigated during acute COVID-19 (group 1), patients investigated during past COVID-19 (group 2), and controls 1:1 matched to COVID-19 patients by demographics and cardiovascular risk factors (group 3). The natural logarithmic scaled reactive hyperemia index (LnRHI), a measure of endothelium-mediated dilation of peripheral arteries, was obtained in all the participants and compared between study groups. RESULTS: 144 participants were enrolled (72 COVID-19 patients and 72 matched controls). Median time from COVID-19 symptoms to PAT assessment was 9.5 and 101.5 days in groups 1 and 2, respectively. LnRHI was significantly lower in group 2 compared to both group 1 and controls (0.53 ± 0.23 group 2 vs. 0.72 ± 0.26 group 1, p = 0.0043; and 0.79 ± 0.23 in group 3, p < 0.0001). In addition, within group 1, it was observed a markedly decrease in LnRHI from acute COVID-19 to post infection stage (0.73 ± 0.23 vs. 0.42 ± 0.26, p = 0.0042). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a deleterious effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on systemic vascular endothelial function. These findings open new venues to investigate the clinical implication and prognostic role of vascular endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and post-COVID syndrome using non-invasive techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperemia , Vascular Diseases , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Manometry , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory and thrombotic state, leading to devastating complications with increased morbidity and mortality rates. SUMMARY: In this review article, we present the available evidence regarding the impact of inflammation on platelet activation in atherosclerosis. Key messages: In the context of a dysfunctional vascular endothelium, structural alterations by means of endothelial glycocalyx thinning or functional modifications through impaired NO bioavailability and increased levels of von Willebrand factor result in platelet activation. Moreover, neutrophil-derived mediators, as well as neutrophil extracellular traps formation, have been implicated in the process of platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregation. The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines is also critical since their receptors are also situated in platelets while TNF-α has also been found to induce inflammatory, metabolic, and bone marrow changes. Additionally, important progress has been made towards novel concepts of the interaction between inflammation and platelet activation, such as the toll-like receptors, myeloperoxidase, and platelet factor-4. The accumulating evidence is especially important in the era of the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic, characterized by an excessive inflammatory burden leading to thrombotic complications, partially mediated by platelet activation. Lastly, recent advances in anti-inflammatory therapies point towards an anti-thrombotic effect secondary to diminished platelet activation.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
9.
Med Hypotheses ; 157: 110705, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458628

ABSTRACT

Sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 independently of other factors. There is enough statistics to show that exercise prevents severe forms of COVID-19, but current recommendations do not set an upper limit for exercise intensity. The hypothesis presented in the paper states that intense exercise, through blood hypoxia, increases the expression of transmembrane angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (tACE2) in the vascular endothelium, increasing the risk of developing serious forms of disease, especially in the untrained. On the other hand, moderate-intensity exercise increases the blood concentration of soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which has a protective role for SARS-CoV-2 infection and may prevent complications. The importance of this hypothesis consists in the revision of COVID-19 prophylaxis programs through physical exercises, with the possibility of administration of antioxidants to speed up the adaptation of vascular endothelial cells to exertion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Exercise , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Pharmacol Rev ; 73(3): 924-967, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447969

ABSTRACT

The endothelium, a cellular monolayer lining the blood vessel wall, plays a critical role in maintaining multiorgan health and homeostasis. Endothelial functions in health include dynamic maintenance of vascular tone, angiogenesis, hemostasis, and the provision of an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic interface. Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium presents with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, heightened oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, leukocyte adhesion and hyperpermeability, and endothelial cell senescence. Recent studies have implicated altered endothelial cell metabolism and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition as new features of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as a hallmark of many diverse human panvascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. Endothelial dysfunction has also been implicated in severe coronavirus disease 2019. Many clinically used pharmacotherapies, ranging from traditional lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, and antidiabetic drugs to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors and interleukin 1ß monoclonal antibodies, counter endothelial dysfunction as part of their clinical benefits. The regulation of endothelial dysfunction by noncoding RNAs has provided novel insights into these newly described regulators of endothelial dysfunction, thus yielding potential new therapeutic approaches. Altogether, a better understanding of the versatile (dys)functions of endothelial cells will not only deepen our comprehension of human diseases but also accelerate effective therapeutic drug discovery. In this review, we provide a timely overview of the multiple layers of endothelial function, describe the consequences and mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction, and identify pathways to effective targeted therapies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The endothelium was initially considered to be a semipermeable biomechanical barrier and gatekeeper of vascular health. In recent decades, a deepened understanding of the biological functions of the endothelium has led to its recognition as a ubiquitous tissue regulating vascular tone, cell behavior, innate immunity, cell-cell interactions, and cell metabolism in the vessel wall. Endothelial dysfunction is the hallmark of cardiovascular, metabolic, and emerging infectious diseases. Pharmacotherapies targeting endothelial dysfunction have potential for treatment of cardiovascular and many other diseases.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , Endothelium, Vascular , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Agents/classification , Cardiovascular Agents/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Drug Discovery , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/trends , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 44(10): 1371-1379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1445700

ABSTRACT

The vascular permeability of the endothelium is finely controlled by vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell-cell junctions. In the majority of normal adult tissues, endothelial cells in blood vessels maintain vascular permeability at a relatively low level, while in response to inflammation, they limit vascular barrier function to induce plasma leakage and extravasation of immune cells as a defense mechanism. Thus, the dynamic but also simultaneously tight regulation of vascular permeability by endothelial cells is responsible for maintaining homeostasis and, as such, impairments of its underlying mechanisms result in hyperpermeability, leading to the development and progression of various diseases including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerging infectious disease. Recently, increasing numbers of studies have been unveiling the important role of Rap1, a small guanosine 5'-triphosphatase (GTPase) belonging to the Ras superfamily, in the regulation of vascular permeability. Rap1 enhances VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell-cell junctions to potentiate vascular barrier functions via dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Importantly, Rap1 signaling activation reportedly improves vascular barrier function in animal models of various diseases associated with vascular hyperpermeability, suggesting that Rap1 might be an ideal target for drugs intended to prevent vascular barrier dysfunction. Here, we describe recent progress in understanding the mechanisms by which Rap1 potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell-cell adhesions and vascular barrier function. We also discuss how alterations in Rap1 signaling are related to vascular barrier dysfunction in diseases such as acute pulmonary injury and malignancies. In addition, we examine the possibility of Rap1 signaling as a target of drugs for treating diseases associated with vascular hyperpermeability.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/metabolism , Cadherins/metabolism , Capillary Permeability , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Intercellular Junctions/metabolism , rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Humans
12.
Dis Model Mech ; 14(11)2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430507

ABSTRACT

Vascular permeability triggered by inflammation or ischemia promotes edema, exacerbates disease progression and impairs tissue recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent inducer of vascular permeability. VEGF plays an integral role in regulating vascular barrier function physiologically and in pathologies, including cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, retinal conditions and COVID-19-associated pulmonary edema, sepsis and acute lung injury. Understanding temporal molecular regulation of VEGF-induced vascular permeability will facilitate developing therapeutics to inhibit vascular permeability, while preserving tissue-restorative angiogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that VEGF signals through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) to promote vascular permeability. We show that genetic STAT3 ablation reduces vascular permeability in STAT3-deficient endothelium of mice and VEGF-inducible zebrafish crossed with CRISPR/Cas9-generated Stat3 knockout zebrafish. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression is transcriptionally regulated by STAT3, and VEGF-dependent STAT3 activation is regulated by JAK2. Pyrimethamine, an FDA-approved antimicrobial agent that inhibits STAT3-dependent transcription, substantially reduces VEGF-induced vascular permeability in zebrafish, mouse and human endothelium. Collectively, our findings suggest that VEGF/VEGFR-2/JAK2/STAT3 signaling regulates vascular barrier integrity, and inhibition of STAT3-dependent activity reduces VEGF-induced vascular permeability. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.


Subject(s)
Capillary Permeability , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Phosphorylation , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Zebrafish
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409704

ABSTRACT

Autotaxin (ATX; ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D catalyzing the extracellular production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a pleiotropic signaling phospholipid. Genetic and pharmacologic studies have previously established a pathologic role for ATX and LPA signaling in pulmonary injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. Here, increased ENPP2 mRNA levels were detected in immune cells from nasopharyngeal swab samples of COVID-19 patients, and increased ATX serum levels were found in severe COVID-19 patients. ATX serum levels correlated with the corresponding increased serum levels of IL-6 and endothelial damage biomarkers, suggesting an interplay of the ATX/LPA axis with hyperinflammation and the associated vascular dysfunction in COVID-19. Accordingly, dexamethasone (Dex) treatment of mechanically ventilated patients reduced ATX levels, as shown in two independent cohorts, indicating that the therapeutic benefits of Dex include the suppression of ATX. Moreover, large scale analysis of multiple single cell RNA sequencing datasets revealed the expression landscape of ENPP2 in COVID-19 and further suggested a role for ATX in the homeostasis of dendritic cells, which exhibit both numerical and functional deficits in COVID-19. Therefore, ATX has likely a multifunctional role in COVID-19 pathogenesis, suggesting that its pharmacological targeting might represent an additional therapeutic option, both during and after hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Datasets as Topic , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis
14.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408458

ABSTRACT

Systemic vascular damage with micro/macro-thrombosis is a typical feature of severe COVID-19. However, the pathogenesis of this damage and its predictive biomarkers remain poorly defined. For this reason, in this study, serum monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-2 and P- and E-selectin levels were analyzed in 204 patients with COVID-19. Serum MCP-2 and P-selectin were significantly higher in hospitalized patients compared with asymptomatic patients. Furthermore, MCP-2 increased with the WHO stage in hospitalized patients. After 1 week of hospitalization, MCP-2 levels were significantly reduced, while P-selectin increased in patients in WHO stage 3 and decreased in patients in WHO stages 5-7. Serum E-selectin was not significantly different between asymptomatic and hospitalized patients. The lower MCP-2 levels after 1 week suggest that endothelial damage triggered by monocytes occurs early in COVID-19 disease progression. MCP-2 may also predict COVID-19 severity. The increase in P-selectin levels, which further increased in mild patients and reduced in severe patients after 1 week of hospitalization, suggests that the inactive form of the protein produced by the cleavage of the active protein from the platelet membrane is present. This may be used to identify a subset of patients that would benefit from targeted therapies. The unchanged levels of E-selectin in these patients suggest that endothelial damage is less relevant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemokine CCL8/blood , E-Selectin/blood , Endothelium, Vascular , P-Selectin/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/pathology
16.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 32(11): 875-889, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401891

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 encodes the structural proteins spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N). The receptor-binding domain on the surface subunit S1 is responsible for attachment of the virus to angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is highly expressed in host cells. The cytokine storm observed in patients with COVID-19 contributes to the endothelial vascular dysfunction, which can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure, alteration in iron homeostasis, and death. Growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), which belongs to the transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) superfamily of proteins, has a pivotal role in the development and progression of diseases because of its role as a metabolic regulator. In COVID-19, GDF15 activity increases in response to tissue damage. GDF15 appears to be a strong predictor of poor outcomes in patients critically ill with COVID-19 and acts as an 'inflammation-induced central mediator of tissue tolerance' via its metabolic properties. In this review, we examine the potential properties of GDF15 as an emerging modulator of immunity in COVID-19 in association with iron metabolism. The virus life cycle in host cell provides potential targets for drug therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Growth Differentiation Factor 15/immunology , Iron/metabolism , Apoptosis/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptors/immunology , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptors/metabolism , Growth Differentiation Factor 15/metabolism , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Prognosis , Pyroptosis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 719, 2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has affected almost every country in the world, especially in terms of health system capacity and economic burden. People from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) often face interaction between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Role of HIV infection and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in altered cardiovascular risk is questionable and there is still need to further carry out research in this field. However, thus far it is unclear, what impact the COVID-19 co-infection in people living with HIV (PLHIV), with or without therapy will have. The ENDOCOVID project aims to investigate whether and how HIV-infection in COVID-19 patients modulates the time course of the disease, alters cardiovascular risk, and changes vascular endothelial function and coagulation parameters/ thrombosis risk. METHODS: A total of 1026 patients will be included into this study. Cardiovascular research PLHIV with (n = 114 in each of the three recruiting centers) - or without - ART (n = 114 in each of the three recruiting centers) with COVID-19 and HIV-negative with COVID-19 (n = 114 in each of the three recruiting centers) will be carried out via clinical and biochemical measurements for cardiovascular risk factors and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Vascular and endothelial function will be measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) assessments, and retinal blood vessel analyses, along with vascular endothelial biomarkers and cogualation markers. The correlation between HIV-infection in COVID-19 PLHIV with or without ART and its role in enhancement of cardiovascular risk and endothelial dysfunction will be assessed at admission, weekly, at discharge and, 4 weeks post-discharge (if possible). IMPACT OF PROJECT: The ENDOCOVID project aims to evaluate in the long-term the cardiovascular risk and vascular endothelial function in PLHIV thus revealing an important transitional cardiovascular phenotype in COVID-19. The study was registered under clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04709302).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , HIV Infections , Thrombosis , Aftercare , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Endothelium, Vascular , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Patient Discharge , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 72: 209-215, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both arterial and venous thrombotic events of the extremities occur in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, but the etiology of these events remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate pathology specimens of COVID-19-positive patients postamputation, who were found to have Rutherford 3 acute limb ischemia requiring amputation. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all vascular surgery emergency room and inpatient consultations in patients who presented to the Mount Sinai Health System from March 26, 2020, to May 10, 2020. Pathology specimens were examined using hematoxylin and eosin stain. The specimens were assessed for the following: inflammatory cells associated with endothelium/apoptotic bodies, mononuclear cells, small vessel congestion, and lymphocytic endotheliitis. Of the specimens evaluated, 2 patients with a known history of peripheral vascular disease were excluded. RESULTS: Inflammatory cells associated with endothelium/apoptotic bodies were seen in all 4 patients and in 4 of 5 specimens. Mononuclear cells were found in 2 of 4 patients. Small vessel congestion was seen in all patients. Lymphocytic endotheliitis was seen in 1 of 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows endotheliitis in amputation specimens of four patients with COVID-19 disease and Rutherford Class 3 acute limb ischemia. The findings in these patients is more likely an infectious angiitis because of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amputation , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Lower Extremity/surgery , Thrombosis/surgery , Thrombosis/virology , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(7): 6, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388618

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in human retina. Methods: Human post-mortem eyes from 13 non-diabetic control cases and 11 diabetic retinopathy cases were analyzed for the expression of ACE2. To compare the vascular ACE2 expression between different organs that involve in diabetes, the expression of ACE2 was investigated in renal specimens from nondiabetic and diabetic nephropathy patients. Expression of TMPRSS2, a cell-surface protease that facilitates SARS-CoV-2 entry, was also investigated in human nondiabetic retinas. Primary human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and primary human retinal pericytes (HRPCs) were further used to confirm the vascular ACE2 expression in human retina. Results: We found that ACE2 was expressed in multiple nonvascular neuroretinal cells, including the retinal ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, and photoreceptor outer segments in both nondiabetic and diabetic retinopathy specimens. Strikingly, we observed significantly more ACE2 positive vessels in the diabetic retinopathy specimens. By contrast, in another end-stage organ affected by diabetes, the kidney, ACE2 in nondiabetic and diabetic nephropathy showed apical expression of ACE2 tubular epithelial cells, but no endothelial expression in glomerular or peritubular capillaries. Western blot analysis of protein lysates from HRECs and HRPCs confirmed expression of ACE2. TMPRSS2 expression was present in multiple retinal neuronal cells, vascular and perivascular cells, and Müller glia. Conclusions: Together, these results indicate that retina expresses ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Moreover, there are increased vascular ACE2 expression in diabetic retinopathy retinas.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Diabetic Retinopathy/enzymology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Retina/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Binding Sites , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Diabetic Nephropathies/enzymology , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/virology , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/enzymology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Pericytes/enzymology , Pericytes/virology , Retinal Vessels/enzymology , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Retinal Vessels/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
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