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1.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(5): 4667-4675, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237535

ABSTRACT

The transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is a membrane anchored protease that primarily expressed by epithelial cells of respiratory and gastrointestinal systems and has been linked to multiple pathological processes in humans including tumor growth, metastasis and viral infections. Recent studies have shown that TMPRSS2 expressed on cell surface of host cells could play a crucial role in activation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein which facilitates the rapid early entry of the virus into host cells. In addition, direct suppression of TMPRSS2 using small drug inhibitors has been demonstrated to be effective in decreasing SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, which presents TMPRSS2 protease as a potential therapeutic strategy for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recently, SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to be capable of infecting gastrointestinal enterocytes and to provoke gastrointestinal disorders in patients with COVID-19 disease, which is considered as a new transmission route and target organ of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we highlight the biochemical properties of TMPRSS2 protease and discuss the potential targeting of TMPRSS2 by inhibitors to prevent the SARS-CoV-2 spreading through gastro-intestinal tract system as well as the hurdles that need to be overcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Enterocytes/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enterocytes/metabolism , Enterocytes/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
2.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104892, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213429

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was recently outbreak worldwide causes severe acute respiratory syndrome along with gastrointestinal symptoms for some infected patients. Information on detail pathogenesis, host immune responses and responsible biological pathways are limited. Therefore, infection specific host gut responses and dietary supplements to neutralize immune inflammation demand extensive research. This study aimed to find differences in global co-expression protein-protein interaction sub-network and enriched biological processes in SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infected gut enterocytes cell line. Attempts have also been made to predict some dietary supplements to boost human health. The SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infected differential express proteins were integrated with the human protein interaction network and co-expression subnetworks were constructed. Common hubs of these sub-networks reshape central cellular pathways of metabolic processes, lipid localization, hypoxia response to decrease oxygen level and transport of bio-molecules. The major biological process enriched in the unique hub of SARS-CoV-2 significantly differ from SARS-CoV, related to interferon signaling, regulation of viral process and influenza-A enzymatic pathway. Predicted dietary supplements can improve SARS-CoV-2 infected person''s health by boosting the host immunity/reducing inflammation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on co-expression network mediated biological process in human gut enterocytes to predict dietary supplements/compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Enterocytes/metabolism , Enterocytes/virology , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Dietary Supplements , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Protein Interaction Maps , RNA-Seq , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Biol Open ; 10(3)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148236

ABSTRACT

People with underlying conditions, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, are especially susceptible to negative outcomes after infection with coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. Hypertension and respiratory inflammation are exacerbated by the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS), which normally protects from rapidly dropping blood pressure via Angiotensin II (Ang II) produced by the enzyme Ace. The Ace paralog Ace2 degrades Ang II, counteracting its chronic effects, and serves as the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. Ace, the coronavirus, and COVID-19 comorbidities all regulate Ace2, but we do not yet understand how. To exploit zebrafish (Danio rerio) to help understand the relationship of the RAAS to COVID-19, we must identify zebrafish orthologs and co-orthologs of human RAAS genes and understand their expression patterns. To achieve these goals, we conducted genomic and phylogenetic analyses and investigated single cell transcriptomes. Results showed that most human RAAS genes have one or more zebrafish orthologs or co-orthologs. Results identified a specific type of enterocyte as the specific site of expression of zebrafish orthologs of key RAAS components, including Ace, Ace2, Slc6a19 (SARS-CoV-2 co-receptor), and the Angiotensin-related peptide cleaving enzymes Anpep (receptor for the common cold coronavirus HCoV-229E), and Dpp4 (receptor for the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus, MERS-CoV). Results identified specific vascular cell subtypes expressing Ang II receptors, apelin, and apelin receptor genes. These results identify genes and cell types to exploit zebrafish as a disease model for understanding mechanisms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Enterocytes , Gene Expression Regulation , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zebrafish Proteins , Zebrafish , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Enterocytes/metabolism , Enterocytes/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Zebrafish/genetics , Zebrafish/metabolism , Zebrafish/virology , Zebrafish Proteins/biosynthesis , Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
4.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(4): e13191, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068062

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the agent that causes COVID-19, invades epithelial cells, including those of the respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosa, using angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) as a receptor. Subsequent inflammation can promote rapid virus clearance, but severe cases of COVID-19 are characterized by an inefficient immune response that fails to clear the infection. Using primary epithelial organoids from human colon, we explored how the central antiviral mediator IFN-γ, which is elevated in COVID-19, affects epithelial cell differentiation, ACE2 expression, and susceptibility to infection with SARS-CoV-2. In mouse and human colon, ACE2 is mainly expressed by surface enterocytes. Inducing enterocyte differentiation in organoid culture resulted in increased ACE2 production. IFN-γ treatment promoted differentiation into mature KRT20+ enterocytes expressing high levels of ACE2, increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and resulted in enhanced virus production in infected cells. Similarly, infection-induced epithelial interferon signaling promoted enterocyte maturation and enhanced ACE2 expression. We here reveal a mechanism by which IFN-γ-driven inflammatory responses induce a vulnerable epithelial state with robust replication of SARS-CoV-2, which may have an impact on disease outcome and virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Colon/immunology , Colon/pathology , Colon/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Enterocytes/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Enterocytes/virology , Gene Expression , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/administration & dosage , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Mice , Organoids/immunology , Organoids/pathology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/immunology
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 575559, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000068

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is a great challenge for worldwide researchers in the human microbiota area because the mechanisms and long-term effects of the infection at the GI level are not yet deeply understood. In the current review, scientific literature including original research articles, clinical studies, epidemiological reports, and review-type articles concerning human intestinal infection with SARS-CoV-2 and the possible consequences on the microbiota were reviewed. Moreover, the following aspects pertaining to COVID-19 have also been discussed: transmission, resistance in the human body, the impact of nutritional status in relation to the intestinal microbiota, and the impact of comorbid metabolic disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBS), obesity, and type two diabetes (T2D). The articles investigated show that health, age, and nutritional status are associated with specific communities of bacterial species in the gut, which could influence the clinical course of COVID-19 infection. Fecal microbiota alterations were associated with fecal concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 severity. Patients suffering from metabolic and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are thought to be at a moderate-to-high risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2, indicating the direct implication of gut dysbiosis in COVID-19 severity. However, additional efforts are required to identify the initial GI symptoms of COVID-19 for possible early intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Dysbiosis/etiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Enterocytes/pathology , Enterocytes/virology , Feces/microbiology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/microbiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/microbiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/microbiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Virus Res ; 280: 197901, 2020 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833197

ABSTRACT

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) primarily replicates in intestinal epithelial cells and causes severe damage to host cells, resulting in diarrhea. Surface NHE3 serves as the key regulatory site controlling electroneutral Na+ absorption. In this study, our results showed that the surface NHE3 content was significantly reduced following TGEV infection, whereas the total level of protein expression was not significantly changed, and NHE3 activity gradually decreased with prolonged infection time. We then inhibited SGLT1 expression by lentiviral interference and drug inhibition, respectively. Inhibition studies showed that the level of phosphorylation of the downstream key proteins, MAPKAPK-2 and EZRIN, in the SGLT1-mediated p38MAPK/AKt2 signaling pathway was significantly increased. The surface NHE3 expression was also significantly increased, and NHE3 activity was also significantly enhanced. These results demonstrate that a TGEV infection can inhibit NHE3 translocation and attenuates sodium-hydrogen exchange activity via the SGLT1-mediated p38MAPK/AKt2 signaling pathway, affecting cellular electrolyte absorption leading to diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Enterocytes/virology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1/genetics , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1/metabolism , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3/genetics , Swine , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics
7.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110243, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739960

ABSTRACT

Recently, a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was discovered in China. Due to its high level of contagion, it has already reached most countries, quickly becoming a pandemic. Although the most common symptoms are related to breathing problems, SARS-CoV-2 infections also affect the gastrointestinal tract culminating in inflammation and diarrhea. However, the mechanisms related to these enteric manifestations are still not well understood. Evidence shows that the SARS-CoV-2 binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE2) in host cells as a viral invasion mechanism and can infect the lungs and the gut. Other viruses have already been linked to intestinal symptoms through binding to ACE2. In turn, this medical hypothesis article conjectures that the ACE2 downregulation caused by the SARS-CoV-2 internalization could lead to decreased activation of the mechanistic target of mTOR with increased autophagy and lead to intestinal dysbiosis, resulting in diarrhea. Besides that, dysbiosis can directly affect the respiratory system through the lungs. Although there are clues to other viruses that modulate the ACE2/gut/lungs axis, including the participation of autophagy and dysbiosis in the development of gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no evidence of the ACE2/mTOR/autophagy pathway in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Thus, we propose that the new coronavirus causes a change in the intestinal microbiota, which culminates in a diarrheal process through the ACE2/mTOR/autophagy pathway into enterocytes. Our assumption is supported by premises that unregulated intestinal microbiota increases the susceptibility to other diseases and extra-intestinal manifestations, which can even cause remote damage in lungs. These putative connections lead us to suggest and encourage future studies aiming at assessing the aforementioned hypothesis and regulating dysbiosis caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to confirm the decrease in lung injuries and the improvement in the prognosis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Autophagy , COVID-19/metabolism , Diarrhea/complications , Dysbiosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Enterocytes/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Intestines/virology , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System
8.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(3): 385-386, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703958

ABSTRACT

COVD-19 disease is characteristically respiratory in nature; however, some patients have gastrointestinal symptoms. These include changes in taste, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. A report has been published of a young patient who repeatedly tested positive in stool samples while nasopharyngeal tests remained negative. This raises doubts about our understanding of the dynamics of COVID-19 disease. The current report describes a need for selective stool testing to explore fecal shedding of viral RNA and presents a hypothesis for direct infection of enterocytes in cases of hypochlorhydria.


Subject(s)
Achlorhydria/virology , COVID-19/complications , Diarrhea/virology , Enterocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral/metabolism
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602760

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence of gastrointestinal (GI) infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We surveyed the co-expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes ACE2 and TMPRSS2 throughout the GI tract to assess potential sites of infection. Publicly available and in-house single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets from the GI tract were queried. Enterocytes from the small intestine and colonocytes showed the highest proportions of cells co-expressing ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Therefore, the lower GI tract represents the most likely site of SARS-CoV-2 entry leading to GI infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Enterocytes/metabolism , Lower Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Base Sequence , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Enterocytes/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Lower Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization
11.
Nat Med ; 26(7): 1077-1083, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260261

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-emerged in humans in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has since disseminated globally1,2. As of April 16, 2020, the confirmed case count of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had surpassed 2 million. Based on full-genome sequence analysis, SARS-CoV-2 shows high homology to SARS-related coronaviruses identified in horseshoe bats1,2. Here we show the establishment and characterization of expandable intestinal organoids derived from horseshoe bats of the Rhinolophus sinicus species that can recapitulate bat intestinal epithelium. These bat enteroids are fully susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and sustain robust viral replication. Development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some patients with COVID-19 and detection of viral RNA in fecal specimens suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might cause enteric, in addition to respiratory, infection3,4. Here we demonstrate active replication of SARS-CoV-2 in human intestinal organoids and isolation of infectious virus from the stool specimen of a patient with diarrheal COVID-19. Collectively, we established the first expandable organoid culture system of bat intestinal epithelium and present evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can infect bat intestinal cells. The robust SARS-CoV-2 replication in human intestinal organoids suggests that the human intestinal tract might be a transmission route of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Intestines/virology , Organoids/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Animals , COVID-19 , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Child, Preschool , Chiroptera/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enterocytes/pathology , Enterocytes/physiology , Enterocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Intestines/pathology , Male , Organoids/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/methods , Viral Tropism/physiology
12.
Sci Immunol ; 5(47)2020 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260039

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA are frequently observed in COVID-19 patients. However, it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the human intestine and contributes to possible fecal-oral transmission. Here, we report productive infection of SARS-CoV-2 in ACE2+ mature enterocytes in human small intestinal enteroids. Expression of two mucosa-specific serine proteases, TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4, facilitated SARS-CoV-2 spike fusogenic activity and promoted virus entry into host cells. We also demonstrate that viruses released into the intestinal lumen were inactivated by simulated human colonic fluid, and infectious virus was not recovered from the stool specimens of COVID-19 patients. Our results highlight the intestine as a potential site of SARS-CoV-2 replication, which may contribute to local and systemic illness and overall disease progression.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Enterocytes/virology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Cell Line , Duodenum/cytology , Enterocytes/pathology , Humans , Mice , Organoids/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Rotavirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vesiculovirus/genetics
13.
Science ; 369(6499): 50-54, 2020 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154670

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an influenza-like disease that is primarily thought to infect the lungs with transmission through the respiratory route. However, clinical evidence suggests that the intestine may present another viral target organ. Indeed, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly expressed on differentiated enterocytes. In human small intestinal organoids (hSIOs), enterocytes were readily infected by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, as demonstrated by confocal and electron microscopy. Enterocytes produced infectious viral particles, whereas messenger RNA expression analysis of hSIOs revealed induction of a generic viral response program. Therefore, the intestinal epithelium supports SARS-CoV-2 replication, and hSIOs serve as an experimental model for coronavirus infection and biology.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Enterocytes/virology , Ileum/virology , Virus Replication , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Differentiation , Cell Lineage , Cell Proliferation , Culture Media , Enterocytes/metabolism , Enterocytes/ultrastructure , Gene Expression , Humans , Ileum/metabolism , Ileum/ultrastructure , Lung/virology , Male , Organoids , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 112(5): 383-388, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-148632

ABSTRACT

Although SARS-CoV-2 may primarily enter the cells of the lungs, the small bowel may also be an important entry or interaction site, as the enterocytes are rich in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-2 receptors. The initial gastrointestinal symptoms that appear early during the course of Covid-19 support this hypothesis. Furthermore, SARS-CoV virions are preferentially released apically and not at the basement of the airway cells. Thus, in the setting of a productive infection of conducting airway epithelia, the apically released SARS-CoV may be removed by mucociliary clearance and gain access to the GI tract via a luminal exposure. In addition, post-mortem studies of mice infected by SARS-CoV have demonstrated diffuse damage to the GI tract, with the small bowel showing signs of enterocyte desquamation, edema, small vessel dilation and lymphocyte infiltration, as well as mesenteric nodes with severe hemorrhage and necrosis. Finally, the small bowel is rich in furin, a serine protease which can separate the S-spike of the coronavirus into two "pinchers" (S1 and 2). The separation of the S-spike into S1 and S2 is essential for the attachment of the virion to both the ACE receptor and the cell membrane. In this special review, we describe the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with the cell and enterocyte and its potential clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Enterocytes/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Intestine, Small/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Intestine, Small/cytology , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Angiotensin/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/physiology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-31709

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) have been reported to use aminopeptidase N (APN) as a cellular receptor. Recently, the role of APN as a receptor for PEDV has been questioned. In our study, the role of APN in PEDV and TGEV infections was studied in primary porcine enterocytes. After seven days of cultivation, 89% of enterocytes presented microvilli and showed a two- to five-fold higher susceptibility to PEDV and TGEV. A significant increase of PEDV and TGEV infection was correlated with a higher expression of APN, which was indicative that APN plays an important role in porcine coronavirus infections. However, PEDV and TGEV infected both APN positive and negative enterocytes. PEDV and TGEV Miller showed a higher infectivity in APN positive cells than in APN negative cells. In contrast, TGEV Purdue replicated better in APN negative cells. These results show that an additional receptor exists, different from APN for porcine coronaviruses. Subsequently, treatment of enterocytes with neuraminidase (NA) had no effect on infection efficiency of TGEV, implying that terminal cellular sialic acids (SAs) are no receptor determinants for TGEV. Treatment of TGEV with NA significantly enhanced the infection which shows that TGEV is masked by SAs.


Subject(s)
CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/pathology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/metabolism , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Enterocytes/virology , Hydrocortisone/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Spermidine/pharmacology , Swine , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment , Virus Replication/drug effects
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