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2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(2): 448-458, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the association between PM2.5 and risk of CKD remains under-recognized, especially in regions with high levels of PM2.5, such as China. METHODS: To explore the association between long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and CKD prevalence in China, we used data from the China National Survey of CKD, which included a representative sample of 47,204 adults. We estimated annual exposure to PM2.5 before the survey date at each participant's address, using a validated, satellite-based, spatiotemporal model with a 10 km×10 km resolution. Participants with eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or albuminuria were defined as having CKD. We used a logistic regression model to estimate the association and analyzed the influence of potential modifiers. RESULTS: The 2-year mean PM2.5 concentration was 57.4 µg/m3, with a range from 31.3 to 87.5 µg/m3. An increase of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was positively associated with CKD prevalence (odds ratio [OR], 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 1.35) and albuminuria (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.47). Effect modification indicated these associations were significantly stronger in urban areas compared with rural areas, in males compared with females, in participants aged <65 years compared with participants aged ≥65 years, and in participants without comorbid diseases compared with those with comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: These findings regarding the relationship between long-term exposure to high ambient PM2.5 levels and CKD in the general Chinese population provide important evidence for policy makers and public health practices to reduce the CKD risk posed by this pollutant.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Albuminuria/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Albuminuria/diagnosis , China , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
3.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 65, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias currently represent the fifth most common cause of death in the world, according to the World Health Organization, with a projected future increase as the proportion of the elderly in the population is growing. Air pollution has emerged as a plausible risk factor for AD, but studies estimating dementia cases attributable to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and resulting monetary estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used data on average population-weighted exposure to ambient PM2.5 for the entire population of Sweden above 30 years of age. To estimate the annual number of dementia cases attributable to air pollution in the Swedish population above 60 years of age, we used the latest concentration response functions (CRF) between PM2.5 exposure and dementia incidence, based on ten longitudinal cohort studies, for the population above 60 years of age. To estimate the monetary burden of attributable cases, we calculated total costs related to dementia, including direct and indirect lifetime costs and intangible costs by including quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost. Two different monetary valuations of QALYs in Sweden were used to estimate the monetary value of reduced quality-of-life from two different payer perspectives. RESULTS: The annual number of dementia cases attributable to PM2.5 exposure was estimated to be 820, which represents 5% of the annual dementia cases in Sweden. Direct and indirect lifetime average cost per dementia case was estimated to correspond € 213,000. A reduction of PM2.5 by 1 µg/m3 was estimated to yield 101 fewer cases of dementia incidences annually, resulting in an estimated monetary benefit ranging up to 0.01% of the Swedish GDP in 2019. CONCLUSION: This study estimated that 5% of annual dementia cases could be attributed to PM2.5 exposure, and that the resulting monetary burden is substantial. These findings suggest the need to consider airborne toxic pollutants associated with dementia incidence in public health policy decisions.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants , Particulate Matter , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cost of Illness , Dementia/economics , Dementia/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/economics , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/economics , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/economics , Quality of Life , Sweden/epidemiology
4.
Environ Int ; 157: 106862, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased risk of COVID-19 incidence and mortality by ecological analyses. Few studies have investigated the specific effect of traffic-related air pollution on COVID-19 severity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) exposure with COVID-19 severity and mortality using individual-level exposure and outcome data. METHODS: The retrospective cohort includes 75,010 individuals (mean age 42.5 years, 54% female, 66% Hispanic) diagnosed with COVID-19 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California between 3/1/2020-8/31/2020. NRAP exposures from both freeways and non-freeways during 1-year prior to the COVID-19 diagnosis date were estimated based on residential address history using the CALINE4 line source dispersion model. Primary outcomes include COVID-19 severity defined as COVID-19-related hospitalizations, intensive respiratory support (IRS), intensive care unit (ICU) admissions within 30 days, and mortality within 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis. Covariates including socio-characteristics and comorbidities were adjusted for in the analysis. RESULT: One standard deviation (SD) increase in 1-year-averaged non-freeway NRAP (0.5 ppb NOx) was associated with increased odds of COVID-19-related IRS and ICU admission [OR (95% CI): 1.07 (1.01, 1.13) and 1.11 (1.04, 1.19) respectively] and increased risk of mortality (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.18). The associations of non-freeway NRAP with COVID-19 outcomes were largely independent of the effect of regional fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide exposures. These associations were generally consistent across age, sex, and race/ethnicity subgroups. The associations of freeway and total NRAP with COVID-19 severity and mortality were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this multiethnic cohort suggested that NRAP, particularly non-freeway exposure in Southern California, may be associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality among COVID-19 infected patients. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of emerging COVID-19 variants and chemical components from freeway and non-freeway NRAP.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Adult , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19 Testing , California/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 101, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and was declared a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. This study aimed to assess the effects of temperature and long-term exposure to air pollution on the COVID-19 mortality rate at the sub-national level in France. METHODS: This cross-sectional study considered different periods of the COVID-19 pandemic from May to December 2020. It included 96 departments (or NUTS 3) in mainland France. Data on long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5), annual mean temperature, health services, health risk, and socio-spatial factors were used as covariates in negative binomial regression analysis to assess their influence on the COVID-19 mortality rate. All data were obtained from open-access sources. RESULTS: The cumulative COVID-19 mortality rate by department increased during the study period in metropolitan France-from 19.8/100,000 inhabitants (standard deviation (SD): 20.1) on 1 May 2020, to 65.4/100,000 inhabitants (SD: 39.4) on 31 December 2020. The rate was the highest in the departments where the annual average of long-term exposure to PM2.5 was high. The negative binomial regression models showed that a 1 µg/m3 increase in the annual average PM2.5 concentration was associated with a statistically significant increase in the COVID-19 mortality rate, corresponding to 24.4%, 25.8%, 26.4%, 26.7%, 27.1%, 25.8%, and 15.1% in May, June, July, August, September, October, and November, respectively. This association was no longer significant on 1 and 31 December 2020. The association between temperature and the COVID-19 mortality rate was only significant on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020. An increase of 1 °C in the average temperature was associated with a decrease in the COVID-19-mortality rate, corresponding to 9.7%, 13.3%, and 14.5% on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found significant associations between the COVID-19 mortality rate and long-term exposure to air pollution and temperature. However, these associations tended to decrease with the persistence of the pandemic and massive spread of the disease across the entire country.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , France/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
7.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388519

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Almost half of all school-age children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have asthma-like symptoms and more suffer from lung function deficits. While air pollution and indoor respiratory irritants are known to affect high-risk populations of children, few studies have objectively evaluated environmental contributions to long-term respiratory morbidity in this population. This study aimed to examine the role of indoor environmental exposures on respiratory morbidity in children with BPD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Air quality, Environment and Respiratory Ouctomes in BPD (AERO-BPD) study is a prospective, single-centre observational study that will enrol a unique cohort of 240 children with BPD and carefully characterise participants and their indoor home environmental exposures. Measures of indoor air quality constituents will assess the relationship of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM2.5), nitric oxide (NO), temperature and humidity, as well as dust concentrations of allergens, with concurrently measured respiratory symptoms and lung function.Adaptations to the research protocol due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic included remote home environment and participant assessments. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study protocol was approved by the Boston Children's Hospital Committee on Clinical Investigation. Dissemination will be in the form of peer-reviewed publications and participant information products. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04107701.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Allergens , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/diagnosis , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Humidity , Male , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Temperature
9.
Respirology ; 26(12): 1181-1187, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ecological studies have suggested an association between exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 ) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. However, these findings are yet to be validated in individual-level studies. We aimed to determine the association of long-term PM2.5 exposure with hospitalization among individual patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We estimated the 10-year (2009-2018) PM2.5 exposure at the residential zip code of COVID-19 patients diagnosed at the University of Cincinnati healthcare system between 13 March 2020 and 30 September 2020. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI for COVID-19 hospitalizations associated with PM2.5 , adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics and comorbidities. RESULTS: Among the 14,783 COVID-19 patients included in our study, 13.6% were hospitalized; the geometric mean (SD) PM2.5 was 10.48 (1.12) µg/m3 . In adjusted analysis, 1 µg/m3 increase in 10-year annual average PM2.5 was associated with 18% higher hospitalization (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11-1.26). Likewise, 1 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 estimated for the year 2018 was associated with 14% higher hospitalization (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.21). CONCLUSION: Long-term PM2.5 exposure is associated with increased hospitalization in COVID-19. Therefore, more stringent COVID-19 prevention measures may be needed in areas with higher PM2.5 exposure to reduce the disease morbidity and healthcare burden.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111948, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a lung disease, and there is medical evidence that air pollution is one of the external causes of lung diseases. Fine particulate matter is one of the air pollutants that damages pulmonary tissue. The combination of the coronavirus and fine particulate matter air pollution may exacerbate the coronavirus' effect on human health. RESEARCH QUESTION: This paper considers whether the long-term concentration of fine particulate matter of different sizes changes the number of detected coronavirus infections and the number of COVID-19 fatalities in Germany. STUDY DESIGN: Data from 400 German counties for fine particulate air pollution from 2002 to 2020 are used to measure the long-term impact of air pollution. Kriging interpolation is applied to complement data gaps. With an ecological study, the correlation between average particulate matter air pollution and COVID-19 cases, as well as fatalities, are estimated with OLS regressions. Thereby, socioeconomic and demographic covariates are included. MAIN FINDINGS: An increase in the average long-term air pollution of 1 µg/m3 particulate matter PM2.5 is correlated with 199.46 (SD = 29.66) more COVID-19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in Germany. For PM10 the respective increase is 52.38 (SD = 12.99) more cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The number of COVID-19 deaths were also positively correlated with PM2.5 and PM10 (6.18, SD = 1.44, respectively 2.11, SD = 0.71, additional COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants). CONCLUSION: Long-term fine particulate air pollution is suspected as causing higher numbers of COVID-19 cases. Higher long-term air pollution may even increase COVID-19 death rates. We find that the results of the correlation analysis without controls are retained in a regression analysis with controls for relevant confounding factors. Nevertheless, additional epidemiological investigations are required to test the causality of particulate matter air pollution for COVID-19 cases and the severity.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15960, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345581

ABSTRACT

It is not clear if COVID-19 can be indirectly transmitted. It is not possible to conclude the role of the environment in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 without studying areas in which people transit in great numbers. In this work we aimed to better understand the role of environment in the spread of COVID-19. We investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in fomites as well as in the air and in the sewage using RT-qPCR. We studied both, a reference market area and a COVID-19 reference hospital at Barreiras city, Brazil. We collected and analyzed a total of 418 samples from mask fronts, cell phones, paper money, card machines, sewage, air and bedding during the ascendant phase of the epidemiological curve of COVID-19 in Barreiras. As a result, we detected the human RNAse P gene in most of samples, which indicates the presence of human cells or their fragments in specimens. However, we did not detect any trace of SARS-CoV-2 in all samples analyzed. We conclude that, so far, the environment and inanimate materials did not have an important role in COVID-19 transmission in Barreiras city. Therefore, similar results can probably be found in other cities, mainly those with COVID-19 epidemiological scenarios similar to that of Barreiras city. Our study is a small piece indicating the possibility that fomites and the environment do not have an important role in COVID-19 transmission. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the world scenario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Fomites , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several countries have documented the relationship between long-term exposure to air pollutants and epidemiological indicators of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as incidence and mortality. This study aims to explore the association between air pollutants, such as PM2.5 and PM10, and the incidence and mortality rates of COVID-19 during 2020. METHODS: The incidence and mortality rates were estimated using the COVID-19 cases and deaths from the Chilean Ministry of Science, and the population size was obtained from the Chilean Institute of Statistics. A chemistry transport model was used to estimate the annual mean surface concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 in a period before the current pandemic. Negative binomial regressions were used to associate the epidemiological information with pollutant concentrations while considering demographic and social confounders. RESULTS: For each microgram per cubic meter, the incidence rate increased by 1.3% regarding PM2.5 and 0.9% regarding PM10. There was no statistically significant relationship between the COVID-19 mortality rate and PM2.5 or PM10. CONCLUSIONS: The adjusted regression models showed that the COVID-19 incidence rate was significantly associated with chronic exposure to PM2.5 and PM10, even after adjusting for other variables.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Chile/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Mortality , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Environ Res ; 202: 111673, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies conducted in several OECD countries have shown that chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollutants (especially PM2.5, PM10 and NOx), might negatively impact COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic exposure to air pollution in Israeli cities and towns, their demographic and socioeconomic status, and COVID-19 morbidity, during the three local morbidity waves. METHODS: We examined the associations between: (a) annual average concentrations of NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5 and SO2 in 2016-2019, and demographic and socioeconomic parameters, and (b) COVID-19 positive cases in 279 Israeli cities and towns, in the four state-wide morbidity peaks: 1st wave peak: March 31st, 2020; 2nd wave peaks: July 24th and September 27th, 2020, and the 3rd wave peak: January 17th, 2021, which occurred after the beginning of the nationwide vaccination campaign. These associations were calculated using both Spearman correlations and multivariate linear regressions. RESULTS: We found statistically significant positive correlations between the concentrations of most pollutants in 2016-19 and COVID-19 morbidity rate at the first three timepoints but not the 4th (January 17th, 2021). Population density and city/town total population were also positively associated with the COVID-19 morbidity rates at these three timepoints, but not the 4th, in which socioeconomic parameters were more dominant - we found a statistically significant negative correlation between socioeconomic cluster and COVID-19 morbidity. In addition, all multivariate models including PM2.5 concentrations were statistically significant, and PM2.5 concentrations were positively associated with the COVID-19 morbidity rates in all models. CONCLUSIONS: We found a nationwide association between population chronic exposure to five main air pollutants in Israeli cities and towns, and COVID-19 morbidity rates during two of the three morbidity waves experienced in Israel. The widespread morbidity that was related to socioeconomic factors during the 3rd wave, emphasizes the need for special attention to morbidity prevention in socioeconomically vulnerable populations and especially in large household communities. Nevertheless, this ecological study has several limitations, such as the inability to draw conclusions about causality or mechanisms of action. The growing body of evidence, regarding association between exacerbated COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates and long-term chronic exposure to elevated concentrations of air pollutants should serve as a wake-up call to policy makers regarding the urgent need to reduce air pollution and its harmful effects.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Morbidity , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305799

ABSTRACT

Rapid scientific advances are increasing our understanding of the way complex biological interactions integrate to maintain homeostatic balance and how seemingly small, localized perturbations can lead to systemic effects. The 'omics movement, alongside increased throughput resulting from statistical and computational advances, has transformed our understanding of disease mechanisms and the multi-dimensional interaction between environmental stressors and host physiology through data integration into multi-dimensional analyses, i.e., integrative interactomics. This review focuses on the use of high-throughput technologies in farm animal research, including health- and toxicology-related papers. Although limited, we highlight recent animal agriculture-centered reports from the integrative multi-'omics movement. We provide an example with fescue toxicosis, an economically costly disease affecting grazing livestock, and describe how integrative interactomics can be applied to a disease with a complex pathophysiology in the pursuit of novel treatment and management approaches. We outline how 'omics techniques have been used thus far to understand fescue toxicosis pathophysiology, lay out a framework for the fescue toxicosis integrome, identify some challenges we foresee, and offer possible means for addressing these challenges. Finally, we briefly discuss how the example with fescue toxicosis could be used for other agriculturally important animal health and welfare problems.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Epichloe/metabolism , Ergot Alkaloids/toxicity , Ergotism/veterinary , Lolium/microbiology , Metabolomics , Toxicology , Animal Husbandry , Animal Welfare , Animals , Ergot Alkaloids/metabolism , Ergotism/metabolism , Ergotism/microbiology , Ergotism/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , High-Throughput Screening Assays
16.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 51(3): 23-26, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242719

ABSTRACT

Facilities that emit hazardous toxins, such as toxic landfills, oil refineries, and chemical plants, are disproportionately located in predominantly Black, Latinx, and Indigenous neighborhoods. Environmental injustices like these threaten just distribution of health itself, including access to health that is not dependent on having the right skin color, living in the right neighborhood, or making the right amount of money. Facilities that emit environmental toxins wrongly make people's race, ethnicity, income, and neighborhood essential to who is allowed to breathe clean air and drink clean water, and thus, who is allowed to be healthy. This can be seen in the environmental crises in Louisiana; Mississippi; Houston, Texas; and Flint, Michigan. Since bioethics purports to concern itself with the principle of justice as applied to individuals and increasingly to populations, the field ought to concern itself more with environmental injustice.


Subject(s)
Bioethics , Social Justice , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Health Status , Humans , Residence Characteristics , Texas
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105860, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Amongst all the global catastrophe due to Coronavirus disease 2019, a significant bright spot is a reduction in air pollution as countries undergo lockdowns to limit the spread of infection. Another reduction that has been reported is in the number of strokes presenting to hospitals, despite the virus implicated in causing a hypercoagulable state. Acute exposure to air pollution has been linked to increase in stroke incidence and the improvement in air quality may be responsible for the decrease in stroke presentations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we compared the air quality index (AQI) of Karachi, the largest cosmopolitan city of Pakistan, during the lockdown period in 2020 to the same period in the previous year. RESULTS: We found a significant drop in AQI depicting an improvement in air quality. Simultaneously, we identified a drop in number of stroke admissions to less than half from 2019 to 2020 at one of the largest tertiary care hospitals of the city, during this period of interest. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that one important reason for this drop in stroke admissions, may be an actual reduction in stroke incidence brought about by an improvement in air quality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Patient Admission/trends , Urban Health/trends , Aged , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
18.
Environ Res ; 199: 111293, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230476

ABSTRACT

The effects of exposure to atmospheric pollution on the incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 have been studied but not for sulfur dioxide (SO2) in most studies. However, most studies failed to consider important cofounding factors in the estimation of health effects of air pollution. The objective of the study was to assess the short- and long-term effects of air pollution on the COVID-19 risk and fatality in Lombardy and Veneto. Air pollutants were studied based on monitoring station information in Lombardy and Veneto from January 2013 to May 2020. The daily number of cases and deaths of COVID-19 were collected from the reports of the Italian Ministry of Health in Italy. A generalized linear model with the generalized estimating equation method was used to evaluate the effects of short- and long-term exposure to air pollution on the COVID-19 outbreak in Lombardy and Veneto. After adjusting for other covariates, we found that short-term exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 had a tendency to increase the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 than long-term exposure, while for other air pollutants, including SO2 and NO2, long-term exposure was more significant than short-term exposure. Both short- and long-term exposure of SO2 resulted in increased health effects on COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings suggest that exposure to atmospheric pollution has a significant impact on COVID-19 pandemic and call for further researches to deeply investigate this topic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 902, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have been focusing on the potential role of atmospheric pollutants in the diffusion and impact on health of Covid-19. This study's objective was to estimate the association between ≤10 µm diameter particulate matter (PM10) exposure and the likelihood of experiencing pneumonia due to Covid-19 using individual-level data in Italy. METHODS: Information on Covid-19 patients was retrieved from the Italian IQVIA® Longitudinal Patient Database (LPD), a computerized network of general practitioners (GPs) including anonymous data on patients' consultations and treatments. All patients with a Covid-19 diagnosis during March 18th, 2020 - June 30th, 2020 were included in the study. The date of first Covid-19 registration was the starting point of the 3-month follow-up (Index Date). Patients were classified based on Covid-19-related pneumonia registrations on the Index date and/or during follow-up presence/absence. Each patient was assigned individual exposure by calculating average PM10 during the 30-day period preceding the Index Date, and according to GP's office province. A multiple generalized linear mixed model, mixed-effects logistic regression, was used to assess the association between PM10 exposure tertiles and the likelihood of experiencing pneumonia. RESULTS: Among 6483 Covid-19 patients included, 1079 (16.6%) had a diagnosis of pneumonia. Pneumonia patients were older, more frequently men, more health-impaired, and had a higher individual-level exposure to PM10 during the month preceding Covid-19 diagnosis. The mixed-effects model showed that patients whose PM10 exposure level fell in the second tertile had a 30% higher likelihood of having pneumonia than that of first tertile patients, and the risk for those who were in the third tertile was almost doubled. CONCLUSION: The consistent findings toward a positive association between PM10 levels and the likelihood of experiencing pneumonia due to Covid-19 make the implementation of new strategies to reduce air pollution more and more urgent.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19 Testing , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 127(3): 312-317, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To present an update of birth cohort study designs and their contributions to allergic risk. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed database was used to search for relevant articles. STUDY SELECTIONS: Peer-reviewed prospective and retrospective studies involving the assessment of allergy using human birth cohorts between 2014 and 2021 were evaluated. RESULTS: Parental history of allergic diseases, especially in cases involving both parents, is associated with increased risk of allergy. Exposure to prenatal and postnatal smoking and limited diet diversity were associated with increased allergic burden. The impact of early-life infections and antibiotics on disease development may be associated with the onset of asthma, though this remains debated. Cohort studies also revealed that the mode of delivery and breastfeeding duration affect the odds ratio of asthma and eczema development. Household exposures, including pets, house dust mites, and scented aeroallergens may confer protective effects, whereas high air pollution exposure and low socioeconomic status may be risk enhancing. Exposure to antibiotics during early life may be associated with increased asthma risk, whereas viral infections may lead to disease protection, though the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on allergic risk is yet to be understood. CONCLUSION: Although evaluating the risk of allergic disease development is complex, clinicians can apply these insights on the multifactorial nature of atopy to better understand and potentially mitigate disease development.


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , Breast Feeding/methods , Diet/methods , Eczema/immunology , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Inheritance Patterns/immunology , Allergens/administration & dosage , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/genetics , Asthma/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Eczema/etiology , Eczema/genetics , Eczema/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Hypersensitivity/genetics , Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Pets/immunology , Pregnancy , Pyroglyphidae/chemistry , Pyroglyphidae/immunology , Risk Factors , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
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