Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 567
Filter
1.
Bone Joint J ; 104-B(10): 1156-1167, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196752

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Hip fracture commonly affects the frailest patients, of whom many are care-dependent, with a disproportionate risk of contracting COVID-19. We examined the impact of COVID-19 infection on hip fracture mortality in England. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of patients with hip fracture recorded in the National Hip Fracture Database between 1 February 2019 and 31 October 2020 in England. Data were linked to Hospital Episode Statistics to quantify patient characteristics and comorbidities, Office for National Statistics mortality data, and Public Health England's SARS-CoV-2 testing results. Multivariable Cox regression examined determinants of 90-day mortality. Excess mortality attributable to COVID-19 was quantified using Quasi-Poisson models. RESULTS: Analysis of 102,900 hip fractures (42,630 occurring during the pandemic) revealed that among those with COVID-19 infection at presentation (n = 1,120) there was a doubling of 90-day mortality; hazard ratio (HR) 2.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.89 to 2.31), while the HR for infections arising between eight and 30 days after presentation (n = 1,644) the figure was greater at 2.51 (95% CI 2.31 to 2.73). Malnutrition (1.45 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.77)) and nonoperative treatment (2.94 (95% CI 2.18 to 3.95)) were the only modifiable risk factors for death in COVID-19-positive patients. Patients who had tested positive for COVID-19 more than two weeks prior to hip fracture initially had better survival compared to those who contracted COVID-19 around the time of their hip fracture; however, survival rapidly declined and by 365 days the combination of hip fracture and COVID-19 infection was associated with a 50% mortality rate. Between 1 January and 30 June 2020, 1,273 (99.7% CI 1,077 to 1,465) excess deaths occurred within 90 days of hip fracture, representing an excess mortality of 23% (99.7% CI 20% to 26%), with most deaths occurring within 30 days. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection more than doubles the rate of early hip fracture mortality. Those contracting infection between 8 and 30 days after initial presentation are at even higher mortality risk, signalling the potential for targeted interventions during this period to improve survival.Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(10):1156-1167.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hip Fractures , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , England/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e066868, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137796

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The North East of England, ranked as having the highest poverty levels and the lowest health outcomes, has the highest cardiovascular disease (CVD) premature mortality. This study aimed to compare CVD-related conditions and risk factors for deprived practice populations with other general practice (GP) populations in Northern England to England overall, before and during COVID-19 to identify changes in recorded CVD-related risk factors and conditions and evidence-based lipid prescribing behaviour. DESIGN: A population-based observational study of aggregated practice-level data obtained from publicly accessible data sets. SETTING: 34 practices that fall into the 15% most deprived practice populations in England were identified as the most deprived communities in the North East and North Cumbria (Deep End). PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥16 registered with GP and diagnosed with any form of CVD. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: CVD-related conditions and risk factors, statin prescribing. RESULTS: Deep End (n=263 830) had a smaller, younger and more deprived population with lower levels of employment and full-time education and higher smoking prevalence. They had some higher recorded CVD-related conditions than England but lower than the non-Deep End. Atrial fibrillation (-0.9, -0.5), hypertension (-3.7, -1.3) and stroke and transient ischaemic attack rates (-0.5, -0.1) appeared to be lower in the Deep End than in the non-Deep End but the optimal statin prescribing rate was higher (3.1, 8.2) than in England. CONCLUSION: Recorded CVD-related risk factors and conditions remained comparable before and during COVID-19. These are higher in the Deep End than in England and similar or lower than the non-Deep End, with a higher optimal statin prescribing rate. However, it was not possible to control for age and sex. More work is needed to estimate the consequences of the pandemic on disadvantaged communities and to compare whether the findings are replicated in other areas of deprivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , England/epidemiology , Primary Health Care
3.
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6856, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119477

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus is associated with a wide range of symptoms. The REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission -1 (REACT-1) study monitored the spread and clinical manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 among random samples of the population in England from 1 May 2020 to 31 March 2022. We show changing symptom profiles associated with the different variants over that period, with lower reporting of loss of sense of smell or taste for Omicron compared to previous variants, and higher reporting of cold-like and influenza-like symptoms, controlling for vaccination status. Contrary to the perception that recent variants have become successively milder, Omicron BA.2 was associated with reporting more symptoms, with greater disruption to daily activities, than BA.1. With restrictions lifted and routine testing limited in many countries, monitoring the changing symptom profiles associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and effects on daily activities will become increasingly important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , England/epidemiology
6.
Br Dent J ; 233(9): 787-793, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118335

ABSTRACT

Introduction People who present with more advanced stage head and neck cancer (HNC) are associated with poorer outcomes and survival. The burden and trends of advanced stage HNC are not fully known at the population level. The UK national cancer registries routinely collect data on HNC diagnoses.Aims To describe trends in stage of diagnosis of HNCs across the UK before the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods Aggregated HNC incidence data were requested from the national cancer registries of the four UK countries for the ten most recent years of available data by subsite and American Joint Commission on Cancer stage at diagnosis classification. Additionally, data for Scotland were available by age group, sex and area-based socioeconomic deprivation category.Results Across the UK, rates of advanced stage HNC had increased, with 59% of patients having advanced disease at diagnosis from 2016-2018. England had a lower proportion of advanced disease (58%) than Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland (65-69%) where stage data were available. The completeness of stage data had improved over recent years (87% by 2018).Conclusion Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, diagnoses of HNC at an advanced stage comprised the majority of HNCs in the UK, representing the major challenge for the cancer healthcare system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Registries , Incidence , England/epidemiology
7.
Br J Nurs ; 31(20): 1046-1050, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115617

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic enveloped the globe there was a parallel increase in the incidence of domestic abuse (DA). This has been ascribed to the restrictions in movement and growing tensions during lockdown periods. The Domestic Abuse Act covering England and Wales was about to be passed prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, but progress halted as attention focused on managing infection control and treatment nationally. The unfolding DA 'shadow pandemic' led to pressure groups lobbying for specific changes to the Act which, in its revised form, became law in April 2021. This article sets out the changes in definition, statutory response and prevention of DA and relates these to nursing practice. Health education and promotion theory is considered and linked to nursing practice with those who are both victims/survivors and perpetrators of DA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Humans , Wales/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology
8.
PLoS Med ; 19(11): e1004118, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) deaths are rare in children and young people (CYP). The high rates of asymptomatic and mild infections complicate assessment of cause of death in CYP. We assessed the cause of death in all CYP with a positive Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test since the start of the pandemic in England. METHODS AND FINDINGS: CYP aged <20 years who died within 100 days of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 01 March 2020 and 31 December 2021 in England were followed up in detail, using national databases, surveillance questionnaires, post-mortem reports, and clinician interviews. There were 185 deaths during the 22-month follow-up and 81 (43.8%) were due to COVID-19. Compared to non-COVID-19 deaths in CYP with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, death due to COVID-19 was independently associated with older age (aOR 1.06 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.11, p = 0.02) and underlying comorbidities (aOR 2.52 95% CI 1.27 to 5.01, p = 0.008), after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity group, and underlying conditions, with a shorter interval between SARS-CoV-2 testing and death. Half the COVID-19 deaths (41/81, 50.6%) occurred within 7 days of confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 91% (74/81) within 30 days. Of the COVID-19 deaths, 61 (75.3%) had an underlying condition, especially severe neurodisability (n = 27) and immunocompromising conditions (n = 12). Over the 22-month surveillance period, SARS-CoV-2 was responsible for 1.2% (81/6,790) of all deaths in CYP aged <20 years, with an infection fatality rate of 0.70/100,000 SARS-CoV-2 infections in this age group estimated through real-time, nowcasting modelling, and a mortality rate of 0.61/100,000. Limitations include possible under-ascertainment of deaths in CYP who were not tested for SARS-CoV-2 and lack of direct access to clinical data for hospitalised CYP. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 deaths remain extremely rare in CYP, with most fatalities occurring within 30 days of infection and in children with specific underlying conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Prospective Studies , England/epidemiology
9.
BMJ ; 379: o2710, 2022 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108266
10.
Risk Anal ; 42(7): 1571-1584, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097864

ABSTRACT

Understanding is still developing about spatial risk factors for COVID-19 infection or mortality. This is a secondary analysis of patient records in a confined area of eastern England, covering persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 through end May 2020, including dates of death and residence area. We obtained residence area data on air quality, deprivation levels, care home bed capacity, age distribution, rurality, access to employment centers, and population density. We considered these covariates as risk factors for excess cases and excess deaths in the 28 days after confirmation of positive Covid status relative to the overall case load and death recorded for the study area as a whole. We used the conditional autoregressive Besag-York-Mollie model to investigate the spatial dependency of cases and deaths allowing for a Poisson error structure. Structural equation models were applied to clarify relationships between predictors and outcomes. Excess case counts or excess deaths were both predicted by the percentage of population age 65 years, care home bed capacity and less rurality: older population and more urban areas saw excess cases. Greater deprivation did not correlate with excess case counts but was significantly linked to higher mortality rates after infection. Neither excess cases nor excess deaths were predicted by population density, travel time to local employment centers, or air quality indicators. Only 66% of mortality was explained by locally high case counts. Higher deprivation clearly linked to higher COVID-19 mortality separate from wider community prevalence and other spatial risk factors.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , England/epidemiology , Humans , Mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Br Dent J ; 233(8): 653-658, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096673

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic impacted significantly on dental service delivery across England.Objective To explore how and why the pandemic affected antibiotic prescribing by primary care dentists.Methods Mixed-methods study: secondary analysis of routinely collected NHS dental antibiotic prescribing data from before and during the pandemic; and an online survey of dentists (NHS and private) across England's regions.Results Dental antibiotic prescribing increased 22% in the pandemic's first year, with regional variation from a 12.1% increase in London to 29.1% in East of England. Of 159 dentists surveyed, 60% had prescribed 'many more' antibiotics. Some urgent dental centres required antibiotics before accepting referrals, irrespective of clinical appropriateness. Diagnosing remotely was hard. Antibiotics were used to delay aerosol generating procedures and fill gaps in services. Widespread frustration existed.Discussion Maintaining access to urgent dental care during a future pandemic would include availability of high-grade personal protective equipment for dental teams. Everyone must understand the impact of restricted dental access on antibiotic overprescribing and hence antibiotic resistance.Conclusion Reduced dental access and changes in dental service delivery because of the pandemic increased antibiotic prescribing. Ensuring uninterrupted access for all to effective urgent dental care is an important element of global efforts to tackle antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , England/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation
12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(10): e1010554, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089312

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had high mortality rates in the elderly and frail worldwide, particularly in care homes. This is driven by the difficulty of isolating care homes from the wider community, the large population sizes within care facilities (relative to typical households), and the age/frailty of the residents. To quantify the mortality risk posed by disease, the case fatality risk (CFR) is an important tool. This quantifies the proportion of cases that result in death. Throughout the pandemic, CFR amongst care home residents in England has been monitored closely. To estimate CFR, we apply both novel and existing methods to data on deaths in care homes, collected by Public Health England and the Care Quality Commission. We compare these different methods, evaluating their relative strengths and weaknesses. Using these methods, we estimate temporal trends in the instantaneous CFR (at both daily and weekly resolutions) and the overall CFR across the whole of England, and dis-aggregated at regional level. We also investigate how the CFR varies based on age and on the type of care required, dis-aggregating by whether care homes include nursing staff and by age of residents. This work has contributed to the summary of measures used for monitoring the UK epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Nursing Homes , Population Density , England/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0264870, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079669

ABSTRACT

Understanding the scale of the threat posed by SARS-CoV2 B.1.1.529, or Omicron, variant formed a key problem in public health in the early part of 2022. Early evidence indicated that the variant was more transmissible and less severe than previous variants. As the virus was expected to spread quickly through the population of England, it was important that some understanding of the immunological landscape of the country was developed. This paper attempts to estimate the number of people with good immunity to the Omicron variant, defined as either recent infection with two doses of vaccine, or two doses of vaccine with a recent booster dose. To achieve this, we use a process of iterative proportional fitting to estimate the cell values of a contingency table, using national immunisation records and real-time model infection estimates as marginal values. Our results indicate that, despite the increased risk of immune evasion with the Omicron variant, a high proportion of England's population had good immunity to the virus, particularly in older age groups. However, low rates of immunity in younger populations may allow endemic infection to persist for some time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071432

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been used to prevent and manage COVID-19 outbreaks in university settings, but few studies have explored their implementation. The aim of the study was to evaluate how an accredited asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 testing service (ATS) was implemented at the University of Nottingham, a multi-campus university in England, to identify barriers and enablers of implementation and to draw out lessons for implementing pandemic response initiatives in higher education settings. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 25 ATS personnel between May and July 2022. Interviews were conducted online, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Participants were asked about their experience of the ATS, barriers and enablers of implementation. Transcripts were thematically analysed. There were four overarching themes: (1) social responsibility and innovation, (2) when, how and why people accessed testing, (3) impact of the ATS on the spread of COVID-19, and (4) lessons learned for the future. In establishing the service, the institution was seen to be valuing its community and socially responsible. The service was viewed to be broadly successful as a COVID-19 mitigation approach. Challenges to service implementation were the rapidly changing pandemic situation and government advice, delays in service accreditation and rollout to staff, ambivalence towards testing and isolating in the target population, and an inability to provide follow-up support for positive cases within the service. Facilitators included service visibility, reduction in organisational bureaucracy and red tape, inclusive leadership, collaborative working with regular feedback on service status, flexibility in service delivery approaches and simplicity of saliva testing. The ATS instilled a perception of early 'return to normality' and impacted positively on staff feelings of safety and wellbeing, with wider benefits for healthcare services and local communities. In conclusion, we identified common themes that have facilitated or hindered the implementation of a SARS-CoV-2 testing service at a university in England. Lessons learned from ATS implementation will inform future pandemic response interventions in higher education settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , RNA, Viral , England/epidemiology
15.
Lancet ; 400(10360): 1305-1320, 2022 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current UK vaccination policy is to offer future COVID-19 booster doses to individuals at high risk of serious illness from COVID-19, but it is still uncertain which groups of the population could benefit most. In response to an urgent request from the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation, we aimed to identify risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes (ie, COVID-19-related hospitalisation or death) in individuals who had completed their primary COVID-19 vaccination schedule and had received the first booster vaccine. METHODS: We constructed prospective cohorts across all four UK nations through linkages of primary care, RT-PCR testing, vaccination, hospitalisation, and mortality data on 30 million people. We included individuals who received primary vaccine doses of BNT162b2 (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccines in our initial analyses. We then restricted analyses to those given a BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 (elasomeran; Moderna) booster and had a severe COVID-19 outcome between Dec 20, 2021, and Feb 28, 2022 (when the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant was dominant). We fitted time-dependent Poisson regression models and calculated adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) and 95% CIs for the associations between risk factors and COVID-19-related hospitalisation or death. We adjusted for a range of potential covariates, including age, sex, comorbidities, and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Stratified analyses were conducted by vaccine type. We then did pooled analyses across UK nations using fixed-effect meta-analyses. FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, 2020, and Feb 28, 2022, 16 208 600 individuals completed their primary vaccine schedule and 13 836 390 individuals received a booster dose. Between Dec 20, 2021, and Feb 28, 2022, 59 510 (0·4%) of the primary vaccine group and 26 100 (0·2%) of those who received their booster had severe COVID-19 outcomes. The risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes reduced after receiving the booster (rate change: 8·8 events per 1000 person-years to 7·6 events per 1000 person-years). Older adults (≥80 years vs 18-49 years; aRR 3·60 [95% CI 3·45-3·75]), those with comorbidities (≥5 comorbidities vs none; 9·51 [9·07-9·97]), being male (male vs female; 1·23 [1·20-1·26]), and those with certain underlying health conditions-in particular, individuals receiving immunosuppressants (yes vs no; 5·80 [5·53-6·09])-and those with chronic kidney disease (stage 5 vs no; 3·71 [2·90-4·74]) remained at high risk despite the initial booster. Individuals with a history of COVID-19 infection were at reduced risk (infected ≥9 months before booster dose vs no previous infection; aRR 0·41 [95% CI 0·29-0·58]). INTERPRETATION: Older people, those with multimorbidity, and those with specific underlying health conditions remain at increased risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation and death after the initial vaccine booster and should, therefore, be prioritised for additional boosters, including novel optimised versions, and the increasing array of COVID-19 therapeutics. FUNDING: National Core Studies-Immunity, UK Research and Innovation (Medical Research Council), Health Data Research UK, the Scottish Government, and the University of Edinburgh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunosuppressive Agents , Male , Northern Ireland , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland , Vaccination , Wales/epidemiology
16.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262515, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1688746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the full re-opening of schools in England and emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant, we investigated the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in students and staff who were contacts of a confirmed case in a school bubble (school groupings with limited interactions), along with their household members. METHODS: Primary and secondary school bubbles were recruited into sKIDsBUBBLE after being sent home to self-isolate following a confirmed case of COVID-19 in the bubble. Bubble participants and their household members were sent home-testing kits comprising nasal swabs for RT-PCR testing and whole genome sequencing, and oral fluid swabs for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: During November-December 2020, 14 bubbles were recruited from 7 schools, including 269 bubble contacts (248 students, 21 staff) and 823 household contacts (524 adults, 299 children). The secondary attack rate was 10.0% (6/60) in primary and 3.9% (4/102) in secondary school students, compared to 6.3% (1/16) and 0% (0/1) among staff, respectively. The incidence rate for household contacts of primary school students was 6.6% (12/183) and 3.7% (1/27) for household contacts of primary school staff. In secondary schools, this was 3.5% (11/317) and 0% (0/1), respectively. Household contacts were more likely to test positive if their bubble contact tested positive although there were new infections among household contacts of uninfected bubble contacts. INTERPRETATION: Compared to other institutional settings, the overall risk of secondary infection in school bubbles and their household contacts was low. Our findings are important for developing evidence-based infection prevention guidelines for educational settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Contact Tracing , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1902, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic markedly disrupted people's lives. It caused higher mortality and morbidity amongst individuals from poorer socio-economic position (SEP). It is well-recognised that job loss has a negative impact on health. We hypothesised that health effects of the pandemic on middle-aged people might be different depending on SEP and changes in employment. METHODS: Data are from the Health and Employment After Fifty (HEAF), a cohort recruited 2013-2014 when aged 50-64 through 24 English general practices. At baseline and annually since, participants completed a questionnaire reporting about demographics, employment, health, lifestyle, and finances. In 2021 we sent an e-survey to all contactable HEAF participants, asking about effects of the first lockdown (March-July 2020). Outcomes were participants' perception of worsening of mental, physical health, and self-rated health (SRH) since lockdown. Associations between SEP, COVID-19 related employment changes and health were explored with Poisson regression with robust standard error, with adjustment for age, sex, and pre-pandemic SRH. RESULTS: In total, 2,469 (53%) returned a usable questionnaire, amongst whom 2,344 provided complete information for these analyses (44% men, mean age 65.7 years). Worsening of mental, physical or SRH since lockdown was reported by 21%, 27% and 17% respectively. Mutually adjusted models showed that reporting struggling financially pre-pandemic (versus living comfortably) was associated with an increased risk of deterioration in: mental (RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.7-2.5), physical health (RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.3), and SRH (RR = 1.6, 95%CI 1.2-2.1). Participants working from home during lockdown and those who lost their job (as opposed to those with unchanged employment) were at increased risk of reporting deterioration in mental health and SRH. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of older workers, working from home, job loss and poorer pre-pandemic SEP were all associated with worsening of mental health and SRH since lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Economic Status , Employment , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Health Place ; 77: 102897, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049236

ABSTRACT

This study examined the association between greenspace and the growth trajectories of anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data from 19,848 urban residents in England who were followed for 20 months between March 2020 and October 2021, we found that living in an area with higher greenspace coverage (exposure) was associated with fewer anxiety symptoms independent of population density, area deprivation levels, socio-demographics, and health profiles. There was limited evidence that greenspace was related to the change of anxiety symptoms over time. No association with anxiety trajectories was found when considering distance to nearest greenspace (proximity), highlighting potentially differential mental health effects of simply having access to local parks and recreation areas versus living in areas of greater natural environment land cover. These findings have important implications for mental health intervention and policymaking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parks, Recreational , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pandemics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL