Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 43
Filter
1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 883177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847243

ABSTRACT

The lack of physical activity has become a rigorous challenge for many countries, and the relationship between physical activity and the built environment has become a hot research topic in recent decades. This study uses the Strava Heatmap (novel crowdsourced data) to extract the distribution of cycling and running tracks in central Chengdu in December 2021 (during the COVID-19 pandemic) and develops spatial regression models for numerous 500 × 500 m grids (N = 2,788) to assess the impacts of the built environment on the cycling and running intensity indices. The findings are summarized as follows. First, land-use mix has insignificant effects on the physical activity of residents, which largely contrasts with the evidence gathered from previous studies. Second, road density, water area, green space area, number of stadiums, and number of enterprises significantly facilitate cycling and running. Third, river line length and the light index have positive associations with running but not with cycling. Fourth, housing price is positively correlated with cycling and running. Fifth, schools seem to discourage these two types of physical activities during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study provides practical implications (e.g., green space planning and public space management) for urban planners, practitioners, and policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crowdsourcing , Built Environment , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Environment Design , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 791656, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847230

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the ways and times of living and using urban spaces, specifically referring to the dimension of daily life. The restrictive measures introduced during the lockdown periods have necessarily led to a re-evaluation of proximity scale bringing particularly attention to issues relating to public transport and mobility and to the quality and distribution of open public spaces. This scoping review explores the relationship between the urban environment design and health referring to the constraints imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic in the period from 2020 to 2021, with two main objectives: (i) to investigate the recurring urban design topics and issues related to the spatial and social needs stressed by the emergency; (ii) to identify the urban design measures both experienced during the health emergency and proposed in view of a post-COVID urban and territorial planning as they are considered impactful on health promotion. The search strategy was based on a set of keywords searched in two electronic databases which allowed the identification of a total of 1,135 contributions. After defining the eligibility criteria, we proceeded to the screening process concluded with the inclusion of 19 studies. The analysis of the contributions led to the systematization of six main urban topics-and to the corresponding spatial requirements and project proposals-highlighted as relevant and supportive in terms of the promotion of inhabitant's public health: (i) transport, mobility and accessibility; (ii) green and outdoor spaces; (iii) public and pedestrians' spaces; (iv) care services and health network; (v) communications; (vi) public and business services. The resulting framework is useful for guiding healthy city planning toward public policies, tools, regulations, urban measures, and emergency contrast provisions, that contribute to increasing the effectiveness in terms of safety and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environment Design , Health Promotion , Humans , Pandemics
3.
Health Place ; 75: 102805, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796813

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand the perceived effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity, recreation walking, and use of recreational facilities; and if the COVID-19 pandemic amplified disparities in physical activity, recreational walking, and use of recreational facilities related to the levels of neighborhood disadvantage. Recreational walking and the use of neighborhood streets and green spaces significantly decreased in high deprivation areas but not in low deprivation areas during the pandemic. While COVID-19 has negatively affected overall recreational activities, the inequitable impact on recreational walking and use of outdoor recreational facilities has been more evident in disadvantaged neighborhoods with greater deprivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Recreation , Environment Design , Humans , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics , Walking
4.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCID) are rare in Western Europe. However, high-level isolation units (HLIU) must always be prepared for patient admission. Case fatality rates of HCID can be reduced by providing optimal intensive care management. We here describe a single centre's preparation, its embedding in the national context and the challenges we faced during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: Ten team leaders organize monthly whole day trainings for a team of doctors and nurses from the HLIU focusing on intensive care medicine. Impact and relevance of training are assessed by a questionnaire and a perception survey, respectively. Furthermore, yearly exercises with several partner institutions are performed to cover different real-life scenarios. Exercises are evaluated by internal and external observers. Both training sessions and exercises are accompanied by intense feedback. RESULTS: From May 2017 monthly training sessions were held with a two-month and a seven-month break due to the first and second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, respectively. Agreement with the statements of the questionnaire was higher after training compared to before training indicating a positive effect of training sessions on competence. Participants rated joint trainings for nurses and doctors at regular intervals as important. Numerous issues with potential for improvement were identified during post processing of exercises. Action plans for their improvement were drafted and as of now mostly implemented. The network of the permanent working group of competence and treatment centres for HCID (Ständiger Arbeitskreis der Kompetenz- und Behandlungszentren für Krankheiten durch hochpathogene Erreger (STAKOB)) at the Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) was strengthened throughout the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. DISCUSSION: Adequate preparation for the admission of patients with HCID is challenging. We show that joint regular trainings of doctors and nurses are appreciated and that training sessions may improve perceived skills. We also show that real-life scenario exercises may reveal additional deficits, which cannot be easily disclosed in training sessions. Although the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic interfered with our activities the enhanced cooperation among German HLIU during the pandemic ensured constant readiness for the admission of HCID patients to our or to collaborating HLIU. This is a single centre's experience, which may not be generalized to other centres. However, we believe that our work may address aspects that should be considered when preparing a unit for the admission of patients with HCID. These may then be adapted to the local situations.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Education, Medical, Continuing/organization & administration , Education, Nursing, Continuing/methods , Education, Nursing, Continuing/organization & administration , Environment Design , Germany/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Simulation Training/organization & administration , Workflow
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 813976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775957

ABSTRACT

Green open space (GOS) is an important outdoor resource for the well-being of children by providing places for physical activity (PA), especially in the highly urbanized environment. The COVID-19 lockdowns have made children have more sedentary time than before due to less access to public places. This article aims to examine the associations of GOS characteristics (environmental and surrounding) and children's use (visitation and PA pattern) to provide evidence for promoting their PA during the pandemic. This study employed the method of GPS positioner, accelerometer, and survey to measure the children's actual use in GOS. A total of 179 children participated in the study and 10 GOSs were selected. The children were provided with the accelerometers and GPS positioners to track their walking steps, duration, and locations. The environmental characteristics and 1 km buffer of the selected GOSs were explored as extended study area. Results showed that 49.16% of children reported more visitations than before the pandemic, and 48.60% of them preferred to go on weekdays during the pandemic. Both environmental and surrounding characteristics could affect the visitation pattern. The size (p < 0.000), residential ratio (p < 0.000), and intersection density (p < 0.000) were found as the factors significantly associated with visitation pattern. The children's PA pattern was mainly associated with the environmental characteristics of size (p < 0.000), sports, and playground proportion (p < 0.000). The locations of children's PA were mainly around square, playground, sheltered place, and waterside areas. COVID-19 has transformed the children's use of GOS, as well as their relationship with GOS. The large GOS was more likely to promote PA and its use by the children. The environmental and surrounding characteristics of GOS could affect their use pattern, whereas their PA pattern was mainly associated with the environmental characteristics. The findings suggest that GOS characteristics could be an effective solution to respond the challenge from the pandemic, and promote their visitation and PA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environment Design , Accelerometry , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Humans
6.
Geospat Health ; 17(s1)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726244

ABSTRACT

With people restricted to their residences, neighbourhood characteristics may affect behaviour and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We aimed to analyse whether neighbourhoods with higher walkability, public transit, biking services and higher socio-economic status were associated with lower COVID-19 infection during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Massachusetts. We used Walk Score®, Bike Score®, and Transit Score® indices to assess the walkability and transportation of 72 cities in Massachusetts, USA based on availability of data and collected the total COVID-19 case numbers of each city up to 10 April 2021. We used univariate and multivariate linear models to analyse the effects of these scores on COVID-19 cases per 100,000 in each city, adjusting for demographic covariates and all covariates, respectively. In the 72 cities studied, the average Walk Score, Transit Score and Bike Score was 48.7, 36.5 and 44.1, respectively, with a total of 426,182 COVID-19 cases. Higher Walk Score, Transit Score, and Bike Score rankings were negatively associated with COVID-19 cases per 100,000 persons (<0.05). Cities with a higher proportion of Hispanic population and a lower median household income were associated with more COVID-19 cases per 100,000 (P<0.05). Higher Walk Score, Transit Score and Bike Score were shown to be protective against COVID-19 transmission, while socio-demographic factors were associated with COVID-19 infection. Understanding the complex relationship of how the structure of the urban environment may constrain commuting patterns for residents and essential workers during COVID-19 would offer potential insights on future pandemic preparedness and response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environment Design , Residence Characteristics , Bicycling , Cities , Humans , Massachusetts , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , Transportation , Walking
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(7): 75001, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the dawn of cities, the built environment has both affected infectious disease transmission and evolved in response to infectious diseases. COVID-19 illustrates both dynamics. The pandemic presented an opportunity to implement health promotion and disease prevention strategies in numerous elements of the built environment. OBJECTIVES: This commentary aims to identify features of the built environment that affect the risk of COVID-19 as well as to identify elements of the pandemic response with implications for the built environment (and, therefore, for long-term public health). DISCUSSION: Built environment risk factors for COVID-19 transmission include crowding, poverty, and racism (as they manifest in housing and neighborhood features), poor indoor air circulation, and ambient air pollution. Potential long-term implications of COVID-19 for the built environment include changes in building design, increased teleworking, reconfigured streets, changing modes of travel, provision of parks and greenspace, and population shifts out of urban centers. Although it is too early to predict with confidence which of these responses may persist, identifying and monitoring them can help health professionals, architects, urban planners, and decision makers, as well as members of the public, optimize healthy built environments during and after recovery from the pandemic. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8888.


Subject(s)
Built Environment , COVID-19 , Public Health , Cities , Environment Design , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 152, 2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although it is globally known that Japan has high prevalence of active school travel among children, there are few international studies on Japanese children's school travel. Moreover, only few studies have focused on the differences in their mode of travel between to-school and from-school. This study examined the associations of neighborhood built, safety, and social environments with walking to/from school among elementary school-aged children in Chiba, Japan. METHODS: We conducted an online survey with 1545 parents of children aged 6-12 years residing in Chiba between 25 and 27 November 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. A neighborhood was defined as the area of a postcode provided by the participants. Each neighborhood environment was assessed based on the built environment (new town designation, walkability, distance to school, population density), social environment (neighborhood cohesion and connection), and safety (CCTVs, a road section for walking alone, safety volunteers). Neighborhood walkability was measured using subscales of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (youth and abbreviated versions) including crime safety and traffic safety. Parents' perceived influence of COVID-19 on school commuting and after-school activities were also included in the model as covariates. Walking to and from school were separately analyzed using multinomial logistic regressions, where new towns and walkability were computed separately as explanatory variables. RESULTS: Four fifths of children walked to and from school daily. Walking to school was positively associated with crime safety, neighborhood connections, and schools sited in new towns. Walking from school had positive associations with traffic safety, neighborhood cohesion, and CCTVs, but negative associations with safety volunteers and after-school activities. The presence of a section for walking alone and perceived influence of COVID-19 had negative associations with walking to and from school. CONCLUSIONS: Recent social changes such as declining birthrate, decline in public elementary schools, and increasing after-school activities may change parental attitudes toward children's walking to/from school, and subsequently, their mode of school travel over time. To maintain the high prevalence of walking to/from school in Japan, multidisciplinary approaches involving different stakeholders from education, public health, and urban planning are required to overcome sectionalism and support this behavior in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environment Design , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , Parents , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Schools , Social Environment , Transportation , Walking
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(21)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450862

ABSTRACT

Empowered by the ubiquitous sensing capabilities of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, smart communities could benefit our daily life in many aspects. Various smart community studies and practices have been conducted, especially in China thanks to the government's support. However, most intelligent systems are designed and built individually by different manufacturers in diverging platforms with different functionalities. Therefore, multiple individual systems must be deployed in a smart community to have a set of functions, which could lead to hardware waste, high energy consumption and high deployment cost. More importantly, current smart community systems mainly focus on the technologies involved, while the effects of human activity are neglected. In this paper, a fourth-order tensor model representing object, time, location and human activity is proposed for human-centered smart communities, based on which a unified smart community system is designed. Thanks to the powerful data management abilities of a high-order tensor, multiple functions can be integrated into our system. In addition, since the tensor model embeds human activity information, complex functions could be implemented by exploring the effects of human activity. Two exemplary applications are presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the proposed unified fourth-order tensor-based smart community system.


Subject(s)
Computers , Technology , China , Environment Design , Human Activities , Humans , Internet of Things
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(9): 98001, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406743
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314650

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has become the focus of attention in the field of urban geography. Built environment, such as the layout of public spaces like transportation hubs and urban open spaces, is an important factor affecting the spread of the epidemic. However, due to the different behavior patterns of different age groups, the intensity and frequency of their use of various built environment spaces may vary. Based on this, we selected patients that were infected, with a non-manipulated time period, and the classification of human behavior patterns; we then conducted a regression analysis study on the spatial distribution and building environment of these COVID-19 patients. The results showed that the spatial distribution of young and middle-aged patients (18-59 years old) was more homogeneous, while the spatial distribution of elderly patients (60 years old and above) had a strong clustering characteristic. Moreover, the significant built environment factors exhibited in the two populations were extremely different. More diverse urban facilities and public spaces exhibited influential properties for older patients, while middle-aged and young adults were more influenced by commuting facilities. It can be said that the built environment shows different influences and mechanisms on the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases in different populations. Therefore, the results of this paper can inform decision makers who expect to reduce the occurrence of urban respiratory infectious diseases by improving the urban built environment.


Subject(s)
Built Environment , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Environment , Environment Design , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation , Young Adult
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 13-31, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259333

ABSTRACT

Industry and academic perspectives have become more focused on designing for Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) over the past few years, both in general and particularly within the built environment. This renewed interest appears to have stemmed from a basis of respect-based 'due diligence' in 2018 to one of necessity in 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic brought areas of difference into focus and exacerbated them, making it harder for people to live their everyday lives. In this paper, the authors seek to bridge the divide between academia and industry on the subject of Inclusive Design (ID) through their use of a combination of an academic and grey literature review as well as empirical research conducted with scholars and practitioners. These multiple methods focus less on the academic perspectives and more on how the industry has responded to the research and market demand. It clarifies nuanced differences among ID-related terms, provides best practice examples for wellness in the built environment, and identifies governing body guidelines (i.e., principles, protocols, policies) that have been enacted for ethical and business differentiating purposes.


Subject(s)
Built Environment , COVID-19 , Australia , Environment Design , Europe , Humans , North America , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 728, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The available evidence of the health effects of urban regeneration is scarce In Latin America, and there are no studies focused on formal housing that longitudinally evaluate the impact of housing and neighborhood interventions on health. The "Regeneración Urbana, Calidad de Vida y Salud" (Urban Regeneration, Quality of Life, and Health) or RUCAS project is a longitudinal, multi-method study that will evaluate the impact of an intervention focused on dwellings, built environment and community on the health and wellbeing of the population in two social housing neighborhoods in Chile. METHODS: RUCAS consists of a longitudinal study where inhabitants exposed and unexposed to the intervention will be compared over time within the study neighborhoods (cohorts), capitalizing on interventions as a natural experiment. Researchers have developed a specific conceptual framework and identified potential causal mechanisms. Proximal and more distal intervention effects will be measured with five instruments, implemented pre- and post-interventions between 2018 and 2021: a household survey, an observation tool to evaluate dwelling conditions, hygrochrons for measuring temperature and humidity inside dwellings, systematic observation of recreational areas, and qualitative interviews. Survey baseline data (956 households, 3130 individuals) is presented to describe sociodemographics, housing and health characteristics of both cohorts, noting that neighborhoods studied show worse conditions than the Chilean population. DISCUSSION: RUCAS' design allows for a comprehensive evaluation of the effects that the intervention could have on various dimensions of health and health determinants. RUCAS will face some challenges, like changes in the intervention process due to adjustments of the master plan, exogenous factors -including COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns- and lost to follow-up. Given the stepped wedge design, that the study capitalizes on within household changes over time, the possibility of adjusting data collection process and complementarity of methods, RUCAS has the flexibility to adapt to these circumstances. Also, RUCAS' outreach and retention strategy has led to high retention rates. RUCAS will provide evidence to inform regeneration processes, highlighting the need to consider potential health effects of regeneration in designing such interventions and, more broadly, health as a key priority in urban and housing policies.


Subject(s)
Public Housing , Quality of Life , Residence Characteristics , Activities of Daily Living , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Chile/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environment Design , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Latin America , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(2): 427-450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170069

ABSTRACT

Persons with dementia (PWD) make up a large portion of the long-term care (LTC) population the world over. Before a global pandemic swept the world, governments and healthcare providers struggled with how to best care for this unique population. One of the greatest challenges is a PWD's tendency to "walk with purpose" and exhibit unsafe wayfinding and elopement, which places them at risk of falls and injury. Past solutions included increased use of restraints and pharmacological interventions, but these have fallen out of favor over the years and are not optimal. These challenges put enormous strain on staff and caregivers, who are often poorly trained in dementia care, underpaid, overworked, and overstressed. PWD are impacted by these stresses, and unmet needs in LTC places an even greater stress on them and increases their risks of morbidity and mortality. The physical design of their environments contributes to the problem. Old, institutionalized buildings have poor lighting, poor ventilation, long dead-end hallways, poor visual cues, lack of home-like décor, shared bedrooms and bathrooms, and are often dense and overcrowded. These design elements contribute to the four 'A's' of dementia: apathy, anxiety, agitation, and aggression, and they also contributed to the rapid spread of COVID-19 in these facilities the world over. In this review, we present current "dementia friendly" design models in the home, community, and LTC, and argue how they could have saved lives during the pandemic and reduced the stresses on both the dementia resident and the caregiver/staff.


Subject(s)
Dementia/therapy , Environment Design , Health Services Needs and Demand , Long-Term Care , Quality of Life , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157941

ABSTRACT

The bicycle is a low-cost means of transport linked to low risk of transmission of infectious disease. During the COVID-19 crisis, governments have therefore incentivized cycling by provisionally redistributing street space. We evaluate the impact of this new bicycle infrastructure on cycling traffic using a generalized difference in differences design. We scrape daily bicycle counts from 736 bicycle counters in 106 European cities. We combine these with data on announced and completed pop-up bike lane road work projects. Within 4 mo, an average of 11.5 km of provisional pop-up bike lanes have been built per city and the policy has increased cycling between 11 and 48% on average. We calculate that the new infrastructure will generate between $1 and $7 billion in health benefits per year if cycling habits are sticky.


Subject(s)
Bicycling/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic , Automobiles , Bicycling/economics , Bicycling/standards , COVID-19/transmission , Cities , Environment Design , Europe , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Policy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Safety , Transportation/methods
16.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(3): 167-172, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154068

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We describe a new service model, the Orthopaedic Assessment Unit (OAU), designed to provide care for trauma patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients without COVID-19 symptoms and isolated musculoskeletal injuries were redirected to the OAU. METHODS: We prospectively reviewed patients throughput during the peak of the global pandemic (7 May 2020 to 7 June 2020) and compared with our historic service provision (7 May 2019 to 7 June 2019). The Mann-Whitney and Fisher Exact tests were used to test the statistical significance of data. RESULTS: A total of 1,147 patients were seen, with peak attendances between 11am and 2pm; 96% of all referrals were seen within 4h. The majority of patients were seen by orthopaedic registrars (52%) and nurse practitioners (44%). The majority of patients suffered from sprains and strains (39%), followed by fractures (22%) and wounds (20%); 73% of patients were discharged on the same day, 15% given follow up, 8% underwent surgery and 3% were admitted but did not undergo surgery. Our volume of trauma admissions and theatre cases decreased by 22% and 17%, respectively (p=0.058; 0.139). There was a significant reduction of virtual fracture clinic referrals after reconfiguration of services (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Rapid implementation of a specialist OAU during a pandemic can provide early definitive trauma care while exceeding national waiting time standards. The fall in trauma attendances was lower than anticipated. The retention of orthopaedic staff in the department to staff the unit and maintain a high standard of care is imperative.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Fractures, Bone/therapy , Orthopedics/organization & administration , Sprains and Strains/therapy , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Environment Design , Female , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurse Practitioners , Orthopedic Procedures , Orthopedic Surgeons , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , Sprains and Strains/diagnosis , Sprains and Strains/epidemiology , Trauma Centers , Triage , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143491

ABSTRACT

Physical activity would bring in plenty of health benefits, especially recreational physical activity (RPA). Previous studies have suggested that built environment would affect older people's recreational walking (RW) and RPA, but how the effects exist in a small-scale Chinese city remains unclear. Two hundred and fifty-two older participants were recruited in the city of Yiwu using cross-sectional survey of random samples in 2019. RW and RPA level of participants and perceived scores of built environments were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, respectively. Linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the association of built environment with older people's RW and RPA. The results showed that two main factors affecting older people's RW and RPA were residential density and aesthetics. Additionally, access to services was related to RW, and street connectivity was correlated with RPA. The associations of RW with built environment varied slightly with demographic variables included in the regression model. All the results suggested that lower residential density, better aesthetics environment, and higher street connectivity would motivate older people to engage more in RW and RPA. The better access to services encourages only RW, not RPA, in older people. These findings would be helpful for policy decision makers in the urban construction process in Yiwu. More studies are needed to enlarge the scientific evidence base about small-scale cities in China.


Subject(s)
Built Environment , Walking , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environment Design , Exercise , Humans , Residence Characteristics
18.
Health Place ; 69: 102544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126834

ABSTRACT

In Japan, a state of emergency (SoE) was declared in early April 2020 until late May in response to the first wave of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This longitudinal study analyzed the step counts of 18,817 citizens in Yokohama city in the first half of 2020 compared to the previous year, and investigated the association between the change in step counts and the individuals' neighborhood environment by sex and age using generalized linear mixed models. Step counts decreased especially in women and non-elderly people during the SoE. Older women were more susceptible to the neighborhood environment: high walkability (i.e., high population density, proximity to railway stations) adversely affected their step counts, whereas proximity to large parks came to have a positive effect during the SoE.


Subject(s)
Built Environment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Walking/psychology , Walking/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cities , Environment Design , Female , Humans , Japan , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(3): 378-383, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110102

ABSTRACT

Long-term care facilities have been devastated by COVID-19, with one exception: a group of small facilities called Green Houses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Concept Formation , Deinstitutionalization , Environment Design , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , COVID-19/mortality , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL