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3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066250

ABSTRACT

Aortobronchial fistula is a rare cause of repeated hemoptysis and a potentially fatal condition if left untreated. We present the case of a 40-year-old man with repeated hemoptysis, excessive cough, and epistaxis ongoing for several days after SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia diagnosis. The patient had a history of patch aortoplasty for aortic coarctation and aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve for aortic insufficiency due to bicuspid aortic valve at the age of 24. Computed tomography scan performed at presentation revealed a severely dilated ascending aorta, a thoracic aorta pseudoaneurysm at the site of the former coarctation, an aortobronchial fistula suggested by the thickened left lower lobe apical segmental bronchus in contact with the pseudoaneurysm and signs of alveolar hemorrhage in the respective segment. The patient was treated with thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) after prior hemi-aortic arch debranching and transposition of the left common carotid artery and subclavian artery through a closed-chest surgical approach. Our case report together with a systematic review of the literature highlight the importance of both considering an aortobronchial fistula in the differential diagnosis of hemoptysis in patients with prior history of thoracic aorta surgical intervention, regardless of associated pathology, and of taking into account endovascular and hybrid techniques as an alternative to open surgical repair, which carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, False , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal , Aortic Coarctation , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Bronchial Fistula , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Male , Humans , Adult , Aortic Coarctation/complications , Aortic Coarctation/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Hemoptysis/complications , Hemoptysis/surgery , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , Bronchial Fistula/surgery , Bronchial Fistula/diagnosis , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications
4.
J Cardiol ; 80(6): 545-548, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has overwhelmed healthcare systems. Patients with lower extremity artery disease are at high risk of cardiovascular events, of whom chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) is the most severe manifestation of peripheral artery disease with an increased risk of mortality compared to patients with intermittent claudication. However, the clinical course of CLTI patients with COVID-19 has not been reported. METHODS: We retrospectively surveyed clinical course for 25 CLTI patients who developed COVID-19 during the "sixth wave" of the pandemic in Japan, which started in January 2022. The primary outcome measure was the 30-day mortality after the diagnosis of COVID-19. We also compared the mortality risk of the 18 COVID-19 patients who underwent initial endovascular treatment with that of 1867 CLTI patients who received initial endovascular treatment before December 2019 (i.e. before the COVID-19 pandemic) (control group). Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on the mortality. To confirm the robustness of these results, we added the analysis with inverse probability weighting (IPW) based on the propensity score for the COVID-19. RESULTS: The 30-day mortality after the diagnosis of COVID-19 reached 20 %; the 95 % confidence interval (CI) of the proportion was calculated to be 7 % to 41 % by the Clopper-Pearson exact method. Cox regression analysis demonstrated the mortality risk was significantly higher in patients developing COVID-19 than in control group [adjusted hazard ratio, 3.08 (95 % CI, 1.13-8.37); p = 0.027]. The IPW analysis also confirmed the significant association of COVID-19 with the mortality risk [hazard ratio, 3.97 (95 % CI 1.54-10.21, p = 0.004)]. CONCLUSION: In CLTI patients, the 30-day mortality after the diagnosis of COVID-19 reached 20 % (95 % CI, 7 % to 41 %) under the pandemic in January 2022, and patients developing COVID-19 had a significantly higher mortality risk than those treated before the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Time Factors , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Chronic Disease
5.
Eur Neurol ; 85(5): 349-366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite progress made over the last 30 years, stroke is still a leading cause of disability and mortality; likewise, its burden is expected to increase over the next decades, due to population growth and aging. The development of drugs with better safety-efficacy profiles as well as strategies able to improve ischemic stroke management from the pre-hospital setting is needed. SUMMARY: The pathophysiology of ischemic stroke involves multiple pathways resulting in cerebral artery obstruction and brain tissue ischemia. To date, the only approved drug for acute ischemic stroke is intravenous thrombolytic alteplase. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) can be administered alone or in combination with endovascular treatment (EVT) with mechanical thrombectomy, in case of large vessel occlusion and generally within 6 h from symptoms onset. The risk of potential bleeding complications, especially symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, is one of the reasons for the reluctance to administer IVT. Tenecteplase is a promising alternative fibrinolytic agent, having a better safety profile than alteplase. Moreover, recent evidences have allowed an extension of the IVT ± EVT time window for patients with unknown onset time and for those with a known onset time thanks to the new "tissue-window" approach guided by advanced neuroimaging techniques, which also helps in collateral circulation estimation. Regarding primary-secondary prevention, researchers are focused on improving the efficacy of antithrombotic drugs with a "hemostasis-sparing" approach. Neuroprotective agents are also under development, particularly stem cells. The COVID-19 pandemic has critically stressed global healthcare systems, with collateral damage resulting in access delivery of only emergency care, such as ischemic stroke. Regarding telemedicine, it has had a minor role in acute stroke management, and with the onset of COVID-19, this role will most likely be adopted to increase access and delivery in stroke assessment, but also in the follow-up.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke , Neuroprotective Agents , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/drug therapy , Tenecteplase/therapeutic use , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(11): 3273-3287, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that mechanisms and outcomes in patients with COVID-19-associated stroke differ from those in patients with non-COVID-19-associated strokes, but there is limited comparative evidence focusing on these populations. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine if a significant association exists between COVID-19 status with revascularization and functional outcomes following thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion (LVO), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, international multicenter retrospective study was conducted in consecutively admitted COVID-19 patients with concomitant acute LVO, compared to a control group without COVID-19. Data collected included age, gender, comorbidities, clinical characteristics, details of the involved vessels, procedural technique, and various outcomes. A multivariable-adjusted analysis was conducted. RESULTS: In this cohort of 697 patients with acute LVO, 302 had COVID-19 while 395 patients did not. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in the mean age (in years) and gender of patients, with younger patients and more males in the COVID-19 group. In terms of favorable revascularization (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction [mTICI] grade 3), COVID-19 was associated with lower odds of complete revascularization (odds ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.48; p < 0.001), which persisted on multivariable modeling with adjustment for other predictors (adjusted odds ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.77; p = 0.012). Moreover, endovascular complications, in-hospital mortality, and length of hospital stay were significantly higher among COVID-19 patients (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor functional outcome in patients with stroke due to LVO. Furthermore, COVID-19 patients with LVO were more often younger and had higher morbidity/mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Stroke , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Vasc Surg ; 76(4): 987-996.e3, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885971

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) is associated with adverse limb outcomes and increased mortality. However, a small subset of the CLTI population will have no feasible conventional methods of revascularization. In such cases, venous arterialization (VA) could provide an alternative for limb salvage. The objective of the present study was to review the outcomes of VA at our institution. METHODS: We performed a single-institution review of 41 patients who had been followed up prospectively and had undergone either superficial or deep VA. The data collected included patient demographics, comorbidities, VA technique (endovascular vs hybrid), and WIfI (wound, ischemia, and foot infection) limb staging. Data were collected at 1-month, 6-month, and 1-year intervals and included the following outcomes: patency, wound healing, major adverse limb events, major amputation, and death. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS: The study group included 41 patients who had undergone successful open hybrid superficial or deep endovascular VA; 21 (51.2%) had undergone a purely endovascular procedure and 20 (48.8%), hybrid VA. The WIfI clinical stage was as follows: stage 4, 33 (80.5%); stage 3, 6 (14.6%); and stage 2, 1 (2.4%). Of the 41 patients, 24 (58.5%) had completed follow-up at 6 months and 16 (39%) at 1 year. At 1 year, the VA primary patency was 28.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15%-0.43%), primary assisted patency was 44.3% (95% CI, 0.27%-0.60%), and secondary patency was 67% (95% CI, 0.49%-0.80%). The complete wound healing rate was 2.7% (n = 1) at 1 month, 62.5% (n = 15) at 6 months, and 18.8% (n = 3) at 1 year. Overall wound healing at 1 year was 46.3% (n = 19). The number of major adverse limb events at 1 year was 15 (36.5%) and included 8 reinterventions (19.5%) and 7 major amputations (17%). The number of deaths was zero (0%) at 1 month and four (19%) at 6 months. Two deaths (9.5%) were attributed to COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). No further deaths had occurred within 1 year. The limb salvage survival probability at 1 year was 81%. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that for a select subset of CLTI patients presenting with a high WIfI clinical limb stage and no viable options for conventional open or endovascular arterial revascularization, superficial and deep VA are feasible options to achieve limb salvage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Amputation , Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/surgery , Limb Salvage/adverse effects , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 83: 80-86, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) infection in patients with acute limb ischemia (ALI), mainly the limb salvage estimates the rate and the overall survival rate. METHODS: This was a prospective, consecutive cohort study of ALI patients with or without COVID-19 infection. Two groups of patients were identified: patients with ALI and COVID-19 infection and patients with ALI and without COVID-19 infection. The comparisons among the 2 groups were performed with proper statistical analysis methods. RESULTS: Two groups of patients were identified: ALI and COVID-19 infection with 23 patients and ALI without COVID-19 infection with 49 patients. The overall mortality rate (OMR) was 20.8% (15 patients) in total cohort within the first 30 days. COVID-19 group had a higher OMR than non-COVID-19 group (30.4% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.04). The limb salvage rate at 30 days was 79.1% in total cohort; however, non-COVID-19 infection group had higher limb salvage rates than COVID-19 infection group (89.7% vs. 60.8%, P = 0.01). A univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to test the factors related to a major amputation rate. Among the factors evaluated, the following were related to limb loss: D-dimer > 1,000 mg/mL (hazards ratio [HR] = 3.76, P = 0.027, CI = 1.85-5.89) and COVID-19 infection (HR = 1.38, P = 0.035, CI = 1.03-4.75). Moreover, a univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the factors related to overall mortality. Among the factors evaluated, the following were related to OMR: D-dimer > 1,000 mg/dL (HR = 2.28, P = 0.038, CI: 1.94-6.52), COVID-19 infection (HR = 1.8, P = 0.018, CI = 1.01-4.01), and pharmacomechanical thrombectomy >150 cycles (HR = 2.01, P = 0.002, CI = 1.005-6.781). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has a worse prognosis among patients with ALI, with higher rates of limb loss and overall mortality relative to non-COVID patients. The main factors related to overall mortality were D-dimer > 1,000 mg/dL, COVID-19 infection, and pharmacomechanical thrombectomy >150 cycles. The factors related to limb loss were D-dimer > 1,000 mg/mL and COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Acute Disease , Amputation , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/complications , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/therapy , Limb Salvage , Lower Extremity , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714385

ABSTRACT

A 21-year-old patient presented with sudden-onset headache, visual disturbance and left hand incoordination. She was diagnosed with a left vertebral artery dissection of the V3 segment resulting in multiple cerebellar and cerebral infarcts. There were no risk factors for dissection other than recent COVID-19 infection. She was treated initially with antiplatelets, followed by anticoagulation, but experienced recurrent ischaemia. Although guidance suggests endovascular repair may be beneficial for patients with cerebral artery dissection (CAD) who experience recurrent strokes on medical therapy, evidence is limited. After multidisciplinary team consideration of the individual patient anatomy and risks and benefits of different endovascular techniques, the patient was treated with endovascular coiling. At 10 months follow-up, she had no further strokes and improving neurological symptoms. The case highlighted COVID-19 as a potential trigger for CAD and the use of endovascular coiling in preventing catastrophic cerebral ischaemia in CAD refractive to medical therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Vertebral Artery Dissection , Adult , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Female , Humans , Radiology, Interventional , SARS-CoV-2 , Vertebral Artery , Vertebral Artery Dissection/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery Dissection/therapy , Young Adult
12.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(764-5): 51-55, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1644191

ABSTRACT

In 2021, we assisted to the publication of new diagnostic criteria, classifications, and guidelines (CIDP, brain tumors, auto-immune encephalitis). Several studies helped to define the pharmacological management of focal and generalized epileptic seizures and epilepsy in pregnant women. The availability of biomarkers and the approval of immunotherapies are modifying the landscape of dementia management. Endovascular interventions without previous thrombolysis seems to be effective in anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and severe posterior circulation AIS. Neurologic complications of Sars-CoV-2 infection were further studied, as well as the efficacy of vaccines in immunosuppressed patients. New molecules and techniques show promising results for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache.


L'année 2021 a été marquée par la publication des nouveaux critères diagnostiques, classifications et guidelines (polyradiculonévrite inflammatoire démyélinisante chronique, tumeurs cérébrales, encéphalites autoimmunes). L'attitude thérapeutique dans les épilepsies focales ou généralisées et l'épilepsie chez la femme enceinte a été mieux définie. Les marqueurs biologiques et les immunothérapies modifient le paysage de la prise en charge des démences. Le traitement endovasculaire des AVC de la circulation antérieure semble efficace indépendamment d'une thrombolyse préalable, ainsi qu'en cas d'AVC sévère de la circulation postérieure. Les complications neurologiques du SARS-CoV-2 ont été éclaircies et l'efficacité des vaccins étudiée chez les patients immunosupprimés. Plusieurs nouvelles molécules et techniques montrent des résultats prometteurs pour les migraines et céphalées en grappe.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Epilepsy , Neurology , Stroke , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy
13.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 22, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the impact of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the resulting lockdown on reperfusion treatments and door-to-treatment times during the first surge in Dutch comprehensive stroke centers. Furthermore, we studied the association between COVID-19-status and treatment times. METHODS: We included all patients receiving reperfusion treatment in 17 Dutch stroke centers from May 11th, 2017, until May 11th, 2020. We collected baseline characteristics, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission, onset-to-door time (ODT), door-to-needle time (DNT), door-to-groin time (DGT) and COVID-19-status at admission. Parameters during the lockdown (March 15th, 2020 until May 11th, 2020) were compared with those in the same period in 2019, and between groups stratified by COVID-19-status. We used nationwide data and extrapolated our findings to the increasing trend of EVT numbers since May 2017. RESULTS: A decline of 14% was seen in reperfusion treatments during lockdown, with a decline in both IVT and EVT delivery. DGT increased by 12 min (50 to 62 min, p-value of < 0.001). Furthermore, median NIHSS-scores were higher in COVID-19 - suspected or positive patients (7 to 11, p-value of 0.004), door-to-treatment times did not differ significantly when stratified for COVID-19-status. CONCLUSIONS: During the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, a decline in acute reperfusion treatments and a delay in DGT was seen, which indicates a target for attention. It also appeared that COVID-19-positive or -suspected patients had more severe neurologic symptoms, whereas their EVT-workflow was not affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Stroke , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
16.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(9): 673-677, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592222

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic enforced changes to healthcare services at a pace and extent not seen previously in the NHS. The Royal Devon and Exeter provides regional vascular surgery services. A consultant-led urgent 'hot clinic' was established, providing patients with ambulatory care. We aim to describe the service for critical limb ischaemia (CLI) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and evaluate this against recommended best practice. METHODS: Retrospective review of electronic databases and records of patients with CLI during a non-COVID vs COVID-19 period. Primary outcome measures were those established by guidance from the Vascular Society of Great Britain and Ireland. RESULTS: Non-COVID vs COVID-19: total patients n=97 vs 96, of which CLI patients n=29 vs 21. Median length of stay 15 vs 0 days (p<0.001); median time from referral to specialist review 0 vs 3 days (p<0.001); multidisciplinary team meeting (MDT) recorded 3% vs 29%; median time to intervention 6 vs 8 days; conservative management 52% vs 67%; endovascular 28% vs 10%; open surgery 21% vs 24%; 30-day survival 79% vs 76%. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 imposed a major change to the service for patients with CLI with a focus on ambulatory care pathways for diagnosis and intervention. We observe a significant reduction in overall length of stay with no clinically significant change in time to consultant review, time to imaging, overall management strategy or outcomes. The results of this study show that patients with CLI can be managed safely and effectively on an ambulatory basis in accordance with established best practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Humans , Limb Salvage , Ischemia/surgery , Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Amputation , Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery
18.
J Vasc Surg ; 75(5): 1670-1678.e2, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the trends of carotid revascularization (endarterectomy [CEA], transfemoral carotid artery stenting [TFCAS]) for symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis before, during, and after the end of the first lockdown in 2020 in France. METHODS: Nationwide data were provided by the French National Hospital Discharge database (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d'Information). We retrospectively analyzed patients admitted for CEA or TFCAS in all French public and private hospitals during a 9-month period (January-September) in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020. Procedures were identified using the French Common Classification of Medical Procedures. Stenoses were considered symptomatic in the presence of stroke and/or transient ischemic attack codes (according to the International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision) during the stay, and asymptomatic in the absence of these codes. Hospitalization rates in 2020 were compared with the rates in the same period in the 3 previous years. RESULTS: Between January and September 2020, 12,546 patients were hospitalized for carotid artery surgery (CEA and TFCAS) in France. Compared with the 3 previous years, there was a decrease in hospitalization rates for asymptomatic (-68.9%) and symptomatic (-12.6%) CEA procedures in April, starting at the pandemic peak concomitant with the first national lockdown. This decrease was significant for asymptomatic CEA (P < .001). After the lockdown, while CEA for asymptomatic stenosis returned to usual activity, CEA for symptomatic stenosis presented a significant rebound, up 18.52% in August compared with previous years. Lockdown also had consequences on TFCAS procedures, with fewer interventions for both asymptomatic (-60.53%) and symptomatic stenosis (-16.67%) in April. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a severe decrease for all interventions during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in France. However, the trends in the postlockdown period were different for the various procedures. These data can be used to anticipate future decisions and organization for cardiovascular care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carotid Stenosis , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Endovascular Procedures , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/epidemiology , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Constriction, Pathologic/complications , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stents , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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