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2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264178, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731596

ABSTRACT

Renalase is a secreted flavoprotein with anti-inflammatory and pro-cell survival properties. COVID-19 is associated with disordered inflammation and apoptosis. We hypothesized that blood renalase levels would correspond to severe COVID-19 and survival. In this retrospective cohort study, clinicopathologic data and blood samples were collected from hospitalized COVID-19 subjects (March-June 2020) at a single institution tertiary hospital. Plasma renalase and cytokine levels were measured and clinical data abstracted from health records. Of 3,450 COVID-19 patients, 458 patients were enrolled. Patients were excluded if <18 years, or opted out of research. The primary composite outcome was intubation or death within 180 days. Secondary outcomes included mortality alone, intensive care unit admission, use of vasopressors, and CPR. Enrolled patients had mean age 64 years (SD±17), were 53% males, and 48% non-whites. Mean renalase levels was 14,108·4 ng/ml (SD±8,137 ng/ml). Compared to patients with high renalase, those with low renalase (< 8,922 ng/ml) were more likely to present with hypoxia, increased ICU admission (54% vs. 33%, p < 0.001), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (10% vs. 4%, p = 0·023). In Cox proportional hazard model, every 1000 ng/ml increase in renalase decreased the risk of death or intubation by 5% (HR 0·95; 95% CI 0·91-0·98) and increased survival alone by 6% (HR 0·95; CI 0·90-0·98), after adjusting for socio-demographics, initial disease severity, comorbidities and inflammation. Patients with high renalase-low IL-6 levels had the best survival compared to other groups (p = 0·04). Renalase was independently associated with reduced intubation and mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Future studies should assess the pathophysiological relevance of renalase in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Monoamine Oxidase/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Endothelium/metabolism , Endothelium/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
3.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 277, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although COVID-19 is a respiratory disease, all organs can be affected including the brain. To date, specific investigations of brain injury markers (BIM) and endothelial injury markers (EIM) have been limited. Additionally, a male bias in disease severity and mortality after COVID-19 is evident globally. Sex differences in the immune response to COVID-19 may mediate this disparity. We investigated BIM, EIM and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine (CC) levels after COVID-19 and in across sexes. METHODS: Plasma samples from 57 subjects at < 48 h of COVID-19 hospitalization, and 20 matched controls were interrogated for the levels of six BIMs-including GFAP, S100B, Syndecan-1, UCHLI, MAP2 and NSE, two EIMs-including sICAM1 and sVCAM1. Additionally, several cytokines/chemokines were analyzed by multiplex. Statistical and bioinformatics methods were used to measure differences in the marker profiles across (a) COVID-19 vs. controls and (b) men vs. women. RESULTS: Three BIMs: MAP2, NSE and S100B, two EIMs: sICAM1 and sVCAM1 and seven CCs: GRO IL10, sCD40L, IP10, IL1Ra, MCP1 and TNFα were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in the COVID-19 cohort compared to controls. Bioinformatics analysis reveal a stronger positive association between BIM/CC/EIMs in the COVID-19 cohort. Analysis across sex revealed that several BIMs and CCs including NSE, IL10, IL15 and IL8 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in men compared to women. Men also expressed a more robust BIM/ EIM/CC association profile compared to women. CONCLUSION: The acute elevation of BIMs, CCs, and EIMs and the robust associations among them at COVID-19 hospitalization are suggestive of brain and endothelial injury. Higher BIM and inflammatory markers in men additionally suggest that men are more susceptible to the risk compared to women.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/complications , Brain Injuries/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/blood , Endothelium/pathology , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Brain Injuries/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502441

ABSTRACT

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic due to the spread of COVID-19 from Wuhan, China, causing high mortality rates all over the world. The related disease, which mainly affects the lungs, is responsible for the onset of Diffuse Alveolar Damage (DAD) and a hypercoagulability state, frequently leading to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and multiorgan failure, particularly in old and severe-critically ill patients. In order to find effective therapeutic strategies, many efforts have been made aiming to shed light on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease. Moreover, following the late advent of vaccination campaigns, the need for the comprehension of the pathophysiology of the fatal, although rare, thrombotic adverse events has become mandatory as well. The achievement of such purposes needs a multidisciplinary approach, depending on a correct interpretation of clinical, biochemical, biomolecular, and forensic findings. In this scenario, autopsies have helped in defining, on both gross and histologic examinations, the main changes to which the affected organs undergo and the role in assessing whether a patient is dead "from" or "with" COVID-19, not to mention whether the existence of a causal link exists between vaccination and thrombotic adverse events. In the present work, we explored the role of postmortem immunohistochemistry, and the increasingly used ancillary technique, in helping to understand the mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of both COVID-19 disease and COVID-19 vaccine-related adverse and rare effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/pathology , Thrombosis/etiology , Autopsy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelium/metabolism , Endothelium/pathology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(11): 1328-1340, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485410

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: SARS-CoV-2 can undergo maternal-fetal transmission, heightening interest in the placental pathology findings from this infection. Transplacental SARS-CoV-2 transmission is typically accompanied by chronic histiocytic intervillositis together with necrosis and positivity of syncytiotrophoblast for SARS-CoV-2. Hofbauer cells are placental macrophages that have been involved in viral diseases, including HIV and Zika virus, but their involvement in SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. OBJECTIVE.­: To determine whether SARS-CoV-2 can extend beyond the syncytiotrophoblast to enter Hofbauer cells, endothelium, and other villous stromal cells in infected placentas of liveborn and stillborn infants. DESIGN.­: Case-based retrospective analysis by 29 perinatal and molecular pathology specialists of placental findings from a preselected cohort of 22 SARS-CoV-2-infected placentas delivered to pregnant women testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 from 7 countries. Molecular pathology methods were used to investigate viral involvement of Hofbauer cells, villous capillary endothelium, syncytiotrophoblast, and other fetal-derived cells. RESULTS.­: Chronic histiocytic intervillositis and trophoblast necrosis were present in all 22 placentas (100%). SARS-CoV-2 was identified in Hofbauer cells from 4 of 22 placentas (18.2%). Villous capillary endothelial staining was positive in 2 of 22 cases (9.1%), both of which also had viral positivity in Hofbauer cells. Syncytiotrophoblast staining occurred in 21 of 22 placentas (95.5%). Hofbauer cell hyperplasia was present in 3 of 22 placentas (13.6%). In the 7 cases having documented transplacental infection of the fetus, 2 (28.6%) occurred in placentas with Hofbauer cell staining positive for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS.­: SARS-CoV-2 can extend beyond the trophoblast into the villous stroma, involving Hofbauer cells and capillary endothelial cells, in a small number of infected placentas. Most cases of SARS-CoV-2 transplacental fetal infection occur without Hofbauer cell involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Macrophages/virology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/virology , Female , Humans , Hyperplasia/pathology , Hyperplasia/virology , Infant, Newborn , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/physiology , Male , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Stillbirth , Trophoblasts/pathology , Trophoblasts/virology
6.
J Cutan Pathol ; 49(1): 17-28, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The abundance of publications of COVID-19-induced chilblains has resulted in a confusing situation. METHODS: This is a prospective single-institution study from 15 March to 13 May 2020. Thirty-two patients received PCR nasopharyngeal swabs. Of these, 28 patients had a thoracic CT-scan, 31 patients had blood and urine examinations, 24 patients had skin biopsies including immunohistochemical and direct immunofluorescence studies, and four patients had electron microscopy. RESULTS: COVID-19-induced chilblains are clinically and histopathologically identical to chilblains from other causes. Although intravascular thrombi are sometimes observed, no patient had a systemic coagulopathy or severe clinical course. The exhaustive clinical, radiological, and laboratory work-up in this study ruled-out other primary and secondary causes. Electron microscopy revealed rare, probable viral particles whose core and spikes measured from 120 to 133 nm within endothelium and eccrine glands in two cases. CONCLUSION: This study provides further clinicopathologic evidence of COVID-19-related chilblains. Negative PCR and antibody tests do not rule-out infection. Chilblains represent a good prognosis, occurring later in the disease course. No systemic coagulopathy was identified in any patient. Patients presenting with acral lesions should be isolated, and chilblains should be distinguished from thrombotic lesions (livedo racemosa, retiform purpura, or ischemic acral necrosis).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chilblains/etiology , Chilblains/pathology , Toes/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/virology , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Eccrine Glands/pathology , Eccrine Glands/ultrastructure , Eccrine Glands/virology , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/ultrastructure , Endothelium/virology , Female , Humans , Livedo Reticularis/pathology , Male , Microscopy, Electron/methods , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Purpura/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Skin/pathology , Toes/virology , Young Adult
8.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(10): 3815-3825, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263168

ABSTRACT

Chagas and COVID-19 are diseases caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and SARS-CoV-2, respectively. These diseases present very different etiological agents despite showing similarities such as susceptibility/risk factors, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), recognition of glycosaminoglycans, inflammation, vascular leakage hypercoagulability, microthrombosis, and endotheliopathy; all of which suggest, in part, treatments with similar principles. Here, both diseases are compared, focusing mainly on the characteristics related to dysregulated immunothrombosis. Given the in-depth investigation of molecules and mechanisms related to microthrombosis in COVID-19, it is necessary to reconsider a prompt treatment of Chagas disease with oral anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Chagas Disease/pathology , Heparitin Sulfate/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/pathology , Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Complement Activation/immunology , Endothelium/pathology , Humans , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/immunology , Platelet Activation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology
9.
Immunity ; 54(5): 1083-1095.e7, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179682

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a life-threatening post-infectious complication occurring unpredictably weeks after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. We profiled MIS-C, adult COVID-19, and healthy pediatric and adult individuals using single-cell RNA sequencing, flow cytometry, antigen receptor repertoire analysis, and unbiased serum proteomics, which collectively identified a signature in MIS-C patients that correlated with disease severity. Despite having no evidence of active infection, MIS-C patients had elevated S100A-family alarmins and decreased antigen presentation signatures, indicative of myeloid dysfunction. MIS-C patients showed elevated expression of cytotoxicity genes in NK and CD8+ T cells and expansion of specific IgG-expressing plasmablasts. Clinically severe MIS-C patients displayed skewed memory T cell TCR repertoires and autoimmunity characterized by endothelium-reactive IgG. The alarmin, cytotoxicity, TCR repertoire, and plasmablast signatures we defined have potential for application in the clinic to better diagnose and potentially predict disease severity early in the course of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adolescent , Alarmins/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/genetics , Endothelium/immunology , Endothelium/pathology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Plasma Cells/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094233

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women are diverse, and little is known of the impact of the disease on placental physiology. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been detected in the human placenta, and its binding receptor ACE2 is present in a variety of placental cells, including endothelium. Here, we analyze the impact of COVID-19 in placental endothelium, studying by immunofluorescence the expression of von Willebrand factor (vWf), claudin-5, and vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin in the decidua and chorionic villi of placentas from women with mild and severe COVID-19 in comparison to healthy controls. Our results indicate that: (1) vWf expression increases in the endothelium of decidua and chorionic villi of placentas derived from women with COVID-19, being higher in severe cases; (2) Claudin-5 and VE-cadherin expression decrease in the decidua and chorionic villus of placentas from women with severe COVID-19 but not in those with mild disease. Placental histological analysis reveals thrombosis, infarcts, and vascular wall remodeling, confirming the deleterious effect of COVID-19 on placental vessels. Together, these results suggest that placentas from women with COVID-19 have a condition of leaky endothelium and thrombosis, which is sensitive to disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta/blood supply , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Antigens, CD/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cadherins/analysis , Claudin-5/analysis , Endothelium/blood supply , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Microvessels/pathology , Microvessels/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , Young Adult , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
13.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045367

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses such as influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a constant threat to public health given their ability to cause global pandemics. Infection with either virus may lead to aberrant host responses, such as excessive immune cell recruitment and activation, dysregulated inflammation, and coagulopathy. These may contribute to the development of lung edema and respiratory failure. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that lung endothelial cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of both viruses. In this review, we discuss how infection with influenza or SARS-CoV-2 may induce endothelial dysfunction. We compare the effects of infection of these two viruses, how they may contribute to pathogenesis, and discuss the implications for potential treatment. Understanding the differences between the effects of these two viruses on lung endothelial cells will provide important insight to guide the development of therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Endothelium/virology , Influenzavirus A/pathogenicity , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung Injury/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelium/metabolism , Endothelium/pathology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Humans , Intercellular Junctions/pathology , Lung Injury/therapy
14.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 64(4): 407-415, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922610

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a new strain of a Coronaviridae virus that presents 79% genetic similarity to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, has been recently recognized as the cause of a global pandemic by the World Health Organization, implying a major threat to world public health. SARS-CoV-2 infects host human cells by binding through the viral spike proteins to the ACE-2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor, fuses with the cell membrane, enters, and starts its replication process to multiply its viral load. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was initially considered a respiratory infection that could cause pneumonia. However, in severe cases, it extends beyond the respiratory system and becomes a multiorgan disease. This transition from localized respiratory infection to multiorgan disease is due to two main complications of COVID-19. On the one hand, it is due to the so-called cytokine storm: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction of the immune system in which defensive molecules become aggressive for the body itself. On the other hand, it is due to the formation of a large number of thrombi that can cause myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism. The pulmonary endothelium actively participates in these two processes, becoming the last barrier before the virus spreads throughout the body. In this review, we examine the role of the pulmonary endothelium in response to COVID-19, the existence of potential biomarkers, and the development of novel therapies to restore vascular homeostasis and to protect and/or treat coagulation, thrombosis patients. In addition, we review the thrombotic complications recently observed in patients with COVID-19 and its potential threatening sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Endothelium/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/virology , Humans , Membrane Fusion , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/therapy , Thrombosis/virology
15.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(1): 73-80, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic multi-organ viral illness. Previous studies have found that many patients had a procoagulant state and/or severe hypoxemia with relatively well-preserved lung mechanics. Mechanisms underlying the damage to vascular tissues are not well-elucidated yet. Histological data in COVID-19 patients are still limited and are mainly focused on post-mortem analysis. Given that the skin is affected by COVID-19 and the relative ease of its histological examination, we aimed to examine the histology of skin lesions in COVID-19 patients to better understand the disease's pathology. METHODS: Five skin lesions from COVID-19 adult patients were selected for a deep histological tissue examination. RESULTS: A strong vasculopathic reaction pattern based on prominent vascular endothelial and myointimal cell growth was identified. Endothelial cell distortion generated vascular lumen obliteration and striking erythrocyte and serum extravasation. Significant deposition of C4d and C3 throughout the vascular cell wall was also identified. A regenerative epidermal hyperplasia with tissue structure preservation was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 could comprise an obliterative microangiopathy consisting on endothelial and myointimal growth with complement activation. This mechanism, together with the increased vascular permeability identified, could contribute to obliteration of the vascular lumen and hemorrhage in COVID-19. Thus, anticoagulation by itself could not completely reverse vascular lumen obliteration, with consequent increased risk of hemorrhage. Findings of this study could contribute to a better understanding of physiopathological mechanisms underlying COVID-19 on living patients and could help further studies find potential targets for specific therapeutic interventions in severe cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/pathology , Skin Diseases/pathology , Vascular Diseases/pathology , Aged , Blood Vessels/pathology , CD3 Complex/metabolism , CD4 Antigens/metabolism , Endothelium/metabolism , Endothelium/pathology , Humans , Hyperplasia/pathology , Hyperplasia/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/blood supply , Skin Diseases/virology , Vascular Diseases/virology
16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 575047, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895305

ABSTRACT

Reports suggest a role of endothelial dysfunction and loss of endothelial barrier function in COVID-19. It is well established that the endothelial glycocalyx-degrading enzyme heparanase contributes to vascular leakage and inflammation. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) serve as an inhibitor of heparanase. We hypothesize that heparanase contributes to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and that heparanase may be inhibited by LMWH. To test this hypothesis, heparanase activity and heparan sulfate levels were measured in plasma of healthy controls (n = 10) and COVID-19 patients (n = 48). Plasma heparanase activity and heparan sulfate levels were significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients. Heparanase activity was associated with disease severity including the need for intensive care, lactate dehydrogenase levels, and creatinine levels. Use of prophylactic LMWH in non-ICU patients was associated with a reduced heparanase activity. Since there is no other clinically applied heparanase inhibitor currently available, therapeutic treatment of COVID-19 patients with low molecular weight heparins should be explored.


Subject(s)
Endothelium/pathology , Glucuronidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Glucuronidase/blood , Heparin Antagonists/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Tight Junctions/pathology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Heparitin Sulfate/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200472, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-788939

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the genesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), there is a process of endotheliitis associated with thrombotic changes, no studies have reported the use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as a possible therapeutic approach. Statins could potentiate the ASA therapy. METHODS: This is a series of 14 cases with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. All patients underwent the ASA therapy. Those who had risk factors for vascular disease also underwent the high-potency statin therapy. When symptoms were totally or practically resolved, patients were discharged and advised to continue medications for a complementary time, according to the clinical evolution of each patient. RESULTS: The mean age of monitored patients was 48.6 years. A total of 78.6% patients presented with at least one comorbidity, which could have contributed as a risk factor for a poor prognosis in the evolution of COVID-19. Four patients had secondary bacterial infections; three patients needed hospitalization. None of the cases progress to stage III, and all patients had remission of symptoms, with 100% survival. CONCLUSIONS: the process of endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 involves disseminated thrombosis, initially microvascular and later expansion into larger vessels. ASA could act as a secondary prophylaxis and prevent thrombosis from developing and reaching stage III of the disease. As this was a case series, we cannot provide definitive conclusions; however, this study allows us to formulate hypotheses and support clinical trials to evaluate benefits of the ASA therapy in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Ischemia/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections , Endothelium/drug effects , Endothelium/pathology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Middle Aged
18.
Inflamm Res ; 69(8): 745-756, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-Cov-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus, a Betacoronavirus, composed of 16 non-structural proteins, with specific roles in replication of coronaviruses. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not yet fully understood. The virus and host factors interplay among distinct outcomes of infected patients. METHODS: Using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) in PubMed, authors searched for articles cotaining information on COVID-19 and the skin. RESULTS: The pathophysiology of the disease is multifactorial: association with innate immune response, hypercoagulability state, lung tissue damage, neurological and/or gastrointestinal tract involvement, monocytic/macrophage activation syndrome, culminating in exaggerated cytokine secretion, called "cytokine storm", which leads to worsening and death. These systemic conditions may be associated with cutaneous lesions, that have polymorphic aspects, where at histopathological level show involvement in different skin changes. These lesions may be associated with multisystemic manifestations that could occur due to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and transmembrane serine protease action, allowing the pulmonary infection and possibly skin manifestation. Several reports in literature show cutaneous lesions similar to chilblain, urticarial eruptions, diffuse or disseminated erythema, livedo racemosa, blue toe syndrome, retiform purpura, vesicle trunk, purpuric exanthema or exanthema with clinical aspects of symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) and others. CONCLUSIONS: This review describes the complexity of Covid-19, pathophysiological and clinical aspects, dermatological finding and other dermatological conditions associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Arterioles/pathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Capillaries/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/virology , Humans , Immune System , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/virology , Treatment Outcome
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