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1.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 19, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity (FI) is a dynamic phenomenon. Experiences of daily FI may impact dietary outcomes differently within a given month, across seasons, and before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the association of short-term FI with dietary quality and energy 1) over six weeks in two seasonal months and 2) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using an ecological momentary assessment framework on smartphones, this study tracked daily FI via the 6-item U.S. Adult Food Security Survey Module and dietary intake via food diaries in 29 low-income adults. A total of 324 person-days of data were collected during two three-week long waves in fall and winter months. Generalized Estimating Equation models were applied to estimate the daily FI-diet relationship, accounting for intrapersonal variation and covariates. RESULTS: A one-unit increase in daily FI score was associated with a 7.10-point (95%CI:-11.04,-3.15) and 3.80-point (95%CI: -6.08,-1.53) decrease in the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) score in winter and during COVID-19, respectively. In winter months, a greater daily FI score was associated with less consumption of total fruit (-0.17 cups, 95% CI: -0.32,-0.02), whole fruit (-0.18 cups, 95%CI: -0.30,-0.05), whole grains (-0.57 oz, 95%CI: -0.99,-0.16) and higher consumption of refined grains (1.05 oz, 95%CI: 0.52,1.59). During COVID-19, elevated daily FI scores were associated with less intake of whole grains (-0.49 oz, 95% CI: -0.88,-0.09), and higher intake of salt (0.34 g, 95%CI: 0.15,0.54). No association was observed in fall nor during the pre-COVID-19 months. No association was found between daily FI and energy intake in either season, pre-COVID 19, or during-COVID-19 months. CONCLUSION: Daily FI is associated with compromised dietary quality in low-income adults in winter months and during the COVID-19 period. Future research should delve into the underlying factors of these observed relationships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Energy Intake , Food Insecurity , Humans , Pandemics , Seasons
2.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725877

ABSTRACT

While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Sedentary Behavior , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Confined Spaces , Diet/methods , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1073, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713164

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has altered people's lives around the world. Here we document population-wide shifts in dietary interests in 18 countries in 2020, as revealed through time series of Google search volumes. We find that during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic there was an overall surge in food interest, larger and longer-lasting than the surge during typical end-of-year holidays in Western countries. The shock of decreased mobility manifested as a drastic increase in interest in consuming food at home and a corresponding decrease in consuming food outside of home. The largest (up to threefold) increases occurred for calorie-dense carbohydrate-based foods such as pastries, bakery products, bread, and pies. The observed shifts in dietary interests have the potential to globally affect food consumption and health outcomes. These findings can inform governmental and organizational decisions regarding measures to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on diet and nutrition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Food Preferences , Pandemics , Cooking , Energy Intake , Food , Humans , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Appetite ; 173: 105976, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712443

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused widespread non-essential business closures in the U.S., which may have disproportionately impacted food consumption in lower-income communities, in part due to reduced access to healthy and affordable foods, as well as occupations that may have required working outside the home. The aims of this study were to examine restaurant dining behaviors (including drive-through, takeout, and delivery) at fast-food and non-fast-food (i.e., fast casual and full-service ['other']) restaurants and the impact on diet quality among racially/ethnically diverse low-income adults during the early months of the pandemic. Participants completed an online survey using CloudResearch regarding restaurant dining behaviors in the past week (during June 2020) and during a typical week prior to the pandemic. Diet quality was measured using the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS). Surveys from 1,756 low-income adults (incomes <250% of the Federal Poverty Level) were analyzed using chi-squared tests to examine differences in demographic characteristics among those dining at restaurants during the pandemic, as well as to examine differences in dining frequency compared with prior to COVID-19. Negative binomial regressions were used to examine the mean frequency of eating food from fast-food and other restaurants, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. This study found reductions in fast-food and other restaurant dining compared with prior to COVID-19, although overall restaurant consumption remained high with over half of participants reporting fast-food consumption in the week prior (average consumption of twice per week). Greater fast-food consumption was associated with poorer diet quality. In conclusion, while fast-food consumption was slightly lower during the pandemic, the overall high levels observed among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults remains concerning, highlighting the continued need for initiatives and policies to encourage greater access to and consumption of affordable and healthier foods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Restaurants , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty , United States/epidemiology
5.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 47: 206-214, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIM: Psychological disorders are an important health problem worldwide. A healthy diet is recommended as one of the measures to prevent and control mental disorders. Epidemiological studies have shown important associations between the consumption of diets rich in nutrients and a lower risk of developing anxiety and depression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and food consumption, according to the degree of processing, during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An epidemiological household survey was conducted in two cities in Brazil. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using validated scales (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item/Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and food consumption was assessed using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire referring to consumption within the last 3 months. The foods were categorized according to the NOVA classification for fresh/minimally processed food and ultra-processed food, using the average weekly consumption as the cutoff. For data analysis, adjusted Poisson regression with robust variance was utilized to estimate the prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The consumption of fresh/minimally processed foods above the weekly average frequency was associated with a lower prevalence of symptoms of depression (PR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3; 0.7). Consumption above the weekly average of ultra-processed foods was associated with a higher prevalence of anxiety (PR: 1.5 and 95% CI: 1.03; 2.3) and depression symptoms (PR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0; 2.1, P = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Increased consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with a higher occurrence of anxiety and depression symptoms; therefore, we recommend an increase in the consumption of fresh/minimally processed foods, as endorsed by the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Depression/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623734

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the habitual lifestyles of children and adolescents, in particular, due to the closure of kindergartens and schools. To investigate the impact of the pandemic on nutrients and food intake of children and adolescents in Germany, we analyzed repeated 3-day weighed dietary records from 108 participants (3-18 years; females: n = 45, males: n = 63) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Polynomial mixed-effects regression models were used to identify prospective changes in dietary intake (total energy (TEI), carbohydrates, fat, protein, free sugar, ultra-processed foods, fruits and vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and juices) before and during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. For the current analysis, we have chosen the first months of the pandemic (March 2020-August 2020), as this was the period with the most restrictions in Germany so far (kindergarten, school and restaurant closures; contact and outdoor activity restrictions). No significant changes in either the selected nutrients or food groups were observed. However, children and adolescents recorded a significantly lower TEI during the pandemic (ß = -109.65, p = 0.0062). Results remained significant after the exclusion of participants with under-reported records (ß = -95.77, p = 0.0063). While macronutrient intake did not change, descriptive data indicate a non-significant decrease in sugar sweetened beverages and ultra-processed foods intake. We suggest that children and adolescents from high socioeconomic families may have adapted lifestyle changes during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diet Records , Eating/psychology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Models, Statistical , Nutrients/analysis , Prospective Studies , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/statistics & numerical data
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595299

ABSTRACT

Few Australians consume diets consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. A major problem is high intake of discretionary food and drinks (those not needed for health and high in saturated fat, added sugar, salt and/or alcohol). Low socioeconomic groups (SEGs) suffer particularly poor diet-related health. Surprisingly, detailed quantitative dietary data across SEGs was lacking. Analysis of the most recent national nutrition survey data produced habitual intakes of a reference household (two adults and two children) in SEG quintiles of household income. Cost and affordability of habitual and recommended diets for the reference household were determined using methods based on the Healthy Diets Australian Standardised Affordability and Pricing protocol. Low SEGs reported significantly lower intakes of healthy food and drinks yet similarly high intakes of discretionary choices to high SEGs (435 serves/fortnight). Total habitual diets of low SEGs cost significantly less than those of high SEGs (AU$751/fortnight to AU$853/fortnight). Results confirmed low SEGs cannot afford a healthy diet. Lower intakes of healthy choices in low SEGs may help explain their higher rates of diet-related disease compared to higher SEGs. The findings can inform potential policy actions to improve affordability of healthy foods and help drive healthier diets for all Australians.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy , Nutrition Policy , Adult , Australia , Child , Costs and Cost Analysis , Diet , Eating , Energy Intake , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512307

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of continuous energy restriction (CER) and intermittent energy restriction (IER) in bodyweight loss plan in sedentary individuals with normal bodyweight and explore the influence factors of effect and individual retention. METHODS: 26 participants were recruited in this randomized controlled and double-blinded trial and allocated to CER and IER groups. Bodyweight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) would be collected before and after a 4-week (28 days) plan which included energy restriction (CER or IER) and moderate-intensity exercise. Daily intake of three major nutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat) and calories were recorded. RESULTS: A significant decrease in BW and BMI were reported within each group. No statistically significant difference in the change of RMR in CERG. No statistically significant difference was reported in the effect between groups, neither as well the intake of total calories, three major nutrients, and individual plan retention. The influence factors of IER and CER are different. CONCLUSION: Both CER and IER are effective and safe energy restriction strategies in the short term. Daily energy intake and physical exercise are important to both IER and CER.


Subject(s)
Caloric Restriction , Diet, Reducing , Body Weight , Energy Intake , Humans , Weight Loss
10.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(6): 1269-1276, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485616

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic has had direct implications for clinical nutrition teams (NT), both at an organizational and healthcare level. Since March 2020, expert recommendations on nutritional intervention for patients with COVID-19 have been available. Objectives: to describe the nutritional intervention that has been carried out in patients with COVID-19, to estimate the presence of clinical dietitians-nutritionists (DN) in hospitals in Catalonia, and to know the organization of NTs. Methods: a cross-sectional study through an online survey directed to clinical DNs at hospitals in Catalonia (March 2021) was made. Results: the surveys of 36 NTs, made up of 104 DNs, have been analysed. A total of 44.44 % of NTs had to interrupt or reduce some of their usual activities during the pandemic. When nutritional screening was used, it was carried out early (24-48 h) in 56.25 % of cases, and the most common tool was the NRS-2002 (66.67 %). In 41.67 % of NTs a specific hospital diet was established, this being generally hyperproteic (89.66 %). Oral nutritional supplementation was systematically prescribed by 41.67 % of NTs, prioritizing hyperproteic (97.14 %) and hypercaloric (74.29 %) formulas. It is estimated that clinical DNs are present in approximately 61.54 % of public acute hospitals in Catalonia. Conclusions: the results reflect the adaptive capacity of NTs, reorganizing and redistributing their usual tasks and establishing infrequent measures to ensure nutritional support.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Introducción: la pandemia por COVID-19 ha tenido implicaciones directas en los equipos de nutrición (EN) clínica a nivel tanto organizativo como asistencial. Desde marzo de 2020 se dispone de recomendaciones de expertos sobre la intervención nutricional en pacientes con COVID-19. Objetivos: describir la intervención nutricional que se ha llevado a cabo en los pacientes con COVID-19, estimar la presencia de dietistas-nutricionistas (DN) clínicos en los hospitales de Cataluña y conocer la organización de los EN. Métodos: estudio transversal realizado a través de una encuesta online dirigida a los DN clínicos de los hospitales de Cataluña (marzo 2021). Resultados: se han analizado las encuestas de 36 EN, formados por 104 DN. El 44,44 % de los EN han tenido que dejar de hacer o reducir alguna de sus actividades habituales durante la pandemia. Cuando se ha empleado el cribado nutricional, este se ha realizado de forma precoz (24-48 h) en el 56,25 % de los casos y la herramienta más común ha sido el NRS-2002 (66,67 %). El 41,67 % de los EN han instaurado una dieta hospitalaria específica, siendo esta generalmente hiperproteica (89,66 %). El 41,67 % de los EN han pautado la suplementación nutricional oral de forma sistemática, priorizando las fórmulas hiperproteicas (97,14 %) e hipercalóricas (74,29 %). Se estima que la figura del DN clínico está presente en aproximadamente el 61,54 % de los hospitales de agudos públicos de Cataluña. Conclusiones: los resultados reflejan la capacidad de adaptación de los EN, reorganizando y redistribuyendo sus tareas habituales e instaurando medidas poco habituales para asegurar el soporte nutricional.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutritionists/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Energy Intake , Enteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritionists/organization & administration , Parenteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors
11.
Nutrition ; 94: 111512, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458581

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nutrition has become an important component in treating individuals during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is increasingly affecting the world population and causing a collapse in health services. Prolonged hospitalization, including immobilization and catabolism, induces a decrease in body weight and muscle mass that may result in sarcopenia, a condition that impairs respiratory and cardiac function and worsens the prognosis. The present study aimed to analyze enteral nutritional support and the clinical evolution of patients admitted with COVID-19 in Brazil. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, conducted from March to May 2020, of patients admitted to a referral hospital in cardiology and pulmonology in Fortaleza-Ce/Brazil. Two hundred patients infected with COVID-19 were selected for the study. Sociodemographic, clinical, and nutritional data were collected from electronic medical records, and associations between outcomes and the use of the prone body position with nutritional variables were analyzed by linear regression. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval estimates for the death outcome were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 112 patients who were fed by enterally, the majority were male (n = 61; 54.5%), elderly (n = 88; 78.6%), and with no current smoking habit (n = 81; 72.3%). The median hospital stay was 14 d, mostly in intensive care units (median: 9 d). Prone body positioning impacted the nutritional therapy. In general, patients who maintained a prone body position tested lower for kcal/kg of body weight, protein/kg of body weight, percentage of diet adequacy, and total caloric value. In addition, patients who died had a lower mean maximum kcal/kg body weight, protein/kg body weight, percentage of diet adequacy, and total caloric value compared with surviving patients. CONCLUSIONS: An association between inadequacies in protein and energy supply with mortality was confirmed, suggesting that nutritional support optimization should be prescribed in such situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Critical Illness , Energy Intake , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Nutritional Support , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While consent exists, that nutritional status has prognostic impact in the critically ill, the optimal feeding strategy has been a matter of debate. METHODS: Narrative review of the recent evidence and international guideline recommendations focusing on basic principles of nutrition in the ICU and the treatment of specific patient groups. Covered topics are: the importance and diagnosis of malnutrition in the ICU, the optimal timing and route of nutrition, energy and protein requirements, the supplementation of specific nutrients, as well as monitoring and complications of a Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT). Furthermore, this review summarizes the available evidence to optimize the MNT of patients grouped by primarily affected organ system. RESULTS: Due to the considerable heterogeneity of the critically ill, MNT should be carefully adapted to the individual patient with special focus on phase of critical illness, metabolic tolerance, leading symptoms, and comorbidities. CONCLUSION: MNT in the ICU is complex and requiring an interdisciplinary approach and frequent reevaluation. The impact of personalized and disease-specific MNT on patient-centered clinical outcomes remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Food, Formulated , Malnutrition/therapy , Nutritional Status , Nutritional Support , Energy Intake , Enteral Nutrition , Food, Formulated/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Nutritional Support/adverse effects , Nutritive Value , Parenteral Nutrition , Treatment Outcome
13.
Physiol Rep ; 9(18): e15044, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436402

ABSTRACT

In humans, exercise-induced thermogenesis is a markedly variable component of total energy expenditure, which had been acutely affected worldwide by COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns. We hypothesized that dietary macronutrient composition may affect metabolic adaptation/fuel selection in response to an acute decrease in voluntary activity. Using mice fed short-term high-fat diet (HFD) compared to low-fat diet (LFD)-fed mice, we evaluated whole-body fuel utilization by metabolic cages before and 3 days after omitting a voluntary running wheel in the cage. Short-term (24-48 h) HFD was sufficient to increase energy intake, fat oxidation, and decrease carbohydrate oxidation. Running wheel omission did not change energy intake, but resulted in a significant 50% decrease in total activity and a ~20% in energy expenditure in the active phase (night-time), compared to the period with wheel, irrespective of the dietary composition, resulting in significant weight gain. Yet, while in LFD wheel omission significantly decreased active phase fat oxidation, thereby trending to increase respiratory exchange ratio (RER), in HFD it diminished active phase carbohydrate oxidation. In conclusion, acute decrease in voluntary activity resulted in positive energy balance in mice on both diets, and decreased oxidation of the minor energy (macronutrient) fuel source, demonstrating that dietary macronutrient composition determines fuel utilization choices under conditions of acute changes in energetic demand.


Subject(s)
Diet, Fat-Restricted , Diet, High-Fat , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Energy Metabolism , Adaptation, Physiological , Animal Feed , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Energy Intake , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Running , Time Factors
14.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 36(5): 984-992, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are hypermetabolic; however, protein requirements in critically ill COVID-19 patients are unknown. Our intent was to evaluate the nitrogen accretion response to varying protein intakes for critically ill ventilator-dependent patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with COVID-19, admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and who required mechanical ventilation were retrospectively evaluated. Patients received continuous enteral nutrition (EN), including supplemental protein boluses, and had a 24-h urine collection for determination of nitrogen balance (NBAL). Data are expressed as mean ± SD with a P-value < .05 as significant. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients provided 29 NBAL determinations. Protein intake from EN and protein supplements was 0.9 ± 0.7 g/kg/day at the time of the NBAL with an NBAL of -12.1 ± 10.9 g/day at 7 ± 4 days in the ICU. Combined caloric intake from EN and propofol at the time of the NBAL was 12 ± 8 kcal/kg/day. Nitrogen equilibrium (NBAL of -4 g/day or better) occurred in five patients. Patients achieving nitrogen equilibrium received more protein than those with a negative NBAL (1.2 ± 0.4 g/kg/day vs 0.8 ± 0.8 g/kg/day, P = .046). The linear regression for NBAL in response to graded increases in protein intake was as follows: NBAL = 8.5 × protein intake (g/kg/day) - 18.8 (r = 0.450, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Critically ill ventilator-dependent patients with COVID-19 exhibit significant variability in nitrogen accretion response to increases in protein intake and often have a markedly negative NBAL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Adolescent , Adult , Critical Illness/therapy , Energy Intake , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Nutritional Requirements , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
15.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374473

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related restrictions impacted weight and weight-related factors during the initial months of the pandemic. However, longitudinal analyses are scarce. An online, longitudinal study was conducted among self-selected UK adults (n = 1818), involving three surveys (May-June, August-September, November-December 2020), covering anthropometric, sociodemographic, COVID-19-related and behavioural measures. Data were analysed using generalised estimating equations. Self-reported average weight/body mass index (BMI) significantly increased between the May-June period and the August-September period (74.95 to 75.33 kg/26.22 kg/m2 to 26.36kg/m2, p < 0.001, respectively), and then significantly decreased to November-December (to 75.06 kg/26.27 kg/m2, p < 0.01), comparable to May-June levels (p = 0.274/0.204). However, there was great interindividual variation, 37.0%/26.7% increased (average 3.64 kg (95% confidence interval: 3.32, 3.97)/1.64 kg/m2 (1.49, 1.79)), and 34.5%/26.3% decreased (average 3.59 kg (3.34, 3.85)/1.53 kg/m2 (1.42, 1.63)) weight/BMI between May-June and November-December. Weight/BMI increase was significantly negatively associated with initial BMI, and positively associated with monthly high fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) snacks intake and alcohol consumption, and for BMI only, older age. Associations were time-varying; lower initial BMI, higher HFSS snacks intake and high-risk alcohol consumption were associated with maintaining weight/BMI increases between August-September and November-December. The average weight/BMI of UK adults fluctuated between May-June and November-December 2020. However, the substantial interindividual variation in weight/BMI trajectories indicates long-term health impacts from the pandemic, associated with food and alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Feeding Behavior , Overweight/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Biological Variation, Population , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Snacks , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Weight Gain , Weight Loss , Young Adult
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e215262, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363620

ABSTRACT

Importance: Time trends and population disparities in nutritional quality of foods from major US sources, including grocery stores, restaurants, schools, worksites, and other sources, are not well established. Objective: To investigate patterns and trends in diet quality by food sources among US children and adults overall and in sociodemographic subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial, cross-sectional survey study included respondents from 8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles (2003-2018) with valid dietary recalls. Data were analyzed from April 16, 2020, to July 20, 2020. Exposures: Survey cycle, food source, and key sociodemographic subgroups. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean diet quality of foods (meals, snacks, and beverages) consumed per person, characterized by the American Heart Association diet score (range, 0-80, with higher scores indicating healthier diets), the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (range, 0-100, with higher scores indicating healthier diets), and their components. For the American Heart Association diet score, poor diet was defined as less than 40.0% adherence (score, <32.0), intermediate diet as 40.0% to 79.9% adherence (score, 32.0-63.9), and ideal as 80.0% or greater adherence (score, ≥64.0). Results: The study included 20 905 children 5 to 19 years of age (mean [SD] age, 12.1 [5.24] years; 51.0% male) and 39 757 adults 20 years or older (mean [SD] age, 47.3 [15.1] years; 51.9% female). Diet quality of foods consumed from grocery stores increased modestly in children (53.2% to 45.1% with poor diet quality; P = .006 for trend) and adults (40.1% to 32.9% with poor diet quality; P = .001 for trend), with smaller changes for restaurants among children (84.8% to 79.6% with poor diet quality; P = .003 for trend). Changes for restaurants among adults were not statistically significant (65.4% to 65.2% with poor diet quality; P = .07 with poor diet quality); the same was true of worksites (adults: 55.6% to 50.7% with poor diet quality; P = .25 for trend). Food quality from other sources worsened (children: 40.0% to 51.7% with poor diet quality; adults: 33.8% to 43.8% with poor diet quality; P < .001 for trend each). The largest improvement in diet quality was in schools, with the percentage with poor diet quality decreasing from 55.6% to 24.4% (P < .001 for trend), mostly after 2010, and with equitable improvements across population subgroups. Findings were similar for Healthy Eating Index 2015. Significant disparities in diet quality trends were seen by sex, race/ethnicity, educational level, and household income for food consumed from grocery stores. For example, the proportion of foods consumed from grocery stores that were of poor diet quality decreased among high-income adults (from 36.9% to 26.5%; P = .001 for trend) but not among low-income adults (from 45.8% to 41.3%; P = .09 for trend). Conclusions and Relevance: By 2017-2018, foods consumed at schools improved significantly and provided the best mean diet quality of major US food sources, without population disparities. Additional improvements are needed from all major US food sources, with particular attention on equity.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Energy Intake/ethnology , Feeding Behavior/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet Records , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Health Rep ; 32(8): 18-26, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic have upended the way Canadians eat and shop for food. Since the pandemic began, many Canadians have reported consuming food away from home (FAFH) less often. FAFH tends to be less healthful than food prepared at home. Little is known about patterns of Canadians' FAFH consumption before the pandemic. This study used 2015 national-level nutrition data, the most recent available, to characterize patterns of FAFH consumption and selected markers of dietary intake. DATA AND METHODS: National-level food intake data came from the first 24-hour dietary recall provided by 20,475 respondents aged 1 or older to the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition. Mean daily intakes of selected food subgroups and nutrients, adjusted for total energy intake, were compared between those who had consumed any food in a restaurant on the previous day and those who had not. Estimates were generated overall and for eight age and sex groups. RESULTS: In 2015, overall, 21.8% of Canadians had consumed FAFH in a restaurant on the previous day. Eating out was most common among males aged 19 to 54 (27.7%) and least common among young children aged 1 to 5 (8.4%). Compared with Canadians who had not eaten out on the previous day, those who had eaten out had consumed, on that day, fewer servings of whole fruit; whole grains; dark green and orange vegetables; other vegetables (excluding potatoes); milk and fortified soy-based beverages; and legumes, nuts and seeds, on average. Those who had eaten out had consumed, on average, less fibre and total sugar, and more total fat, saturated fat and sodium on that day. There were few differences for meat and poultry, fish and seafood, and protein intake. DISCUSSION: On the day that Canadians ate out in a restaurant, their dietary intake was generally less favourable than that of Canadians who did not eat out. If Canadians continue to eat at home more and to consume less FAFH, as early pandemic-period reports suggest, then results can be used to gauge the potential dietary implications of these shifts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Nutritive Value , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Canada , Child , Child, Preschool , Diet Surveys , Eating , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346480

ABSTRACT

The high prevalence of non-communicable disease in New Zealand (NZ) is driven in part by unhealthy diet selections, with food costs contributing to an increased risk for vulnerable population groups. This study aimed to: (i) identify the nutrient density-to-cost ratio of NZ foods; (ii) model the impact of substituting foods with a lower nutrient density-to-cost ratio with those with a higher nutrient density-to-cost ratio on diet quality and affordability in representative NZ population samples for low and medium socioeconomic status (SES) households by ethnicity; and (iii) evaluate food processing level. Foods were categorized, coded for processing level and discretionary status, analyzed for nutrient density and cost, and ranked by nutrient density-to-cost ratio. The top quartile of nutrient dense, low-cost foods were 56% unprocessed (vegetables, fruit, porridge, pasta, rice, nuts/seeds), 31% ultra-processed (vegetable dishes, fortified bread, breakfast cereals unfortified <15 g sugars/100 g and fortified 15-30 g sugars/100 g), 6% processed (fruit juice), and 6% culinary processed (oils). Using substitution modeling, diet quality improved by 59% and 71% for adults and children, respectively, and affordability increased by 20-24%, depending on ethnicity and SES. The NZ diet can be made healthier and more affordable when nutritious, low-cost foods are selected. Processing levels in the healthier, modeled diet suggest that some non-discretionary ultra-processed foods may provide a valuable source of low-cost nutrition for food insecure populations.


Subject(s)
Diet , Nutrients , Adult , Child , Costs and Cost Analysis , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Humans , New Zealand
19.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(4): 756-770, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339700

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Cross-sectional reports on weight gain during the COVID-19 shelter-at-home have raised concerns for weight increases as the pandemic continues. We examined behaviors that impact energy intake and/or energy expenditure among adults in the United States during shelter-at-home. Methods: Cross-sectional data (N=1779; April 24 - May4, 2020) were collected on demographics, diet, physical activity, sleep, and food purchasing behaviors. Percent of participants reporting increase/ decrease/no change in these behaviors during the COVID-19 shelter-at-home were assessed. Each analysis was followed by comparing whether increases or decreases were more likely for each health behavior, in all participants and across sex (43.38% males). Results: Increased consumption of healthy foods, energy-dense unhealthy foods, and snacks, and increased sedentary activities (p < .001) was reported. Physical activity and alcohol intake declined (p < .001). Females were more likely than males (p < .001) to report ultra-processed foods/high-calorie snack intake, fruit/vegetable intake (p < .001) and increase (p < .01) sleep and sedentary behavior. Conclusion: Acute behavioral changes supporting greater energy intake and less energy expenditure, especially in females, underscore the significance of COVID-19-related increase in unstructured time. Longitudinal assessment of body weight and health behaviors is warranted to understand the impact of pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Feeding Behavior , Health Behavior , Physical Distancing , Sedentary Behavior , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Energy Intake/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Female , Health Behavior/physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , United States
20.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(11): 3177-3178, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324400
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