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1.
Microvasc Res ; 140: 104310, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586954

ABSTRACT

Evidence suggests severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infection is characterised by pulmonary and systemic microvasculature dysfunction, specifically, acute endothelial injury, hypercoagulation and increased capillary permeability. Diabetes, which is also characterised by vascular injury in itself, confers an increased risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. It has been suggested that pre-existing endothelial dysfunction and microvascular disease in diabetes will exacerbate the vascular insults associated with COVID-19 and thus lead to increased severity of COVID-19 infection. In this article, we evaluate the current evidence exploring the impact of microvascular complications, in the form of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, in individuals with COVID-19 and diabetes. Future insights gained from exploring the microvascular injury patterns and clinical outcomes may come to influence care delivery algorithms for either of these conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Diabetic Angiopathies/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Microcirculation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology , Albuminuria/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Capillary Permeability , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetic Angiopathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Diabetic Neuropathies/complications , Diabetic Neuropathies/physiopathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/physiopathology , Pulmonary Circulation , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
2.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408458

ABSTRACT

Systemic vascular damage with micro/macro-thrombosis is a typical feature of severe COVID-19. However, the pathogenesis of this damage and its predictive biomarkers remain poorly defined. For this reason, in this study, serum monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-2 and P- and E-selectin levels were analyzed in 204 patients with COVID-19. Serum MCP-2 and P-selectin were significantly higher in hospitalized patients compared with asymptomatic patients. Furthermore, MCP-2 increased with the WHO stage in hospitalized patients. After 1 week of hospitalization, MCP-2 levels were significantly reduced, while P-selectin increased in patients in WHO stage 3 and decreased in patients in WHO stages 5-7. Serum E-selectin was not significantly different between asymptomatic and hospitalized patients. The lower MCP-2 levels after 1 week suggest that endothelial damage triggered by monocytes occurs early in COVID-19 disease progression. MCP-2 may also predict COVID-19 severity. The increase in P-selectin levels, which further increased in mild patients and reduced in severe patients after 1 week of hospitalization, suggests that the inactive form of the protein produced by the cleavage of the active protein from the platelet membrane is present. This may be used to identify a subset of patients that would benefit from targeted therapies. The unchanged levels of E-selectin in these patients suggest that endothelial damage is less relevant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemokine CCL8/blood , E-Selectin/blood , Endothelium, Vascular , P-Selectin/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/pathology
3.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43 Suppl 1: 29-35, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319315

ABSTRACT

Vascular endothelial injury is a hallmark of acute infection at both the microvascular and macrovascular levels. The hallmark of SARS-CoV-2 infection is the current COVID-19 clinical sequelae of the pathophysiologic responses of hypercoagulability and thromboinflammation associated with acute infection. The acute lung injury that initially occurs in COVID-19 results from vascular and endothelial damage from viral injury and pathophysiologic responses that produce the COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Clinicians should continue to focus on the vascular endothelial injury that occurs and evaluate potential therapeutic interventions that may benefit those with new infections during the current pandemic as they may also be of benefit for future pathogens that generate similar thromboinflammatory responses. The current Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV) studies are important projects that will further define our management strategies. At the time of writing this report, two mRNA vaccines are now being distributed and will hopefully have a major impact on slowing the global spread and subsequent thromboinflammatory injury we see clinically in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology , Vasculitis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , Fibrinolysis , Forecasting , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
4.
Am J Pathol ; 191(8): 1374-1384, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240148

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are critically ill develop vascular complications characterized by thrombosis of small, medium, and large vessels. Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the COVID-19 vasculopathy. Although initial reports suggested that endothelial injury was caused directly by the virus, recent studies indicate that endothelial cells do not express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the receptor that SARS-CoV-2 uses to gain entry into cells, or express it at low levels and are resistant to the infection. These new findings, together with the observation that COVID-19 triggers a cytokine storm capable of injuring the endothelium and disrupting its antithrombogenic properties, favor an indirect mechanism of endothelial injury mediated locally by an augmented inflammatory reaction to infected nonendothelial cells, such as the bronchial and alveolar epithelium, and systemically by the excessive immune response to infection. Herein we review the vascular pathology of COVID-19 and critically discuss the potential mechanisms of endothelial injury in this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Humans , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/therapy
5.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110455, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969218

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection generally begins in the respiratory tract where it can cause bilateral pneumonia. The disease can evolve into acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure, due to viral spread in the blood and an excessive inflammatory reaction including cytokine storm. Antiviral and anti-cytokine drugs have proven to be poorly or in-effective in stopping disease progression, and mortality or serious chronic damage is common in severely ill cases. The low efficacy of antiviral drugs is probably due to late administration, when the virus has triggered the inflammatory reaction and is no longer the main protagonist. The relatively poor efficacy of anti-cytokine drugs is explained by the fact that they act on one or a few of the dozens of cytokines involved, and because other mediators of inflammation - reactive oxygen and nitrogen species - are not targeted. When produced in excess, reactive species cause extensive cell and tissue damage. The only drug known to inhibit the excessive production of reactive species and cytokines is methylene blue, a low-cost dye with antiseptic properties used effectively to treat malaria, urinary tract infections, septic shock, and methaemoglobinaemia. We propose testing methylene blue to contrast Covid-related acute respiratory distress syndrome, but particularly suggest testing it early in Covid infections to prevent the hyper-inflammatory reaction responsible for the serious complications of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Models, Biological , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Pandemics , Reactive Oxygen Species/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Failure
6.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110371, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912499

ABSTRACT

The universal phenomenon of blood clotting is well known to be protective in external cellular/ tissue injury. However, the emergence of unusual thrombotic presentations in COVID-19 patients is the real concern. Interaction of the spike glycoprotein with ACE2 receptor present in the host cell surface mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 infection. New clinical findings of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis are coming out every day, and one such mystery is the formation of mysterious blood clots in the various tissues and organs of COVID-19 patients, which needs critical attention. To address this issue, we hypothesis that, high ACE2 expression in the endothelium of blood vessels facilitates the high-affinity binding of SARS-CoV-2 using spike protein, causing infection and internal injury inside the vascular wall of blood vessels. This viral associated injury may directly/indirectly initiate activation of coagulation and clotting cascades forming internal blood clots. However, the presence of these clots is undesirable as they are responsible for thrombosis and need to be treated with anti-thrombotic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Models, Cardiovascular , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Thrombosis/virology
7.
Microcirculation ; 28(3): e12654, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713969

ABSTRACT

The potential for a rapid increase in severity is among the most frightening aspects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Evidence increasingly suggests that the symptoms of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) differ from those of classic ARDS. Recently, the severity of COVID-19 has been attributed to a systemic, thrombotic, and inflammatory disease that damages not only the lungs but also multiple organs, including the heart, brain, toes, and liver. This systemic form of COVID-19 may be due to inflammation and vascular endothelial cell injury. The vascular endothelial glycocalyx comprises glycoproteins and plays an important role in systemic capillary homeostasis maintenance. The glycocalyx covers the entire vascular endothelium, and its thickness varies among organs. The endothelial glycocalyx is very thin in the pulmonary capillaries, where it is affected by gaseous exchange with the alveoli and the low intravascular pressure in the pulmonary circulation. Despite the clearly important roles of the glycocalyx in vascular endothelial injury, thrombosis, vasculitis, and inflammation, the link between this structure and vascular endothelial cell dysfunction in COVID-19 remains unclear. In this prospective review, we summarize the importance of the glycocalyx and its potential as a therapeutic target in cases of systemic COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Glycocalyx/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Glycocalyx/pathology , Humans , Organ Specificity
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