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1.
Br Dent J ; 232(7): 437-440, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783971

ABSTRACT

Dentistry is a highly energy- and resource-intensive field and consequently has a significant environmental impact. In 2013-2014, total greenhouse gas emissions of NHS dental services in England measured 675 kilotonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents, with 64.5% related to travel, 19% from procurement and 15.3% from energy use. There is currently an absence of comprehensive standards or guidelines for sustainable dentistry. Instead, sustainable initiatives have been at a small scale and are adopted voluntarily by groups or professionals as an ethical duty or practical requirement. However, a recent study showed that there seems to be increasing interest from dental teams in how to become more sustainable. This opinion article focuses on how the dental profession can ensure a sustainable recovery as England emerges from the COVID-19 crisis, with an emphasis on improving environmental sustainability related to travel within the dental healthcare system. Reducing dental-associated travel can include changing mode of transport, combining family appointments, appropriate scheduling of dental examinations, preventive dentistry and the use of information technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Environment , Humans , Preventive Dentistry , Travel
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 855857, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776082

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of hospital outdoor rest space on the eye movement measures and self-rating restoration of staff. Background: Relieving the pressure of hospital staff through exposure to hospital outdoor rest space is essential, but there is a scarcity of research on the impact of hospital outdoor rest space on the eye movement measures and self-rating restoration of staff, especially for large Chinese hospitals. Methods: Cross-analysis was conducted based on the eye movement measures of 76 staff members obtained by eye movement tracking equipment in combination with the self-rating restoration scale and hospital outdoor rest space picture attributes (element proportion and position, brightness and saturation). Results: The differences in eye movement measures of different staff attributes (occupation, age, and gender) were identified, and the effects of hospital outdoor rest space picture attributes on the eye movement measures and self-rating restoration scale of staff were summarized. A number of proposals were also formulated: hospital outdoor rest space should be set up close to the working area of the group of medical staff; attention should be paid to the actual needs of senior staff members and the work pressure of junior nurses; the exposure to natural environment should be increased and the proportion of hard artificial elements should be reduced; the natural environment should be placed in the visual center; the saturation and brightness of hospital outdoor rest space should be increased; and staff members should have access to the sky environment in a variety of ways. Conclusion: The present study is an empirical study of evidence-based design on hospital outdoor rest space in China, and the results reveal the effects of hospital outdoor rest space on the eye movement measures and self-rating restoration of staff.


Subject(s)
Environment , Eye Movements , Occupational Stress , Personnel, Hospital , China , Hospitals , Humans , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Rest
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0262014, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736500

ABSTRACT

Knowledge gaps exist in the socio-ecological systems of small touristic islands in Latin America. Understanding tourists' perceptions of their environmental knowledge can help plan actions to prevent natural capital loss necessary for local economies. Tourists' perceptions of a touristic hotspot, Holbox Island, were documented. Surveys demonstrated that tourists are aware of their environmental impacts and are interested in minimizing these. Results were compared with results on Bocas del Toro, Panama. Tourists' perceptions had similarities among sites driven by similarities in tourists' populations with a common geographic origin. Tourists lack site-specific knowledge to steer them towards environmentally conscious decisions in both regions. Findings suggest the need to promote local actions to gain tourists' understanding about their destination and support education programs on island conservation. Addressing these needs can help build resilience to overcome the adverse socio-environmental effects of tourism, environmental disasters, and health crises as COVID-19 on small islands.


Subject(s)
Environment , Perception , Tourism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Knowledge , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , West Indies
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1165, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730283

ABSTRACT

The EU emissions trading system's (ETS) invalidation rule implies that shocks and overlapping policies can change cumulative carbon emissions. This paper explains these mechanisms and simulates the effect of COVID-19, the European Green Deal, and the recovery stimulus package on cumulative EU ETS emissions and allowance prices. Our results indicate that the negative demand shock of the pandemic should have a limited effect on allowance prices and rather translates into lower cumulative carbon emissions. Aligning EU ETS with the 2030 reduction target of -55% might increase allowance prices to 45-94 €/ton CO2 today and reduce cumulative carbon emissions to 14.2-18.3 GtCO2 compared to 23.5-33.1 GtCO2 under a -40% 2030 reduction target. Our results crucially depend on when the waterbed will be sealed again, which is an endogenous market outcome, driven by the EU ETS design, shocks and overlapping climate policies such as the recovery plan.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Conservation of Energy Resources/methods , Air Pollution/economics , Air Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Conservation of Energy Resources/economics , Conservation of Energy Resources/legislation & jurisprudence , Environment , Environmental Policy , European Union , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725661

ABSTRACT

In the past century, dramatic shifts in demographics, globalization and urbanization have facilitated the rapid spread and transmission of infectious diseases across continents and countries. In a matter of weeks, the 2019 coronavirus pandemic devastated communities worldwide and reinforced the human perception of frailty and mortality. Even though the end of this pandemic story has yet to unfold, there is one parallel that is undeniable when a comparison is drawn between the 2019 coronavirus and the 1918 influenza pandemics. The public health response to disease outbreaks has remained nearly unchanged in the last 101 years. Furthermore, the role of environments and human behaviors on the effect and response to the coronavirus pandemic has brought to light many of the historic and contemporaneous inequalities and injustices that plague the United States. Through a reflection of these pandemic experiences, the American burden of disparity and disproportionality on morbidity, mortality and overall social determinants of health has been examined. Finally, a reimagination of a post-coronavirus existence has also been presented along with a discussion of possible solutions and considerations for moving forward to a new and better normal.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Health Behavior , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Environment , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263245, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708180

ABSTRACT

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), economic downturns can lead to increased child mortality by affecting dietary, environmental, and care-seeking factors. This study estimates the potential loss of life in children under five years old attributable to economic downturns in 2020. We used a multi-level, mixed effects model to estimate the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and under-5 mortality rates (U5MRs) specific to each of 129 LMICs. Public data were retrieved from the World Bank World Development Indicators database and the United Nations World Populations Prospects estimates for the years 1990-2020. Country-specific regression coefficients on the relationship between child mortality and GDP were used to estimate the impact on U5MR of reductions in GDP per capita of 5%, 10%, and 15%. A 5% reduction in GDP per capita in 2020 was estimated to cause an additional 282,996 deaths in children under 5 in 2020. At 10% and 15%, recessions led to higher losses of under-5 lives, increasing to 585,802 and 911,026 additional deaths, respectively. Nearly half of all the potential under-5 lives lost in LMICs were estimated to occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Because most of these deaths will likely be due to nutrition and environmental factors amenable to intervention, countries should ensure continued investments in food supplementation, growth monitoring, and comprehensive primary health care to mitigate potential burdens.


Subject(s)
Child Mortality/trends , Developing Countries , Gross Domestic Product/trends , Africa South of the Sahara , Child, Preschool , Dietary Supplements , Environment , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Poverty , Primary Health Care , Regression Analysis , Uncertainty
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2445, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684114

ABSTRACT

Surgical masks have become critical for protecting human health against the COVID-19 pandemic, even though their environmental burden is a matter of ongoing debate. This study aimed at shedding light on the environmental impacts of single-use (i.e., MD-Type I) versus reusable (i.e., MD-Type IIR) face masks via a comparative life cycle assessment with a cradle-to-grave system boundary. We adopted a two-level analysis using the ReCiPe (H) method, considering both midpoint and endpoint categories. The results showed that reusable face masks created fewer impacts for most midpoint categories. At the endpoint level, reusable face masks were superior to single-use masks, producing scores of 16.16 and 84.20 MPt, respectively. The main environmental impacts of single-use masks were linked to raw material consumption, energy requirements and waste disposal, while the use phase and raw material consumption made the most significant contribution for reusable type. However, our results showed that lower environmental impacts of reusable face masks strongly depend on the use phase since reusable face masks lost their superior performance when the hand wash scenario was tested. Improvement of mask eco-design emerged as another key factor such as using more sustainable raw materials and designing better waste disposal scenarios could significantly lower the environmental impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Textiles/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disposable Equipment/standards , Ecosystem , Environment , Equipment Reuse/standards , Humans , Masks/classification , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/classification , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Textiles/classification
8.
J Environ Manage ; 308: 114634, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670725

ABSTRACT

Human activities in Antarctica were increasing before the COVID-19 pandemic, and tourism was not an exception. The growth and diversification of Antarctic tourism over the last few decades have been extensively studied. However, environmental impacts associated with this activity have received less attention despite an increasing body of scholarship examining environmental issues related to Antarctic tourism. Aside from raising important research questions, the potential negative effects of tourist visits in Antarctica are also an issue discussed by Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties. This study presents the results of a meta-analysis of scholarly publications that synthesizes and updates our current knowledge of environmental impacts resulting from Antarctic tourism. A first publication database containing 233 records that focussed on this topic was compiled and subjected to a general bibliometric and content analysis. Further, an in-depth content analysis was performed on a subset of 75 records, which were focussed on showing specific research on Antarctic tourism impacts. The main topic, methods, management proposals, and research gaps highlighted by the respective authors of these 75 publications were assessed. The range of research topics addressed, the methods used - including the application of established research designs from the field of environmental impact assessment -, and the conclusions reached by the study authors are discussed. Interestingly, almost one third of the studies did not detect a direct relationship between tourism and significant negative effects on the environment. Cumulative impacts of tourism have received little attention, and long-term and comprehensive monitoring programs have been discussed only rarely, leading us to assume that such long-term programs are scarce. More importantly, connections between research and policy or management do not always exist. This analysis highlights the need for a comprehensive strategy to investigate and monitor the environmental impacts of tourism in Antarctica. A first specific research and monitoring programme to stimulate a debate among members of the Antarctic scientific and policy communities is proposed, with the ultimate goal of advancing the regulation and management of Antarctic tourism collaboratively.


Subject(s)
Tourism , Antarctic Regions , Environment , Humans
9.
Environ Res ; 208: 112711, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654408

ABSTRACT

How is the dynamics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2020 with an health policy of full lockdowns and in 2021 with a vast campaign of vaccinations? The present study confronts this question here by developing a comparative analysis of the effects of COVID-19 pandemic between April-September 2020 (based upon strong control measures) and April-September 2021 (focused on health policy of vaccinations) in Italy, which was one of the first European countries to experience in 2020 high numbers of COVID-19 related infected individuals and deaths and in 2021 Italy has a high share of people fully vaccinated against COVID-19 (>89% of population aged over 12 years in January 2022). Results suggest that over the period under study, the arithmetic mean of confirmed cases, hospitalizations of people and admissions to Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in 2020 and 2021 is significantly equal (p-value<0.01), except fatality rate. Results suggest in December 2021 lower hospitalizations, admissions to ICUs, and fatality rate of COVID-19 than December 2020, though confirmed cases and mortality rates are in 2021 higher than 2020, and likely converging trends in the first quarter of 2022. These findings reveal that COVID-19 pandemic is driven by seasonality and environmental factors that reduce the negative effects in summer period, regardless control measures and/or vaccination campaigns. These findings here can be of benefit to design health policy responses of crisis management considering the growth of COVID-19 pandemic in winter months having reduced temperatures and low solar radiations ( COVID-19 has a behaviour of influenza-like illness). Hence, findings here suggest that strategies of prevention and control of infectious diseases similar to COVID-19 should be set up in summer months and fully implemented during low-solar-irradiation periods (autumn and winter period).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Environment , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649858

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has created a global medical emergency. The unforeseen occurrence of a pandemic of this magnitude has resulted in overwhelming levels of medical waste and raises questions about management and disposal practices, and environmental impacts. The amount of medical waste generated from COVID-19 since the outbreak is estimated to be 2.6 million tons/day worldwide. In Australia, heaps of single-use gowns, facemasks/face shields, aprons, gloves, goggles, sanitizers, sharps, and syringes are disposed everyday as a result of the pandemic. Moreover, the establishment of new home/hotel quarantine facilities and isolation/quarantine centres in various Australian states and territories have increased the risks of transmission among people in these facilities and the likelihoods of general waste becoming contaminated with medical waste. This warrants the need to examine management and disposal practices implemented to reduce the transmission and spread of the virus. This study reviews the various management and disposal practices adopted in Australia for dealing with medical waste from the COVID-19 pandemic and their impacts on public health and the environment. To achieve the aims of this study, prior studies from 2019-2021 from various databases are collected and analysed. The study focuses on generation of medical waste from COVID-19, management and disposal methods, current problems/challenges and environmental and public health impacts. Considering the enormous risks involved and the significance of appropriate handling and disposal of medical waste from COVID-19, this study provides insights on short and long term responses towards managing COVID-19 waste in Australia. The study contributes to Australia's efforts against the transmission and spread of COVID-19 and provides recommendations for the development of workable and sustainable strategies for mitigating similar pandemics in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Waste , Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , Australia/epidemiology , Environment , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Solid Waste/analysis
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649004

ABSTRACT

Mask wearing and physical distancing are effective at preventing COVID-19 transmission. Little is known about the practice of these behaviors during physical activity (PA). In this longitudinal study, direct observation was used to describe COVID-19 prevention behaviors among physically active individuals. The Viral Transmission Scan (VT-Scan) was used to assess COVID-19 prevention behaviors of people standing, sitting, walking, jogging, and cycling in educational, retail, and residential areas. The VT-Scan was performed once per week over 22 weeks between 11:00 a.m. and 2:30 p.m. Information was manually extracted from videos collected during VT-Scans. A total of 4153 people were described, of which 71.2% were physically active, 80.0% were 18-30 years of age, 14.0% were non-white, 61.0% were female, and were 19.6% obese. Individuals not engaged in PA were less compliant with COVID-19 prevention behaviors than physically active people. Compliance differed by PA type, with walkers less compliant with COVID-19 prevention behaviors than joggers and cyclists. Among those physically active, non-compliance with COVID-19 prevention behaviors was higher in 18-30-year-olds, whites, and men. Engagement in COVID-19 prevention behaviors varies as a function of PA. Efforts to promote compliance with recommendations may benefit from tailored messaging, taking into account PA participation, PA type, and characteristics of physically active individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Environment , Exercise , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0259207, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648363

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 greatly challenges the human health sector, and has resulted in a large amount of medical waste that poses various potential threats to the environment. In this study, we compiled relevant data released by official agencies and the media, and conducted data supplementation based on earlier studies to calculate the net value of medical waste produced in the Hubei Province due to COVID-19 with the help of a neural network model. Next, we reviewed the data related to the environmental impact of medical waste per unit and designed four scenarios to estimate the environmental impact of new medical waste generated during the pandemic. The results showed that a medical waste generation rate of 0.5 kg/bed/day due to COVID-19 resulted in a net increase of medical waste volume by about 3366.99 tons in the Hubei Province. In the four scenario assumptions, i.e., if the medical waste resulting from COVID-19 is completely incinerated, it will have a large impact on the air quality. If it is disposed by distillation sterilization, it will produce a large amount of wastewater and waste residue. Based on the results of the study, we propose three policy recommendations: strict control of medical wastewater discharge, reduction and transformation of the emitted acidic gases, and attention to the emission of metallic nickel in exhaust gas and chloride in soil. These policy recommendations provide a scientific basis for controlling medical waste pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Medical Waste/analysis , Neural Networks, Computer , Waste Management/methods , Waste Water/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/economics , China/epidemiology , Chlorides/analysis , Environment , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Gases/analysis , Humans , Incineration/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Waste Management/statistics & numerical data
13.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262473, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627804

ABSTRACT

Several studies have reported the relationship of deforestation with increased incidence of infectious diseases, mainly due to the deregulation caused in these environments. The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: a) is increased loss of vegetation related to dengue cases in the Brazilian Cerrado? b) how do different regions of the tropical savanna biome present distinct patterns for total dengue cases and vegetation loss? c) what is the projection of a future scenario of deforestation and an increased number of dengue cases in 2030? Thus, this study aimed to assess the relationship between loss of native vegetation in the Cerrado and dengue infection. In this paper, we quantify the entire deforested area and dengue infection cases from 2001 to 2019. For data analyses, we used Poisson generalized linear model, descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, non-parametric statistics, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to predict loss of vegetation and fever dengue cases for the next decade. Cluster analysis revealed the formation of four clusters among the states. Our results showed significant increases in loss of native vegetation in all states, with the exception of Piauí. As for dengue cases, there were increases in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Mato Grosso. Based on projections for 2030, Minas Gerais will register about 4,000 dengue cases per 100,000 inhabitants, São Paulo 750 dengue cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and Mato Grosso 500 dengue cases per 100,000 inhabitants. To reduce these projections, Brazil will need to control deforestation and implement public health, environmental and social policies, requiring a joint effort from all spheres of society.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources/trends , Dengue/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Conservation of Natural Resources/statistics & numerical data , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Ecosystem , Environment , Humans , Incidence
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 819: 153073, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621038

ABSTRACT

Advancing wet peatland 'paludiculture' innovation present enormous potential to sustain carbon-cycles, reduce greenhouse-gas (GHG) gas emissions and to transition communities to low-carbon economies; however, there is limited scientific-evidence to support and enable direct commercial viability of eco-friendly products and services. This timely study reports on a novel, paludiculture-based, integrated-multi-trophic-aquaculture (IMTA) system for sustainable food production in the Irish midlands. This freshwater IMTA process relies on a naturally occurring ecosystem of microalgae, bacteria and duckweed in ponds for managing waste and water quality that is powered by wind turbines; however, as it is recirculating, it does not rely upon end-of-pipe solutions and does not discharge effluent to receiving waters. This constitutes the first report on the effects of extreme weather events on the performance of this IMTA system that produces European perch (Perca fluviatilis), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiis) during Spring 2020. Sampling coincided with lockdown periods of worker mobility restriction due to COVID-19 pandemic. Observations revealed that the frequency and intensity of storms generated high levels of rainfall that disrupted the algal and bacterial ecosystem in the IMTA leading to the emergence and predominance of toxic cyanobacteria that caused fish mortality. There is a pressing need for international agreement on standardized set of environmental indicators to advance paludiculture innovation that addresses climate-change and sustainability. This study describes important technical parameters for advancing freshwater aquaculture (IMTA), which can be future refined using real-time monitoring-tools at farm level to inform management decision-making based on evaluating environmental indicators and weather data. The relevance of these findings to informing global sustaining and disruptive research and innovation in paludiculture is presented, along with alignment with UN Sustainable Development goals. This study also addresses global challenges and opportunities highlighting a commensurate need for international agreement on resilient indicators encompassing linked ecological, societal, cultural, economic and cultural domains.


Subject(s)
Aquaculture , Climate , Perches , Animals , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Environment , Humans , Pandemics , Wetlands
16.
Circ Res ; 128(7): 808-826, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597870

ABSTRACT

In recent decades low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been witnessing a significant shift toward raised blood pressure; yet in LMICs, only 1 in 3 are aware of their hypertension status, and ≈8% have their blood pressure controlled. This rising burden widens the inequality gap, contributes to massive economic hardships of patients and carers, and increases costs to the health system, facing challenges such as low physician-to-patient ratios and lack of access to medicines. Established risk factors include unhealthy diet (high salt and low fruit and vegetable intake), physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use, and obesity. Emerging risk factors include pollution (air, water, noise, and light), urbanization, and a loss of green space. Risk factors that require further in-depth research are low birth weight and social and commercial determinants of health. Global actions include the HEARTS technical package and the push for universal health care. Promising research efforts highlight that successful interventions are feasible in LMICs. These include creation of health-promoting environments by introducing salt-reduction policies and sugar and alcohol tax; implementing cost-effective screening and simplified treatment protocols to mitigate treatment inertia; pooled procurement of low-cost single-pill combination therapy to improve adherence; increasing access to telehealth and mHealth (mobile health); and training health care staff, including community health workers, to strengthen team-based care. As the blood pressure trajectory continues creeping upward in LMICs, contextual research on effective, safe, and cost-effective interventions is urgent. New emergent risk factors require novel solutions. Lowering blood pressure in LMICs requires urgent global political and scientific priority and action.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Hypertension , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Blood Pressure Monitors/standards , Blood Pressure Monitors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Diet/adverse effects , Environment , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Health Behavior , Heart Diseases/mortality , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Life Style , Nurses/supply & distribution , Obesity/complications , Physicians/supply & distribution , Prevalence , Research , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Social Determinants of Health , Stroke/mortality , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Urbanization
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 794195, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553534

ABSTRACT

In the post-epidemic era, green finance plays a more significant role in supporting the "green recovery" of the economy, so it is necessary to evaluate the implementation effect of previous green financial policies. In 2017, the green finance reform and innovation pilot zone set up in five provinces and autonomous regions made an exploration in the development of green finance. From the perspective of micro-enterprises, can this policy play a beneficial policy effect in the long run? Based on the quasi-natural experiment of green finance pilot, using the data of A-share listed companies, this paper empirically tests the impact of pilot policies on the long-term value of green enterprises in pilot areas. It is found that, compared with non-pilot zones, the green finance pilot enables a significant increase in the Tobin Q-measured value of green enterprises in the pilot zones. Heterogeneity analysis shows that green finance pilot has a more significant impact on non-state-owned enterprises, enterprises in traditional industries, large enterprises, and enterprises in the eastern region of China. Green finance pilot zone can achieve better policy effects in areas with stronger environmental impact regulation and higher financial development levels. The mechanism test shows that the green finance pilot affects the long-term value of green enterprises through the capital market effect improving the stock trading activity of enterprises and through the real effect improving the operational efficiency and profitability of enterprises. From the perspective of micro-enterprises, this paper enriches the research on the development effect of green finance and provides theoretical support for the effect evaluation of green finance pilot policies.


Subject(s)
Environment , Industry , China , Efficiency
19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(12): e1009652, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546836

ABSTRACT

Variants of the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model of Kermack & McKendrick (1927) enjoy wide application in epidemiology, offering simple yet powerful inferential and predictive tools in the study of diverse infectious diseases across human, animal and plant populations. Direct transmission models (DTM) are a subset of these that treat the processes of disease transmission as comprising a series of discrete instantaneous events. Infections transmitted indirectly by persistent environmental pathogens, however, are examples where a DTM description might fail and are perhaps better described by models that comprise explicit environmental transmission routes, so-called environmental transmission models (ETM). In this paper we discuss the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) DTM and susceptible-exposed-infected-removed-pathogen (SEIR-P) ETM and we show that the former is the timescale separation limit of the latter, with ETM host-disease dynamics increasingly resembling those of a DTM when the pathogen's characteristic timescale is shortened, relative to that of the host population. Using graphical posterior predictive checks (GPPC), we investigate the validity of the SEIR model when fitted to simulated SEIR-P host infection and removal times. Such analyses demonstrate how, in many cases, the SEIR model is robust to departure from direct transmission. Finally, we present a case study of white spot disease (WSD) in penaeid shrimp with rates of environmental transmission and pathogen decay (SEIR-P model parameters) estimated using published results of experiments. Using SEIR and SEIR-P simulations of a hypothetical WSD outbreak management scenario, we demonstrate how relative shortening of the pathogen timescale comes about in practice. With atttempts to remove diseased shrimp from the population every 24h, we see SEIR and SEIR-P model outputs closely conincide. However, when removals are 6-hourly, the two models' mean outputs diverge, with distinct predictions of outbreak size and duration.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Endemic Diseases , Epidemics , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Communicable Diseases/physiopathology , Computational Biology/methods , Computer Simulation , Environment , Humans , Models, Biological , Models, Theoretical , Monte Carlo Method , Probability , Stochastic Processes
20.
Prog Urol ; 31(16): 1133-1138, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540915

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a serious environmental issue. The healthcare sector is an important emitter of GHGs. Our aim was to assess the environmental cost of teleconsultations in urology compared to face-to-face consultations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study of all patients who had a remote teleconsultation over a 2-week period during COVID-19 pandemic. Main outcome was the reduction in CO2e emissions related to teleconsultation compared to face-to-face consultation and was calculated as: total teleconsultation CO2e emissions-total face-to-face consultation CO2e emissions. Secondary outcome measures were the reduction in travel distance and travel time related to teleconsultation. RESULTS: Eighty patients were included. Face-to-face consultations would have resulted in 6699km (4162 miles) of travel (83.7km (52 miles) per patient). Cars were the usual means of transport. CO2e avoided due to lack of travel was calculated at 1.1 tonnes. Teleconsultation was responsible for 1.1kg CO2e while face-to-face consultation emitted 0.5kg of CO2e. Overall, the total reduction in GHGs with teleconsultation was 1141kg CO2e, representing a 99% decrease in emissions. Total savings on transport were 974 € and savings on travel time were 112h (1.4h/patient). CONCLUSIONS: Teleconsultation reduces the environmental impact of face-to-face consultations. The use of teleconsultation in our urology departments resulted in the avoidance of more than 6000km of travel, equivalent to a reduction of 1.1 tonnes of CO2e. Teleconsultation should be considered for specific indications as the healthcare system attempts to become greener. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Environment , Remote Consultation , Urology/organization & administration , Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Automobiles , Carbon Footprint/statistics & numerical data , Costs and Cost Analysis , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Female , France/epidemiology , Greenhouse Gases/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Population Density , Remote Consultation/economics , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Urology/economics , Urology/methods
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