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1.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763118

ABSTRACT

Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer and has proven to be critical in viral infections. Metabolic reprogramming provides the cell with energy and biomass for large-scale biosynthesis. Based on studies of the cellular changes that contribute to metabolic reprogramming, seven main hallmarks can be identified: (1) increased glycolysis and lactic acid, (2) increased glutaminolysis, (3) increased pentose phosphate pathway, (4) mitochondrial changes, (5) increased lipid metabolism, (6) changes in amino acid metabolism, and (7) changes in other biosynthetic and bioenergetic pathways. Viruses depend on metabolic reprogramming to increase biomass to fuel viral genome replication and production of new virions. Viruses take advantage of the non-metabolic effects of metabolic reprogramming, creating an anti-apoptotic environment and evading the immune system. Other non-metabolic effects can negatively affect cellular function. Understanding the role metabolic reprogramming plays in viral pathogenesis may provide better therapeutic targets for antivirals.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Viruses , Energy Metabolism , Glycolysis , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Virus Replication , Viruses/genetics
2.
Elife ; 112022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761118

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to rage around the world. At the same time, despite strong public health measures and high vaccination rates in some countries, a post-COVID-19 syndrome has emerged which lacks a clear definition, prevalence, or etiology. However, fatigue, dyspnea, brain fog, and lack of smell and/or taste are often characteristic of patients with this syndrome. These are evident more than a month after infection, and are labeled as Post-Acute Sequelae of CoV-2 (PASC) or commonly referred to as long-COVID. Metabolic dysfunction (i.e., obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus) is a predisposing risk factor for severe acute COVID-19, and there is emerging evidence that this factor plus a chronic inflammatory state may predispose to PASC. In this article, we explore the potential pathogenic metabolic mechanisms that could underly both severe acute COVID-19 and PASC, and then consider how these might be targeted for future therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Disease Susceptibility , Energy Metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Disease Management , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose Intolerance , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
3.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725877

ABSTRACT

While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Sedentary Behavior , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Confined Spaces , Diet/methods , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725891

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort (United Kingdom, N = 21,318, 1993-1998), we studied how associations between meal patterns and non-fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations were influenced by the hour of day at which the blood sample was collected to ascertain face validity of reported meal patterns, as well as the influence of reporting bias (assessed using formula of energy expenditure) on this association. Meal size (i.e., reported energy content), mealtime and meal frequency were reported using pre-structured 7-day diet diaries. In ANCOVA, sex-specific means of biomarker concentrations were calculated by hour of blood sample collection for quartiles of reported energy intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner (meal size). Significant interactions were observed between breakfast size, sampling time and triglyceride concentrations and between lunch size, sampling time and triglyceride, as well as glucose concentrations. Those skipping breakfast had the lowest triglyceride concentrations in the morning and those skipping lunch had the lowest triglyceride and glucose concentrations in the afternoon, especially among acceptable energy reporters. Eating and drinking occasion frequency was weakly associated with glucose concentrations in women and positively associated with triglyceride concentrations in both sexes; stronger associations were observed for larger vs. smaller meals and among acceptable energy reporters. Associations between meal patterns and concentration biomarkers can be observed when accounting for diurnal variation and underreporting. These findings support the use of 7-day diet diaries for studying associations between meal patterns and health.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Diet Records , Eating/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Meals/physiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Triglycerides/blood , United Kingdom
5.
Immunity ; 55(2): 201-209, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720107

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections mostly lead to mild or even asymptomatic infections in children, but the reasons for this are not fully understood. More efficient local tissue responses, better thymic function, and cross-reactive immunity have all been proposed to explain this. In rare cases of children and young people, but very rarely in adults, post-infectious hyperinflammatory syndromes can develop and be serious. Here, I will discuss our current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and hypothesize that a life history and energy allocation perspective might offer an additional explanation to mild infections, viral dynamics, and the higher incidence of rare multisystem inflammatory syndromes in children and young people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adaptive Immunity , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , Disease Susceptibility , Energy Metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Patient Outcome Assessment , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Trauma Severity Indices , Virus Replication
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715401

ABSTRACT

Obesity is an increasingly severe public health problem, which brings huge social and economic burdens. Increased body adiposity in obesity is not only tightly associated with type 2 diabetes, but also significantly increases the risks of other chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver diseases and cancers. Adipogenesis describes the process of the differentiation and maturation of adipocytes, which accumulate in distributed adipose tissue at various sites in the body. The major functions of white adipocytes are to store energy as fat during periods when energy intake exceeds expenditure and to mobilize this stored fuel when energy expenditure exceeds intake. Brown/beige adipocytes contribute to non-shivering thermogenesis upon cold exposure and adrenergic stimulation, and thereby promote energy consumption. The imbalance of energy intake and expenditure causes obesity. Recent interest in epigenetics and signaling pathways has utilized small molecule tools aimed at modifying obesity-specific gene expression. In this review, we discuss compounds with adipogenesis-related signaling pathways and epigenetic modulating properties that have been identified as potential therapeutic agents which cast some light on the future treatment of obesity.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis/drug effects , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Obesity/drug therapy , Adiposity/drug effects , Animals , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Humans , Obesity/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Thermogenesis/drug effects
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 828115, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680008

ABSTRACT

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a non-selective mechanosensitive ion channel expressed by various macrophage populations. Recent reports have characterized the role of TRPV4 in shaping the activity and phenotype of macrophages to influence the innate immune response to pathogen exposure and inflammation. TRPV4 has been studied extensively in the context of inflammation and inflammatory pain. Although TRPV4 activity has been generally described as pro-inflammatory, emerging evidence suggests a more complex role where this channel may also contribute to anti-inflammatory activities. However, detailed understanding of how TRPV4 may influence the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of inflammatory disease remains limited. This review highlights recent insights into the cellular processes through which TRPV4 contributes to pathological conditions and immune processes, with a focus on macrophage biology. The potential use of high-throughput and omics methods as an unbiased approach for studying the functional outcomes of TRPV4 activation is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism , Animals , Carrier Proteins , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Ligands , Macrophage Activation/genetics , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Mechanotransduction, Cellular , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Binding
9.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(2): 94, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653404

ABSTRACT

Numerous post-translational modifications (PTMs) govern the collective metabolism of a cell through altering the structure and functions of proteins. The action of the most prevalent PTMs, encompassing phosphorylation, methylation, acylations, ubiquitination and glycosylation is well documented. A less explored protein PTM, conversion of peptidylarginine to citrulline, is the subject of this review. The process of citrullination is catalysed by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a family of conserved enzymes expressed in a variety of human tissues. Accumulating evidence suggest that citrullination plays a significant role in regulating cellular metabolism and gene expression by affecting a multitude of pathways and modulating the chromatin status. Here, we will discuss the biochemical nature of arginine citrullination, the enzymatic machinery behind it and also provide information on the pathological consequences of citrullination in the development of inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, periodontitis and COVID-19), cancer and thromboembolism. Finally, developments on inhibitors against protein citrullination and recent clinical trials providing a promising therapeutic approach to inflammatory disease by targeting citrullination are discussed.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Citrullination/physiology , Inflammation/pathology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology , Protein-Arginine Deiminases/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Citrulline/biosynthesis , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thromboembolism/pathology
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597513

ABSTRACT

Obesity has now reached pandemic proportions and represents a major socioeconomic and health problem in our societies [...].


Subject(s)
Hypothalamus/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Hypothalamus/physiopathology
11.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597185

ABSTRACT

Beta-3 adrenergic receptor activation via exercise or CL316,243 (CL) induces white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, improves glucose tolerance, and reduces visceral adiposity. Our aim was to determine if sex or adipose tissue depot differences exist in response to CL. Daily CL injections were administered to diet-induced obese male and female mice for two weeks, creating four groups: male control, male CL, female control, and female CL. These groups were compared to determine the main and interaction effects of sex (S), CL treatment (T), and WAT depot (D). Glucose tolerance, body composition, and energy intake and expenditure were assessed, along with perigonadal (PGAT) and subcutaneous (SQAT) WAT gene and protein expression. CL consistently improved glucose tolerance and body composition. Female PGAT had greater protein expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), while SQAT (S, p < 0.001) was more responsive to CL in increasing UCP1 (S×T, p = 0.011) and the mitochondrial biogenesis induction protein, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) (S×T, p = 0.026). Females also displayed greater mitochondrial OXPHOS (S, p < 0.05) and adiponectin protein content (S, p < 0.05). On the other hand, male SQAT was more responsive to CL in increasing protein levels of PGC1α (S×T, p = 0.046) and adiponectin (S, p < 0.05). In both depots and in both sexes, CL significantly increased estrogen receptor beta (ERß) and glucose-related protein 75 (GRP75) protein content (T, p < 0.05). Thus, CL improves systemic and adipose tissue-specific metabolism in both sexes; however, sex differences exist in the WAT-specific effects of CL. Furthermore, across sexes and depots, CL affects estrogen signaling by upregulating ERß.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , PPAR gamma/genetics , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha/genetics , Uncoupling Protein 1/genetics , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, Brown/growth & development , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , Animals , Body Composition/genetics , Dioxoles/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism/genetics , Estrogen Receptor beta/genetics , Estrogens/genetics , Estrogens/metabolism , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Male , Mice , Mitochondria/genetics , Mitochondria/metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/genetics , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/metabolism , Sex Characteristics
12.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593561

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a health problem with increasing impacts on public health, economy and even social life. In order to reestablish the energy balance, obesity management focuses mainly on two pillars; exercise and diet. Beyond the contribution to the caloric intake, the diet nutrients and composition govern a variety of properties. This includes the energy balance-independent properties and the indirect metabolic effects. Whereas the energy balance-independent properties are close to "pharmacological" effects and include effects such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, the indirect metabolic effects represent the contribution a diet can have on energy metabolism beyond the caloric contribution itself, which include the food intake control and metabolic changes. As an illustration, we also described the metabolic implication and hypothetical pathways of the high-fat diet-induced gene Trefoil Factor Family 2. The properties the diet has can have a variety of applications mainly in pharmacology and nutrition and further explore the "pharmacologically" active food towards potential therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Caloric Restriction/methods , Obesity/diet therapy , Trefoil Factor-2/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Humans , Obesity/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2082, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the health risks of sedentary working environments become more clear, greater emphasis on the implementation of walking interventions to reduce sitting time is needed. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigate the role of treadmill-desk interventions on energy expenditure, sitting time, and cardiometabolic health in adults with sedentary occupations. METHODS: Relevant studies published in English were identified using CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases up to December 2020. Random effects meta-analysis models were used to pool study results. RESULTS: Thirteen relevant studies (six workplaces and seven laboratories) were found with a total of 351 participants. Pooled analysis of laboratory studies showed a significant increase in energy expenditure (105.23 kcal per hour, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.41 to 120.4), as well as metabolic rate (5.0 mL/kg/min, 95% CI: 3.35 to 6.64), among treadmill desk users compared to sitting conditions. No evidence of significant differences in blood pressure were found. In workplace studies, we observed a significant reduction in sitting time over a 24-h period (- 1.73 min per hour, 95% CI: - 3.3 to - 0.17) among users of treadmill desks, compared to a conventional desk. However, there were no evidence of statistically significant changes in other metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Treadmill desks offer a feasible and effective intervention to increase energy expenditure and metabolic rate and reduce sitting time while performing work-related tasks. Future studies are needed to increase generalizability to different workplace settings and further evaluate their impact on cardiometabolic health.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Occupational Health , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Sitting Position , Walking , Workplace
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512559

ABSTRACT

Wearable technologies are known to improve our quality of life. Among the various wearable devices, shoes are non-intrusive, lightweight, and can be used for outdoor activities. In this study, we estimated the energy consumption and heart rate in an environment (i.e., running on a treadmill) using smart shoes equipped with triaxial acceleration, triaxial gyroscope, and four-point pressure sensors. The proposed model uses the latest deep learning architecture which does not require any separate preprocessing. Moreover, it is possible to select the optimal sensor using a channel-wise attention mechanism to weigh the sensors depending on their contributions to the estimation of energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR). The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using the root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and coefficient of determination (R2). Moreover, the RMSE was 1.05 ± 0.15, MAE 0.83 ± 0.12 and R2 0.922 ± 0.005 in EE estimation. On the other hand, and RMSE was 7.87 ± 1.12, MAE 6.21 ± 0.86, and R2 0.897 ± 0.017 in HR estimation. In both estimations, the most effective sensor was the z axis of the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors. Through these results, it is demonstrated that the proposed model could contribute to the improvement of the performance of both EE and HR estimations by effectively selecting the optimal sensors during the active movements of participants.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Shoes , Energy Metabolism , Heart Rate , Humans , Quality of Life
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1694, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for the betterment of health status, while also considering health expenditure, energy, and environmental issues. This paper examines the nexus between health status and health expenditure (both public and private), energy consumption and environmental pollution in the SAARC-BIMSTEC region. METHODS: We utilized the panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, the heterogeneous panel causality test, the cross sectional dependence test, the cointegration test and the Pesaran cross sectional dependent (CADF) unit root test for obtaining estimated results from data over 16 years (2002-2017). RESULTS: Our results authorize the cointegration among the variables used, where the coefficients of energy consumption, public and private health expenditures, and economic growth are 0.027, 0.014, 0.030, and 0.029, respectively, and indicating positive and statistically significant effects. The coefficient of environmental pollution is - 0.085, implying significant negative effect on the health status of these regions in the long-run. However, no panel wise significant impact is found in the short-run. Bidirectional and unidirectional causal links between the studied variables and the health status are also identified.. CONCLUSIONS: The improved health status in the SAARC-BIMSTEC region needs to be protected by articulating the effective policies. The attained results are theoretically and empirically consistent, and have important policy implications in the health sector.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Expenditures , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economic Development , Energy Metabolism , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 712572, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472386

ABSTRACT

The complement system is central to first-line defense against invading pathogens. However, excessive complement activation and/or the loss of complement regulation contributes to the development of autoimmune diseases, systemic inflammation, and thrombosis. One of the three pathways of the complement system, the alternative complement pathway, plays a vital role in amplifying complement activation and pathway signaling. Complement factor D, a serine protease of this pathway that is required for the formation of C3 convertase, is the rate-limiting enzyme. In this review, we discuss the function of factor D within the alternative pathway and its implication in both healthy physiology and disease. Because the alternative pathway has a role in many diseases that are characterized by excessive or poorly mediated complement activation, this pathway is an enticing target for effective therapeutic intervention. Nonetheless, although the underlying disease mechanisms of many of these complement-driven diseases are quite well understood, some of the diseases have limited treatment options or no approved treatments at all. Therefore, in this review we explore factor D as a strategic target for advancing therapeutic control of pathological complement activation.


Subject(s)
Complement Factor D/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement Pathway, Alternative/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Aging/immunology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Complement Factor D/biosynthesis , Complement Factor D/deficiency , Complement Factor D/physiology , Energy Metabolism , Geographic Atrophy/genetics , Geographic Atrophy/immunology , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/drug therapy , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/genetics , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/immunology , Hepatocytes , Humans , Kidney Diseases/immunology , Liver/injuries , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/therapeutic use , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Phagocytosis
17.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469382

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses are known to be the most frequent causative mediators of lung infections in humans, bearing significant impact on the host cell signaling machinery due to their host-dependency for efficient replication. Certain cellular functions are actively induced by respiratory viruses for their own benefit. This includes metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis (FAS) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, among others, which are modified during viral infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of metabolic pathway modifications mediated by the acute respiratory viruses respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (RV), influenza virus (IV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), coronavirus (CoV) and adenovirus (AdV), and highlight potential targets and compounds for therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid Cycle/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Fatty Acids/biosynthesis , Glycolysis/physiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolism , Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/metabolism , Rhinovirus/metabolism
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166289, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466061

ABSTRACT

To explore the recovery of renal function in severely ill coronavirus disease (COVID-19) survivors and determine the plasma metabolomic profile of patients with different renal outcomes 3 months after discharge, we included 89 severe COVID-19 survivors who had been discharged from Wuhan Union Hospital for 3 months. All patients had no underlying kidney disease before admission. At patient recruitment, renal function assessment, laboratory examination, chest computed tomography (CT) were performed. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect metabolites in the plasma. We analyzed the longitudinally change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum creatinine and cystatin-c levels using the CKD-EPI equation and explored the metabolomic differences in patients with different eGFR change patterns from hospitalization to 3 months after discharge. Lung CT showed good recovery; however, the median eGFR significantly decreased at the 3-month follow-up. Among the 89 severely ill COVID-19 patients, 69 (77.5%) showed abnormal eGFR (<90 mL/min per 1.73 m2) at 3 months after discharge. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.47, p = 0.003), body mass index (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.20-3.22, p = 0.007), and cystatin-c level (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07-1.39, p = 0.003) at discharge were independent risk factors for post-discharge abnormal eGFR. Plasma metabolomics at the 3-months follow-up revealed that ß-pseudouridine, uridine, and 2-(dimethylamino) guanosine levels gradually increased with an abnormal degree of eGFR. Moreover, the kynurenine pathway in tryptophan metabolism, vitamin B6 metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, and arginine biosynthesis were also perturbed in survivors with abnormal eGFR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Energy Metabolism , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Patient Discharge , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment
19.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 46: 510-518, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have verified that the SARS-CoV-2 infection (from December 2019 has affected 123 million people throughout the world and more than 3 million people in Italy), can have medium-term and long-term effects, collectively referred to as "post-Covid syndrome" or "long-Covid" characterized by chronic fatigue, followed by muscle weakness, dyspnea and headache. Chronic fatigue or chronic tiredness is a persistent symptom both in patients who have experienced a severe infection and in those who have experienced a mild form of infection. Studies conducted on both patients discharged from hospital and patients managed at home showed that there was no association between the severity of the Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) and the subsequent chronic fatigue symptom. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a nutritional supplement based on vitamins, minerals, amino acids and plant extracts (Apportal®) intake, to ameliorate the general health status in particular the chronic fatigue symptom in subjects after SARS-CoV-2 negativity. METHODS: Participants were advised to take one sachet daily of Apportal® for 28 consecutive days. At the beginning (T0), after 14 days (T1) and after 28 days (T2) of supplementation, general fatigue, mental fatigue and Quality of Life indexes were evaluated through specific questionnaires. The assessment of quality of life and health status were measured through the EuroQoL-5D questionnaire, chronic fatigue using the FACIT-Fatigue questionnaire and mental fatigue using the modified Chalder questionnaire. RESULTS: 201 subjects were enrolled for the study; results showed a significant improvement in all indexes analyzed after 14 and 28 days of supplementation. The main significant improvement was observed after the first 14 days and it was further confirmed at 28 days as well. The RTE (Relative Treatment Effect) trend about quality of life, health status, FACIT-Fatigue and mental fatigue in the three questionnaires was statistically significant (Wald Statistic, p < 0.0001). The data of FACIT-questionnaire showed an improvement of at least 1 unit in 76.62% of subjects after 14 days and in 90.05% of subjects after 28 days. An improvement of 10-unit was found in about one third of subjects after 14 days and in half of the subjects after 28 days. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that Apportal® can reduce chronic fatigue and improve quality of life and health status in subjects after SARS-CoV-2 negativity due to the synergistic effect of its components.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Dietary Supplements , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Physiol Rep ; 9(18): e15044, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436402

ABSTRACT

In humans, exercise-induced thermogenesis is a markedly variable component of total energy expenditure, which had been acutely affected worldwide by COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns. We hypothesized that dietary macronutrient composition may affect metabolic adaptation/fuel selection in response to an acute decrease in voluntary activity. Using mice fed short-term high-fat diet (HFD) compared to low-fat diet (LFD)-fed mice, we evaluated whole-body fuel utilization by metabolic cages before and 3 days after omitting a voluntary running wheel in the cage. Short-term (24-48 h) HFD was sufficient to increase energy intake, fat oxidation, and decrease carbohydrate oxidation. Running wheel omission did not change energy intake, but resulted in a significant 50% decrease in total activity and a ~20% in energy expenditure in the active phase (night-time), compared to the period with wheel, irrespective of the dietary composition, resulting in significant weight gain. Yet, while in LFD wheel omission significantly decreased active phase fat oxidation, thereby trending to increase respiratory exchange ratio (RER), in HFD it diminished active phase carbohydrate oxidation. In conclusion, acute decrease in voluntary activity resulted in positive energy balance in mice on both diets, and decreased oxidation of the minor energy (macronutrient) fuel source, demonstrating that dietary macronutrient composition determines fuel utilization choices under conditions of acute changes in energetic demand.


Subject(s)
Diet, Fat-Restricted , Diet, High-Fat , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Energy Metabolism , Adaptation, Physiological , Animal Feed , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Energy Intake , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Running , Time Factors
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