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1.
Curr Environ Health Rep ; 9(2): 183-195, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797387

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evaluating the environmental health impacts of urban policies is critical for developing and implementing policies that lead to more healthy and equitable cities. This article aims to (1) identify research questions commonly used when evaluating the health impacts of urban policies at different stages of the policy process, (2) describe commonly used methods, and (3) discuss challenges, opportunities, and future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: In the diagnosis and design stages of the policy process, research questions aim to characterize environmental problems affecting human health and to estimate the potential impacts of new policies. Simulation methods using existing exposure-response information to estimate health impacts predominate at these stages of the policy process. In subsequent stages, e.g., during implementation, research questions aim to understand the actual policy impacts. Simulation methods or observational methods, which rely on experimental data gathered in the study area to assess the effectiveness of the policy, can be applied at these stages. Increasingly, novel techniques fuse both simulation and observational methods to enhance the robustness of impact evaluations assessing implemented policies. The policy process consists of interdependent stages, from inception to end, but most reviewed studies focus on single stages, neglecting the continuity of the policy life cycle. Studies assessing the health impacts of policies using a multi-stage approach are lacking. Most studies investigate intended impacts of policies; focusing also on unintended impacts may provide a more comprehensive evaluation of policies.


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Policy , Cities , Health Policy , Humans
2.
Nurs Open ; 9(3): 1575-1588, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782651

ABSTRACT

AIM: This review aimed to elucidate research trends in global nursing in international literature. DESIGN: A scoping literature review of the PRISMA was used to guide the review. METHODS: PubMed was used to search for English articles published in academic journals between 2016-2018. The search keywords were "global/international/world nursing." We used thematic synthesis to analyse and interpret the data and generated topics for global nursing literature. RESULTS: In total, 133 articles were analysed. Six topics emerged: (a) conceptualization of global nursing, (b) environmental health, (c) infectious diseases, (d) security efforts, (e) global shortage of nursing personnel and (f) diversification of study abroad programmes. The results of this review reflect today's serious international health, labour and global environmental issues. Based on these latest global nursing topics, it is necessary to develop new strategies, nursing models and environment-related theories to create and maintain a healthy environment.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Publications , Environmental Health
3.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580211047045, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759597

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to verify whether a pro-environmental prenatal education program has an effect on pregnant women's environmental health awareness and behaviors in Korea. This quasi-experimental study employed a nonequivalent control group and nonsynchronized design based on the protection motivation theory as a theoretical framework. In total, 96 pregnant women had their data collected and analyzed in Korea (40 in the experimental group; and 56 in the control group). Data collection through self-reported questionnaire was conducted between September 2017 and August 2018. The program consisted of lectures and group activities aimed at educating participants on environmental awareness and behaviors. The data were analyzed using t-test, chi square test, and ANCOVA using SPSS 24.0 program. After the intervention, the experimental group showed significantly higher sensitivity (54.78 ± 9.47 and 49.75 ± 5.42; F = 15.13, P < .001), susceptibility (26.30 ± 5.18 and 24.28 ± 4.53; F = 53.94, P < .001), response efficacy (27.40 ± 3.40 and 25.18 ± 4.23; F = 39.42, P < .001), self-efficacy (22.43 ± 4.15 and 21.35 ± 4.25; F = 41.13, P < .001), individual environmental behavior (58.59 ± 12.25 and 51.93 ± 12.64; F = 172.75, P < .001), and communal environmental behavior (18.45 ± 9.68 and 13.13 ± 8.24; F = 126.26, P < .001) than the control group. The developed pro-environmental prenatal education program contained content on the environment and pregnancy, environmental toxin, effects of endocrine disruptors, airborne pollutants, water pollutant, soil pollutant, radio-electronic exposure, and pro-environmental health behaviors during pregnancy. Pregnant women who participated in the pro-environmental prenatal education program had positive changes in environmental health perceptions and behaviors. As environmental hazards continue to increase, pregnant women should receive effective motivational education on eco-environmental protection to increase their sensitivity to environmental risk factors and to encourage active environmental health behaviors.


Subject(s)
Prenatal Education , Environmental Health , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Motivation , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/education
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715340

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the relationships between environmental health literacy, the characteristics of people (race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status) associated with health disparities, and people's willingness to engage in protective behaviors against environmental health threats. Environmental health literacy is a framework for capturing the continuum between the knowledge of environmental impacts on public health, and the skills and decisions needed to take health-protective actions. We pay particular attention to three dimensions of environmental health literacy: factual knowledge (knowing the facts), knowledge sufficiency (feeling ready to decide what to do), and response efficacy (believing that protective behaviors work). In June 2020, we collected survey data from North Carolina residents on two topics: the viral infection COVID-19 and industrial contaminants called per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). We used their responses to test stepwise regression models with willingness to engage in protective behaviors as a dependent variable and other characteristics as independent variables, including environmental health literacy. For both topics, our results indicated that no disparities emerged according to socioeconomic factors (level of education, household income, or renting one's residence). We observed disparities in willingness according to race, comparing Black to White participants, but not when comparing White to American Indian, Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander participants nor Hispanic to non-Hispanic participants. The disparities in willingness between Black and White participants persisted until we introduced the variables of environmental health literacy, when the difference between these groups was no longer significant in the final regression models. The findings suggest that focusing on environmental health literacy could bridge a gap in willingness to protect oneself based on factors such as race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, which have been identified in the environmental health literature as resulting in health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Environmental Health , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715314

ABSTRACT

This study is based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with the participants of an indoor air quality monitoring study. The purpose of the interviews was to capture participants' perceptions of indoor air quality and engage them in a discussion of those factors that influenced their behavior. Interview study participants (n = 20) noted the importance of family health concerns and their own sensory awareness of possible contaminants. They discussed their level of personal control over their home environment as well as their access to needed resources. This study is based on grounded theory and applies interpretivist epistemological methods. Study findings offer insights into how people perceive their home environment and what influences their decision making and action. Analyses indicate that perceived agency, risk perception, access to resources, and information all influenced participants' sense of ability to take action as well as their interest in taking action. These insights serve to challenge some of the current work in environmental health literacy which tends to focus on and measure an individual's knowledge or skills. Our analysis suggests that consideration be given to a number of factors that include perceived agency, access to resources, and the quality of information provided.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Health Literacy , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Environmental Health , Humans
8.
J Hosp Med ; 17(3): 158-168, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Environmental Health Service employees (EVS) sanitize healthcare facilities and are critical to preventing infection, but are under-resourced during the COVID-19 pandemic and at risk of burnout. OBJECTIVE: Understand demands on EVS' work and strain on resources during COVID-19. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study conducted in winter 2020-2021. SETTING: One quaternary care academic medical center in Colorado. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 16 EVS out of 305 eligible at the medical center. Fifty percent identified as Black, 31% as Hispanic, 6% as Asian, and 6% as White (another 6% identified as mixed race). Sixty-nine percent were female, and half were born in a country outside the United States. MEASURES: Semistructured telephone interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. RESULTS: Four themes illustrate EVS experiences with job strain and support during COVID-19: (1) Needs for ongoing training/education, (2) Emotional challenges of patient care, (3) Resource/staffing barriers, and (4) Lack of recognition as frontline responders. Despite feeling unrecognized during the pandemic, EVS identified structural supports with potential to mitigate job strain, including opportunities for increased communication with interdisciplinary colleagues, intentional acknowledgment, and education for those who speak languages other than English. Strategies that can increase physical and emotional resources and reduce job demands have potential to combat EVS burnout. CONCLUSIONS: As the surge of COVID-19 cases continues to overwhelm healthcare facilities, healthcare systems and interdisciplinary colleagues can adopt policies and practices that ensure lower-wage healthcare workers have access to resources, education, and emotional support.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Health , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Workforce , Humans , Male , Pandemics
9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(5): 55002, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The twin pandemics of COVID-19 and systemic racism during 2020 have forced a conversation across many segments of our society, including the environmental health sciences (EHS) research community. We have seen the proliferation of statements of solidarity with the Black Lives Matter movement and commitments to fight racism and health inequities from academia, nonprofit organizations, governmental agencies, and private corporations. Actions must now arise from these promises. As public health and EHS scientists, we must examine the systems that produce and perpetuate inequities in exposure to environmental pollutants and associated health effects. OBJECTIVES: We outline five recommendations the EHS research community can implement to confront racism and move our science forward for eliminating racial inequities in environmental health. DISCUSSION: Race is best considered a political label that promotes inequality. Thus, we should be wary of equating race with biology. Further, EHS researchers should seriously consider racism as a plausible explanation of racial disparities in health and consider structural racism as a factor in environmental health risk/impact assessments, as well as multiple explanations for racial differences in environmental exposures and health outcomes. Last, the EHS research community should develop metrics to measure racism and a set of guidelines on the use and interpretation of race and ethnicity within the environmental sciences. Numerous guidelines exist in other disciplines that can serve as models. By taking action on each of these recommendations, we can make significant progress toward eliminating racial disparities. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8186.


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Racism , COVID-19/ethnology , Environmental Health/organization & administration , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Racism/prevention & control
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(25): 38505-38526, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653692

ABSTRACT

In the global COVID-19 epidemic, humans are faced with a new challenge. The concept of quarantine as a preventive measure has changed human activities in all aspects of life. This challenge has led to changes in the environment as well. The air quality index is one of the immediate concrete parameters. In this study, the actual potential of quarantine effects on the air quality index and related variables in Tehran, the capital of Iran, is assessed, where, first, the data on the pollutant reference concentration for all measuring stations in Tehran, from February 19 to April 19, from 2017 to 2020, are monitored and evaluated. This study investigated the hourly concentrations of six particulate matters (PM), including PM2.5, PM10, and air contaminants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Changes in pollution rate during the study period can be due to reduced urban traffic, small industrial activities, and dust mites of urban and industrial origins. Although pollution has declined in most regions during the COVID-19 quarantine period, the PM2.5 rate has not decreased significantly, which might be of natural origins such as dust. Next, the air quality index for the stations is calculated, and then, the interpolation is made by evaluating the root mean square (RMS) of different models. The local and global Moran index indicates that the changes and the air quality index in the study area are clustered and have a high spatial autocorrelation. The results indicate that although the bad air quality is reduced due to quarantine, major changes are needed in urban management to provide favorable conditions. Contaminants can play a role in transmitting COVID-19 as a carrier of the virus. It is suggested that due to the rise in COVID-19 and temperature in Iran, in future studies, the effect of increased temperature on COVID-19 can be assessed.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Dust/analysis , Environmental Health , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Iran , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Spatial Analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
16.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 27(6): 621-622, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462580
20.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 4(5): 539-549, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387508

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the world has woken up to the importance of biosecurity and the need to manage international borders. Yet strong sectorial identities exist within biosecurity that are associated with specific international standards, individual economic interests, specific research communities, and unique stakeholder involvement. Despite considerable research addressing human, animal, plant, and environmental health, the science connections between these sectors remain quite limited. One Biosecurity aims to address these limitations at global, national, and local scales. It is an interdisciplinary approach to biosecurity policy and research that builds on the interconnections between human, animal, plant, and environmental health to effectively prevent and mitigate the impacts of invasive alien species. It provides an integrated perspective to address the many biosecurity risks that transcend the traditional boundaries of health, agriculture, and the environment. Individual invasive alien plant and animal species often have multiple impacts across sectors: as hosts of zoonotic parasites, vectors of pathogens, pests of agriculture or forestry, as well as threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function. It is time these risks were addressed in a systematic way. One Biosecurity is essential to address several major sociological and environmental challenges to biosecurity: climate change, increasing urbanisation, agricultural intensification, human global mobility, loss of technical capability as well as public resistance to pesticides and vaccines. One Biosecurity will require the bringing together of taxonomists, population biologists, modellers, economists, chemists, engineers, and social scientists to engage in a new agenda that is shaped by politics, legislation, and public perceptions.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Environmental Health , One Health , Animals , COVID-19 , Climate Change , Humans , Pandemics , Plants , SARS-CoV-2 , Urbanization
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