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J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(6): 981-992, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924344


The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and to assess the pharmacological agents used in such cases as reported in the literature. Patient files were retrospectively scanned to determine the prevalence of neurological symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, dizziness, lack of smell and taste, numbness in arms and legs, change in consciousness, muscle weakness, loss of urine and stool control) and cerebrovascular diseases (ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid/subdural hemorrhage) in 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease (COVID-19) cases (n = 20,099). The diagnostic laboratory, radiology examinations and treatments applied to these cases were recorded. The data from studies presenting cerebrovascular diseases associated with SARS-Cov-2, which constituted 0.035% of all cases, were systematically evaluated from electronic databases. During the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, it was discovered that high doses of enoxaparin sodium anti-Xa are combined with apixaban or acetylsalicylic acid or clopidogrel or piracetam, and mannitol, in addition to SARS-CoV-2 treatment modalities. While neurological symptoms of the central nervous system are uncommon in cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, cerebrovascular diseases are far less common, according to the findings of this study. Acute cerebral ischemia was discovered to be the most common cerebrovascular disease associated with SARS-CoV-2. The mortality rate increases with the association between SARS-CoV-2 and cerebrovascular disease.

COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Aspirin , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Clopidogrel , Enoxaparin/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Mannitol , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Piracetam , Pyrazoles , Pyridones , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e933471, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638169


BACKGROUND Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammation of large vessels that affects the lining of the arteries and leads to vessel swelling and the eventual reduction of blood flow. This can result in ischemia of the optic nerve, which is known as arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AAION). The present case seems noteworthy because the patient developed GCA with the ocular manifestation of AAION shortly after having COVID-19. CASE REPORT A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the Clinic of Ophthalmology after having COVID-19. She reported vision loss in the left eye, which appeared 2.5 weeks after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. While in the hospital, she was diagnosed with AAION and GCA. The patient was treated with enoxaparin sodium, prednisone, and methotrexate. Three months after the hospitalization, the visual acuity of the left eye was limited to light perception, and optic nerve atrophy was reported. CONCLUSIONS We would like to emphasize the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection as a possible risk factor for the onset of GCA and its ocular manifestations, such as AAION. However, further research is needed to determine the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and GCA. Because some symptoms of the 2 diseases are similar, the diagnosing process might be long and challenging. The diagnosis of GCA should be made as soon as possible to avoid serious complications, such as bilateral vision loss.

COVID-19 , Giant Cell Arteritis , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic , Aged , Enoxaparin/analogs & derivatives , Female , Giant Cell Arteritis/complications , Giant Cell Arteritis/diagnosis , Humans , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic/diagnosis , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
Echocardiography ; 37(8): 1296-1299, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690498


We present a late presentation of saddle pulmonary embolism and thrombus-in-transit straddle the patent foramen on patient who successfully recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Seven days postdischarge (ie, 28 days after initial COVID-19 symptom onset), she was readmitted to hospital for severe dyspnea. Computer tomography angiogram and echocardiography confirmed the diagnosis. Severe pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic states with endothelial involvement have been reported associated with severe COVID-19 infection. However, the duration of hypercoagulable state has not yet known. This case highlights the risk of thromboembolic phenomena for prolonged periods of times after recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia.

Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Dyspnea/etiology , Enoxaparin/analogs & derivatives , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Patient Readmission , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology