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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625572

ABSTRACT

According to the World Bank Group, 36 of the 50 most polluted cities in the European Union are in Poland. Thus, ambient air pollution and its detrimental health effects are a matter of immense importance in Poland. This narrative review aims to analyse current findings on air pollution and health in Poland, with a focus on respiratory diseases, including COVID-19, as well as the Poles' awareness of air pollution. PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases were searched. In total, results from 71 research papers were summarized qualitatively. In Poland, increased air pollution levels are linked to increased general and respiratory disease mortality rates, higher prevalence of respiratory diseases, including asthma, lung cancer and COVID-19 infections, reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). The proximity of high traffic areas exacerbates respiratory health problems. People living in more polluted regions (south of Poland) and in the winter season have a higher level of air pollution awareness. There is an urgent need to reduce air pollution levels and increase public awareness of this threat. A larger number of multi-city studies are needed in Poland to consistently track the burden of diseases attributable to air pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Biomed J ; 44(6S1): S25-S36, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atmospheric contamination, especially particulate matter (PM), can be associated viral infections connected with respiratory failure. Literature data indicates that intensity of SARS-CoV-2 infections worldwide can be associated with PM pollution levels. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between atmospheric contamination, measured as PM2.5 and PM10 levels, and the number of COVID-19 cases and related deaths in Poland in a one-year observation study. METHODS: Number and geographical distribution of COVID-19 incidents and related deaths, as well as PM2.5 and PM10 exposure levels in Poland were obtained from publicly accessible databases. Average monthly values of these parameters for individual provinces were calculated. Multiple regression analysis was performed for the period between March 2020 and February 2021, taking into account average monthly exposure to PM2.5 and PM10, monthly COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and the population density across Polish provinces. RESULTS: Only December 2020 the number of new infections was significantly related to the three analyzed factors: PM2.5, population density and the number of laboratory COVID-19 tests (R2 = 0.882). For COVID-19 mortality, a model with all three significant factors: PM10, population density and number of tests was obtained as significant only in November 2020 (R2 = 0.468). CONCLUSION: The distribution of COVID-19 incidents across Poland was independent from annual levels of particulate matter concentration in provinces. Exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 was associated with COVID-19 incidence and mortality in different provinces only in certain months. Other cofactors such as population density and the number of performed COVID-19 tests also corresponded with both COVID-19-related infections and deaths only in certain months. Particulate matter should not be treated as the sole determinant of the spread and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic but its importance in the incidence of infectious diseases should not be forgotten.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131615, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systematic evaluations of the cumulative effects and mortality displacement of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on deaths are lacking. We aimed to discern the cumulative effect profile of PM exposure, and investigate the presence of mortality displacement in a large-scale population. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis with different exposure-lag models on 13 cities in Jiangsu, China, to estimate the effects of PM pollution on non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality (2015-2019). Over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive models were integrated with distributed lag models to estimate cumulative exposure effects, and assess mortality displacement. RESULTS: Pooled cumulative effect estimates with lags of 0-7 and 0-14 days were substantially larger than those with single-day and 2-day moving average lags. For each 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 concentration with a cumulative lag of 0-7 days, we estimated an increase of 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.29, 0.72), 0.63 % (95 % CI: 0.38, 0.88), and 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.01, 1.01) in pooled estimates of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Both PM10 and PM2.5 were associated with significant increases in non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality with a cumulative lag of 0-14 days. We observed mortality displacement within 30 days for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that risk assessment based on single-day or 2-day moving average lag structures may underestimate the adverse effects of PM pollution. The cumulative effects of PM exposure on non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality can last up to 14 days. Evidence of mortality displacement for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths was found.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Cardiovascular Diseases , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mortality , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity
4.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 130(1): 200-207, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488179

ABSTRACT

The transfer of a chemical product from its original container to an unlabelled secondary container by consumers is a potential health hazard that may result in unintentional exposures and intoxications. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of prevalence of exposures to transferred products in Italy from year 2017, when the new European labelling regulation for chemicals became fully operative, to 2020, year of the coronavirus 19 disease first outbreak. Calls to the Poison Control Centre (PCC) of Policlinico Umberto I Hospital - Sapienza University of Rome were analysed retrospectively for characteristics, clinical presentation and circumstances related to the event. We registered 198 cases of interest. There was a reduction in cases from 2017 (4.9%) to 2019 (2.2%), followed by an increased prevalence in 2020 (4.2%) mainly due to the months "post-lockdown." The transferred product was very frequently diluted, and an empty drinking bottle was usually used as secondary container. Exposures were mostly of minor severity, and no deaths occurred. The study highlights the importance of PCCs data in the evaluation of the hazard communication to users through labels and advises for public campaigns to promote safe behaviours during future lockdowns to prevent exposures at a later period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Hazardous Substances/toxicity , Poisoning/epidemiology , Product Labeling/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Poison Control Centers , Product Packaging , Retrospective Studies , Rome
5.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 39: 100443, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459135

ABSTRACT

The study of the impacts of air pollution on COVID-19 has gained increasing attention. However, most of the existing studies are based on a single country, with a high degree of variation in the results reported in different papers. We attempt to inform the debate about the long-term effects of air pollution on COVID-19 by conducting a multi-country analysis using a spatial ecological design, including Canada, Italy, England and the United States. The model allows the residual spatial autocorrelation after accounting for covariates. It is concluded that the effects of PM2.5 and NO2 are inconsistent across countries. Specifically, NO2 was not found to be an important factor affecting COVID-19 infection, while a large effect for PM2.5 in the US is not found in the other three countries. The Population Attributable Fraction for COVID-19 incidence ranges from 3.4% in Canada to 45.9% in Italy, although with considerable uncertainty in these estimates.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 462-468, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451067

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread rapidly worldwide. The role of fomites in facilitating onward transmission is plausible. This study aimed to determine the presence of viable virus and its persistence on the surfaces of fomites in wards treating COVID-19 patients in Malaysia. This study was conducted in two stages. First, environmental sampling was performed on random days in the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. Then, in the second stage, samples were collected serially on alternate days for 7 days in two selected general wards. In Stage 1, a total of 104 samples were collected from the surfaces of highly touched and used areas by patients and healthcare workers. Only three samples were tested positive for SARS-COV-2. In Stage 2, three surface samples were detected positive, but no persistence of the virus was observed. However, none of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA was viable through tissue culture. Overall, the environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 was low in this hospital setting. Hospitals' strict infection control and the compliance of patients with wearing masks may have played a role in these findings, suggesting adherence to those measures to reduce occupational exposure of COVID-19 in hospital settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Fomites/virology , Infection Control/methods , Equipment Contamination , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Malaysia , Patients' Rooms/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Environ Res ; 207: 112131, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446616

ABSTRACT

Back in December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) started rapidly spreading worldwide, especially in Italy that was among the most affected countries. The geographical distribution of air pollution and Covid-19 mortality in Italy suggested atmospheric pollution as a worsening factor of severe Covid-19 health outcomes. The present nationwide ecological study focused on all 107 Italian territorial areas, aiming to assess the potential association between Particulate Matter concentration, less than 2.5 µm in diameter (exposure), and Covid-19 mortality rate (outcome) throughout 2020, by looking at 28 potential confounders. A potential positive association between exposure and outcome was observed when performing a multivariate regression analysis with a Negative Binomial model, suggesting that an increase of 1 µg/m3 in the exposure is associated with an increase of 9.0% (95% CI: 6.5%-11.6%) in the average Covid-19 mortality rate, conditional on all 28 potential confounders. A sensitivity analysis, based on the E-value, shows that a hypothetical unmeasured confounder would have to be associated with both PM2.5 concentration and Covid-19 mortality rate by a rate ratio of at least 1.40-fold each to explain away the exposure-outcome association, conditional on all 28 covariates included in the main analysis model. Moreover, the Observed Covariate E-value (OCE) was reported to provide a contextualization of the E-value on the observed covariates included in the study. The OCE sensitivity analysis shows that a set of unknown confounders similar in size and magnitude to the set of the considered climatic factors could potentially explain away the estimated exposure-outcome association. Consequently, the role of climatic factors in the Covid-19 pandemic is worth of further investigation.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 101, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and was declared a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. This study aimed to assess the effects of temperature and long-term exposure to air pollution on the COVID-19 mortality rate at the sub-national level in France. METHODS: This cross-sectional study considered different periods of the COVID-19 pandemic from May to December 2020. It included 96 departments (or NUTS 3) in mainland France. Data on long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5), annual mean temperature, health services, health risk, and socio-spatial factors were used as covariates in negative binomial regression analysis to assess their influence on the COVID-19 mortality rate. All data were obtained from open-access sources. RESULTS: The cumulative COVID-19 mortality rate by department increased during the study period in metropolitan France-from 19.8/100,000 inhabitants (standard deviation (SD): 20.1) on 1 May 2020, to 65.4/100,000 inhabitants (SD: 39.4) on 31 December 2020. The rate was the highest in the departments where the annual average of long-term exposure to PM2.5 was high. The negative binomial regression models showed that a 1 µg/m3 increase in the annual average PM2.5 concentration was associated with a statistically significant increase in the COVID-19 mortality rate, corresponding to 24.4%, 25.8%, 26.4%, 26.7%, 27.1%, 25.8%, and 15.1% in May, June, July, August, September, October, and November, respectively. This association was no longer significant on 1 and 31 December 2020. The association between temperature and the COVID-19 mortality rate was only significant on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020. An increase of 1 °C in the average temperature was associated with a decrease in the COVID-19-mortality rate, corresponding to 9.7%, 13.3%, and 14.5% on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found significant associations between the COVID-19 mortality rate and long-term exposure to air pollution and temperature. However, these associations tended to decrease with the persistence of the pandemic and massive spread of the disease across the entire country.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , France/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
9.
Horm Metab Res ; 53(9): 575-587, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397932

ABSTRACT

Global warming and the rising prevalence of obesity are well described challenges of current mankind. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic arose as a new challenge. We here attempt to delineate their relationship with each other from our perspective. Global greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have exponentially increased since 1950. The main contributors to such greenhouse gas emissions are manufacturing and construction, transport, residential, commercial, agriculture, and land use change and forestry, combined with an increasing global population growth from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion in 2020 along with rising obesity rates since the 1980s. The current Covid-19 pandemic has caused some decline in greenhouse gas emissions by limiting mobility globally via repetitive lockdowns. Following multiple lockdowns, there was further increase in obesity in wealthier populations, malnutrition from hunger in poor populations and death from severe infection with Covid-19 and its virus variants. There is a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and global warming. With rising atmospheric air temperatures, people typically will have less adaptive thermogenesis and become less physically active, while they are producing a higher carbon footprint. To reduce obesity rates, one should be willing to learn more about the environmental impact, how to minimize consumption of energy generating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and to reduce food waste. Diets lower in meat such as a Mediterranean diet, have been estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 72%, land use by 58%, and energy consumption by 52%.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Obesity/etiology , Agriculture/economics , Agriculture/trends , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Climate Change/history , Comorbidity , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Environment , Environmental Exposure/history , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Greenhouse Gases/toxicity , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Pandemics , Risk Factors
10.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 400-402, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394713

ABSTRACT

Background: On January 20, 2020, the first documented case of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) was reported in the United States. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continues to report more morbidity and mortality in adults than in children. Early in Pandemic, there was a concern that patients with asthma would be affected disproportionately from COVID-19, but this was not manifested. It is now recognized that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors that are used by the coronavirus for infection have low expression in children with atopy that may contribute to decreased infectivity in children who are atopic. There are several early reports of decreased emergency department (ED) visits for children with asthma. The authors previously reported a decrease in pediatric ED visits in the spring of 2020, which correlated with school closure. Objective: To determine if this trend of decreased ED visits for pediatric asthma was sustained throughout the first COVID-19 pandemic year. Methods: ED data from one inner city children's hospital were collected by using standard medical claims codes. Conclusion: We reported a sustained year of decreased ED visits for children with asthma in one pediatric ED in an inner-city hospital; this seemed to be secondary to school closure and decreased exposure to upper respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Progression , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan , Physical Distancing , Schools , Urban Health
11.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388519

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Almost half of all school-age children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have asthma-like symptoms and more suffer from lung function deficits. While air pollution and indoor respiratory irritants are known to affect high-risk populations of children, few studies have objectively evaluated environmental contributions to long-term respiratory morbidity in this population. This study aimed to examine the role of indoor environmental exposures on respiratory morbidity in children with BPD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Air quality, Environment and Respiratory Ouctomes in BPD (AERO-BPD) study is a prospective, single-centre observational study that will enrol a unique cohort of 240 children with BPD and carefully characterise participants and their indoor home environmental exposures. Measures of indoor air quality constituents will assess the relationship of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM2.5), nitric oxide (NO), temperature and humidity, as well as dust concentrations of allergens, with concurrently measured respiratory symptoms and lung function.Adaptations to the research protocol due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic included remote home environment and participant assessments. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study protocol was approved by the Boston Children's Hospital Committee on Clinical Investigation. Dissemination will be in the form of peer-reviewed publications and participant information products. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04107701.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Allergens , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/diagnosis , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Humidity , Male , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Temperature
12.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1569-1575, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the potential of SARS-CoV-2 spread during air travel and the risk of in-flight transmission. METHODS: We enrolled all passengers and crew suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, who bounded for Beijing on international flights. We specified the characteristics of all confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection and utilised Wells-Riley equation to estimate the infectivity of COVID-19 during air travel. RESULTS: We screened 4492 passengers and crew with suspected COVID-19 infection, verified 161 confirmed cases (mean age 28.6 years), and traced two confirmed cases who may have been infected in the aircraft. The estimated infectivity was 375 quanta/h (range 274-476), while the effective infectivity was only 4 quanta/h (range 2-5). The risk of per-person infection during a 13 h air travel in economy class was 0.56‰ (95% CI 0.41‰-0.72‰). CONCLUSION: We found that the universal use of face masks on the flight, together with the plane's ventilation system, significantly decreased the infectivity of COVID-19.KEY MESSAGESThe COVID-19 pandemic is changing the lifestyle in the world, especially air travel which has the potential to spread SARS-CoV-2.The universal use of face masks on the flight, together with the plane's ventilation system, significantly decreased the infectivity of COVID-19 on an aircraft.Our findings suggest that the risk of infection in aircraft was negligible.


Subject(s)
Air Travel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Theoretical , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111948, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a lung disease, and there is medical evidence that air pollution is one of the external causes of lung diseases. Fine particulate matter is one of the air pollutants that damages pulmonary tissue. The combination of the coronavirus and fine particulate matter air pollution may exacerbate the coronavirus' effect on human health. RESEARCH QUESTION: This paper considers whether the long-term concentration of fine particulate matter of different sizes changes the number of detected coronavirus infections and the number of COVID-19 fatalities in Germany. STUDY DESIGN: Data from 400 German counties for fine particulate air pollution from 2002 to 2020 are used to measure the long-term impact of air pollution. Kriging interpolation is applied to complement data gaps. With an ecological study, the correlation between average particulate matter air pollution and COVID-19 cases, as well as fatalities, are estimated with OLS regressions. Thereby, socioeconomic and demographic covariates are included. MAIN FINDINGS: An increase in the average long-term air pollution of 1 µg/m3 particulate matter PM2.5 is correlated with 199.46 (SD = 29.66) more COVID-19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in Germany. For PM10 the respective increase is 52.38 (SD = 12.99) more cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The number of COVID-19 deaths were also positively correlated with PM2.5 and PM10 (6.18, SD = 1.44, respectively 2.11, SD = 0.71, additional COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants). CONCLUSION: Long-term fine particulate air pollution is suspected as causing higher numbers of COVID-19 cases. Higher long-term air pollution may even increase COVID-19 death rates. We find that the results of the correlation analysis without controls are retained in a regression analysis with controls for relevant confounding factors. Nevertheless, additional epidemiological investigations are required to test the causality of particulate matter air pollution for COVID-19 cases and the severity.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(4): 470-477, 2021 06 18.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259813

ABSTRACT

Objective. To analyze the relationship between chronic exposures to air pollution with Covid-19 death rate in Mexican cities. Materials and methods. Ecological study in 25 Mexican cities using the report of daily Covid-19 deaths (from February to June 2020) and validated data of air pollutants, considering average concentrations in each city for the last year. Poisson regression models using generalized additive models with adjustment variables (GAM) were used. Results. A significant increase of 3.5% (95% CI 2.3-4.7) was found in Covid-19 death rate for each 1µg/m3 in annual concentration of NO2. The association with PM2.5 was not significant, with an increase of 1.8% for each 1µg/m3. Conclusions. Results suggest an association between Covid-19 mortality and chronic exposure to NO2. This first approximation of the risk associated with air pollution requires a more precise analysis, but is consistent with what was observed in other studies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Cities/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mortality , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(4): e202-e209, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 lockdown period from March 17 to May 11, 2020, French authorities in Paris and its suburbs relocated people experiencing recurrent homelessness to emergency shelters, hotels, and large venues. A serological survey was done at some of these locations to assess the COVID-19 exposure prevalence in this group. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional seroprevalence study at food distribution sites, emergency shelters, and workers' residences that were provided medical services by Médecins Sans Frontières in Paris and Seine-Saint-Denis in the Ile-de-France region. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody seropositivity was detected by Luciferase-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Pseudo Neutralization Test. Sociodemographic and exposure related information was collected via a verbal questionnaire to analyse risk factors and associations with various COVID-19 symptoms. FINDINGS: Between June 23 and July 2, 2020, 426 (52%) of 818 individuals recruited tested positive in 14 sites. Seroprevalence varied significantly by type of recruitment site (χ2 p<0·0001), being highest among those living in workers' residences (88·7%, 95% CI 81·8-93·2), followed by emergency shelters (50·5%, 46·3-54·7), and food distribution sites (27·8%, 20·8-35·7). More than two thirds of COVID-19 seropositive individuals (68%, 95% CI 64·2-72·2; 291 of 426) did not report any symptoms during the recall period. COVID-19 seropositivity was strongly associated with overcrowding (medium density: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2·7, 95% CI 1·5-5·1, p=0·0020; high density: aOR 3·4, 1·7-6·9, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: These results show high exposure to SARS-CoV-2 with important variations between those at different study sites. Living in crowded conditions was the strongest factor associated with exposure level. This study underscores the importance of providing safe, uncrowded accommodation, alongside adequate testing and public health information. FUNDING: Médecins Sans Frontières, Epicentre, Institut Pasteur's URGENCE nouveau coronavirus fund, Total Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paris/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 41(1): 25-29, 2021 01.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068229

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the use or misuse of cleaning products during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compiled data from January to June in 2019 and 2020 from Canadian poison centres, and report on calls regarding selected cleaning products and present year-overyear percentage change. There were 3408 (42%) calls related to bleaches; 2015 (25%) to hand sanitizers; 1667 (21%) to disinfectants; 949 (12%) to chlorine gas; and 148 (2%) to chloramine gas. An increase in calls occurred in conjunction with the onset of COVID-19, with the largest increase occurring in March. Timely access to Canadian poison centre data facilitated early communication of safety messaging for dissemination to the public.


The Canadian Surveillance System for Poison Information (CSSPI) led by Health Canada is a developing network of poison centres, health authorities and regulatory agencies that facilitates early detection of poisoning incidents and alerting at the national level to inform harm reduction interventions. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns were raised over the potential for misuse of cleaning products and disinfectants; the CSSPI network monitored and assessed these concerns. An overall increase in calls about select cleaning products and disinfectants occurred concurrently with the pandemic, with percentage increases for selected products as high as 400% compared to the same period in the previous year.


Le Système canadien de surveillance des données sur les intoxications (SCSDI), dirigé par Santé Canada, est un réseau en développement composé de centres antipoison, d'autorités sanitaires et d'organismes de réglementation, qui facilite la détection précoce des incidents d'empoisonnement et une alerte rapide au niveau national afin d'éclairer les interventions en matière de réduction des risques. En réponse à la pandémie de COVID-19, des préoccupations ayant émergé quant au risque de mauvaise utilisation de produits de nettoyage et de désinfectants, le SCSDI a surveillé et évalué ces préoccupations. Une augmentation globale du nombre d'appels concernant plusieurs produits de nettoyage et désinfectants a eu lieu en concomitance avec la pandémie, certaines augmentations pouvant atteindre jusqu'à 400 % pour certains produits par rapport à la même période de l'année précédente.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disinfectants/poisoning , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Household Products/poisoning , Poison Control Centers/statistics & numerical data , Canada/epidemiology , Humans
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