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Crit Care ; 25(1): 260, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854842


BACKGROUND: The optimal protein dose in critical illness is unknown. We aim to conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the effect of higher versus lower protein delivery (with similar energy delivery between groups) on clinical and patient-centered outcomes in critically ill patients. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CINAHL from database inception through April 1, 2021.We included RCTs of (1) adult (age ≥ 18) critically ill patients that (2) compared higher vs lower protein with (3) similar energy intake between groups, and (4) reported clinical and/or patient-centered outcomes. We excluded studies on immunonutrition. Two authors screened and conducted quality assessment independently and in duplicate. Random-effect meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the pooled risk ratio (dichotomized outcomes) or mean difference (continuous outcomes). RESULTS: Nineteen RCTs were included (n = 1731). Sixteen studies used primarily the enteral route to deliver protein. Intervention was started within 72 h of ICU admission in sixteen studies. The intervention lasted between 3 and 28 days. In 11 studies that reported weight-based nutrition delivery, the pooled mean protein and energy received in higher and lower protein groups were 1.31 ± 0.48 vs 0.90 ± 0.30 g/kg and 19.9 ± 6.9 versus 20.1 ± 7.1 kcal/kg, respectively. Higher vs lower protein did not significantly affect overall mortality [risk ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-1.10, p = 0.34] or other clinical or patient-centered outcomes. In 5 small studies, higher protein significantly attenuated muscle loss (MD -3.44% per week, 95% CI -4.99 to -1.90; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients, a higher daily protein delivery was not associated with any improvement in clinical or patient-centered outcomes. Larger, and more definitive RCTs are needed to confirm the effect of muscle loss attenuation associated with higher protein delivery. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021237530.

Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Energy Intake/physiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Dietary Proteins/therapeutic use , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Enteral Nutrition/standards , Humans , Mortality/trends , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data
Am J Health Behav ; 45(4): 756-770, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339700


Objectives: Cross-sectional reports on weight gain during the COVID-19 shelter-at-home have raised concerns for weight increases as the pandemic continues. We examined behaviors that impact energy intake and/or energy expenditure among adults in the United States during shelter-at-home. Methods: Cross-sectional data (N=1779; April 24 - May4, 2020) were collected on demographics, diet, physical activity, sleep, and food purchasing behaviors. Percent of participants reporting increase/ decrease/no change in these behaviors during the COVID-19 shelter-at-home were assessed. Each analysis was followed by comparing whether increases or decreases were more likely for each health behavior, in all participants and across sex (43.38% males). Results: Increased consumption of healthy foods, energy-dense unhealthy foods, and snacks, and increased sedentary activities (p < .001) was reported. Physical activity and alcohol intake declined (p < .001). Females were more likely than males (p < .001) to report ultra-processed foods/high-calorie snack intake, fruit/vegetable intake (p < .001) and increase (p < .01) sleep and sedentary behavior. Conclusion: Acute behavioral changes supporting greater energy intake and less energy expenditure, especially in females, underscore the significance of COVID-19-related increase in unstructured time. Longitudinal assessment of body weight and health behaviors is warranted to understand the impact of pandemic.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Feeding Behavior , Health Behavior , Physical Distancing , Sedentary Behavior , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Energy Intake/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Female , Health Behavior/physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , United States
Chronobiol Int ; 37(6): 804-808, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591581


COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome are devastating pandemics. Effective control of metabolic parameters and their dysfunction may help prevent or minimize the acute and devastating effects of SARS-CoV-2 by reducing the local inflammatory response and blocking the entry of the virus into cells. With such consideration in mind, we gathered data from dietary surveys conducted in nine European countries to explore the relationship between actual clock hour of the large dinner meal and also interval in minutes between it and sunset in the respective countries and death rate above the median rate of per one million people as an index of mortality due to COVID-19 infection. Clock time of the dinner meal varied between 16:00 and 21:00 h across the European counties sampled, and the correlation between dinner mealtime and death rate was strongly correlated, R = 0.7991 (two-tailed p = 0.0098), with R 2 explaining 63% of the variation within the data. This strong linear positive correlation indicates that the later the clock time of the dinner meal, the higher is the death rate (and vice versa). The relationship between meal timing in reference to sunset, utilized as a gross surrogate marker of the activity/rest synchronizer of circadian rhythms, and death rate was negative and even slightly stronger, R = -0.8025 (two-tailed p = 0.0092), with R 2 explaining 64% of the variation within the data. This strong linear negative correlation indicates that the shorter the interval between the dinner meal and sunset, i.e., the closer the time of the largest meal of the day to bedtime, the greater is the death rate (and vice versa). Our preliminary approach to nighttime eating, in terms of the day's largest caloric intake, as a risk factor for the predisposing conditions of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other commonly associated comorbidities of being overweight, and death from COVID-19 infection reveals strong correlation with the time of the dinner meal, both in terms of its actual clock and circadian time.

Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Meals/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , COVID-19 , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Eating/physiology , Energy Intake/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Humans , Obesity/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Time