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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 114: 170-178, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180480

ABSTRACT

To investigate the characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and its chemical compositions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China during the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown, the ground-based data of PM2.5, trace gases, water-soluble inorganic ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed in three typical cities (Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding) in the BTH region of China from 5-15 February 2020. The PM2.5 source apportionment was established by combining the weather research and forecasting model and comprehensive air quality model with extensions (WRF-CAMx). The results showed that the maximum daily PM2.5 concentration reached the heavy pollution level (>150 µg/m3) in the above three cities. The sum concentration of SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ played a dominant position in PM2.5 chemical compositions of Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding; secondary transformation of gaseous pollutants contributed significantly to PM2.5 generation, and the secondary transformation was enhanced as the increased PM2.5 concentrations. The results of WRF-CAMx showed obviously inter-transport of PM2.5 in the BTH region; the contribution of transportation source decreased significantly than previous reports in Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding during the COVID-19 lockdown; but the contribution of industrial and residential emission sources increased significantly with the increase of PM2.5 concentration, and industry emission sources contributed the most to PM2.5 concentrations. Therefore, control policies should be devoted to reducing industrial emissions and regional joint control strategies to mitigate haze pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16737, 2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151072

ABSTRACT

A total of 188,859 meteorological-PM[Formula: see text] data validated before (2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020) were used. In order to predict PM[Formula: see text] in two districts of South Lima in Peru, hourly, daily, monthly and seasonal variations of the data were analyzed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and linear/nonlinear modeling were applied. The results showed the highest annual average PM[Formula: see text] for San Juan de Miraflores (SJM) (PM[Formula: see text]-SJM: 78.7 [Formula: see text]g/m[Formula: see text]) and the lowest in Santiago de Surco (SS) (PM[Formula: see text]-SS: 40.2 [Formula: see text]g/m[Formula: see text]). The PCA showed the influence of relative humidity (RH)-atmospheric pressure (AP)-temperature (T)/dew point (DP)-wind speed (WS)-wind direction (WD) combinations. Cool months with higher humidity and atmospheric instability decreased PM[Formula: see text] values in SJM and warm months increased it, favored by thermal inversion (TI). Dust resuspension, vehicular transport and stationary sources contributed more PM[Formula: see text] at peak times in the morning and evening. The Multiple linear regression (MLR) showed the best correlation (r = 0.6166), followed by the three-dimensional model LogAP-LogWD-LogPM[Formula: see text] (r = 0.5753); the RMSE-MLR (12.92) exceeded that found in the 3D models (RMSE [Formula: see text]) and the NSE-MLR criterion (0.3804) was acceptable. PM[Formula: see text] prediction was modeled using the algorithmic approach in any scenario to optimize urban management decisions in times of pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dust , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology
3.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05043, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144961

ABSTRACT

Background: Lockdowns have been fundamental to decreasing disease transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic even after vaccines were available. We aimed to evaluate and compare changes in air quality during the first year of the pandemic in different cities around the world, investigate how these changes correlate with changes in mobility, and analyse how lockdowns affected air pollutants' annual means. Methods: We compared the concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 in 42 cities around the world in the first months of the pandemic in 2020 to data from 2016-2019 and correlated them with changes in mobility using Human Development Indexes (HDIs). Cities with the highest decreases in air pollutants during this period were evaluated for the whole year 2020. We calculated the annual means for these cities and compared them to the new World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines. A Student's t-test (95% confidence interval) was used to evaluate significant changes. Results: Highest decreases in NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 were between -50 and -70%. Cities evaluated for the whole year 2020 generally showed a recovery in air pollution levels after the initial months of the pandemic, except for London. These changes positively correlated with year-long mobility indexes for NO2 and PM2.5 for some cities. The highest reductions in air pollutants' annual means were from -20 to -35%. In general, decreases were higher for NO2, compared to PM2.5 and PM10. All analysed cities showed annual means incompliant with the new WHO Air Quality Guidelines for NO2 of 10 µg/m3, with values 1.7 and 4.3 times higher. For PM2.5, all cities showed values 1.3 to 7.6 times higher than the WHO Guidelines of 5 µg/m3, except for New Delhi, with a value 18 times higher. For PM10, only New York complied with the new guidelines of 15 µg/m3 and all the other cities were 1.1 to 4.2 times higher, except for New Delhi, which was 11 times higher. Conclusions: These data show that even during a pandemic that highly affected mobility and economic activities and decreased air pollution around the world, complying with the new WHO Guidelines will demand a global strategical effort in the way we generate energy, move in and around the cities, and manufacture products.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Environmental Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Air Pollutants/analysis , World Health Organization , Particulate Matter/analysis
4.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 353, 2022 11 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139378
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20046, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133569

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the evaluation of air quality in different districts of Haryana. Geo-spatial techniques were used to estimate gaseous and particulate pollutant's spatial and temporal variation during complete nationwide lockdown period and same month of previous year 2019 (March to May). Data of six fixed pollutants were collected from Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In this context, the data of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, O3, NOx, SO2, and CO) were analyzed for 2019 and 2020. The Spatio-temporal distribution of the Air Quality Index (AQI) clearly depicts difference in lockdown and unlock period. The result was showed that the air quality was very poor to satisfactory in 2019 and an improvement was observed from satisfactory to good in 2020 due to COVID-19 lockdown. On the basis of result, it will be concluded that automobile and industry are the major contributor in increase the pollutant concentration.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 155, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128845

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted the Americas, the continent with the highest number of COVID-related deaths according to WHO statistics. In Latin America, strict confinement conditions at the beginning of the pandemic put recycling activity to a halt and augmented the consumption of plastic as a barrier to stop the spread of the virus. The lack of data to understand waste management dynamics complicates waste management strategy adjustments aimed at coping with COVID-19. As a novel contribution to the waste management data gap for Latin America, this study uses a virtual and participatory methodology that collects and generates information on household solid waste generation and composition. Data was collected between June and November 2021 in six countries in Latin America, with a total of 503 participants. Participants indicated that the pandemic motivated them to initiate or increase waste reduction (41%), waste separation (40%), and waste recovery (33%) activities. Forty-three percent of participants perceived an increase in total volume of their waste; however, the quantitative data showed a decrease in household waste generation in Peru (-31%), Honduras (-25%), and Venezuela (-82%). No changes in waste composition were observed. Despite the limited sample size, this data provides a much-needed approximation of household waste generation and composition in the pandemic situation during 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Solid Waste , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Latin America/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099549

ABSTRACT

The supply of fresh air for underground rail transit systems is not as simple as opening windows, which is a conventional ventilation (CV) measure adopted in aboveground vehicles. This study aims to improve contaminant dilution and air purification in subway car ventilation systems and the safety of rail transit post-coronavirus disease pandemic era. We designed an air conditioning (AC) terminal system combined with stratum ventilation (SV) to enable energy consumption reduction for subway cars. We experimentally tested the effectiveness of a turbulence model to investigate ventilation in subway cars. Further, we compared the velocity fields of CV and SV in subway cars to understand the differences in their airflow organizations and contaminant removal efficiencies, along with the energy savings of four ventilation scenarios, based on the calculations carried out using computational fluid dynamics. At a ventilation flow rate of 7200 m3/h, the CO2 concentration and temperature in the breathing areas of seated passengers were better in the SV than in the CV at a rate of 8500 m3/h. Additionally, the energy-saving rate of SV with AC cooling was 14.05%. The study provides new ideas for reducing the energy consumption of rail transit and broadens indoor application scenarios of SV technology.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Railroads , Automobiles , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Ventilation
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099494

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) have set sustainability development goals to reduce diseases, deaths, and the environmental impact of cities due to air pollution. In Istanbul, although average pollutant concentrations have been on a downward trend in recent years, extreme values and their annual exceedance numbers are high based on the air quality standards of WHO and the EU. Due to COVID-19 lockdowns, statistically significant reductions in emissions were observed for short periods. However, how long the effect of the lockdowns will last is unknown. For this reason, this study aims to investigate the impact of long-term lockdowns on Istanbul's air quality. The restriction period is approximated to the same periods of the previous years to eliminate seasonal effects. A series of paired t-tests (p-value < 0.05) were applied to hourly data from 12 March 2016, until 1 July 2021, when quarantines were completed at 36 air quality monitoring stations in Istanbul. The findings reveal that the average air quality of Istanbul was approximately 17% improved during the long-term lockdowns. Therefore, the restriction-related changes in emission distributions continued in the long-term period of 476 days. However, it is unknown how long this effect will continue, which will be the subject of future studies. Moreover, it was observed that the emission probability density functions changed considerably during the lockdowns compared to the years before. Accordingly, notable decreases were detected in air quality limit exceedances in terms of both excessive pollutant concentrations and frequency of occurrence, respectively, for PM10 (-13% and -13%), PM2.5 (-16% and -30%), and NO2 (-3% and -8%), but not for O3 (+200% and +540%) and SO2 (-10% and +2.5%).


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18144, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096792

ABSTRACT

NO2 and nitric oxide (NO) are the most reactive gases in the atmosphere. The interaction of NOx molecules with oxygen, water and other chemicals leads to the formation of acid rain. The presence of NO2 in the air affects human health and forms a photochemical smog. In this study, we utilize wavelet analysis, namely, the Morlet wavelet, which is a type of continuous wavelet transform, to conduct a spectral analysis of the periodicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The study is conducted using data from 14 weather stations located in diverse geographic areas of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) over a period of two years (2019 and 2020). We explain and relate the significance of human activities to the concentration level of NO2, particularly considering the effect of the COVID-19 lockdown to the periodicity of NO2. The results show that NO2 concentrations in desert areas such as Liwa and Al Quaa were unaffected by the lockdown period (April-July 2020) resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. The other stations in the urban areas of Abu Dhabi city, Al Dhafra and Al Ain, showed a reduction in NO2 during the lockdown. NO2 is more highly concentrated during winter seasons than during other seasons. The periodicity of NO2 lasted from a few days up to 16 days in most regions. However, some stations located in the Al Dhafra region, such as Al Ruwais and the Gayathi School stations, exhibited a longer period of more than 32 days with a 0.05 significance test. In the Abu Dhabi region, NO2 lasted between 64 and 128 days at the Al Mafraq station. The correlation between the NO2 concentration across several ground stations was studied using wavelet coherence.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Wavelet Analysis , United Arab Emirates , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Air Pollution/analysis
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(12): 884, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093260

ABSTRACT

In the last few decades, environmental contaminants (ECs) have been introduced into the environment at an alarming rate. There is a risk to human health and aquatic ecosystems from trace levels of emerging contaminants, including hospital wastewater (HPWW), cosmetics, personal care products, endocrine system disruptors, and their transformation products. Despite the fact that these pollutants have been introduced or detected relatively recently, information about their characteristics, actions, and impacts is limited, as are the technologies to eliminate them efficiently. A wastewater recycling system is capable of providing irrigation water for crops and municipal sewage treatment, so removing ECs before wastewater reuse is essential. Water treatment processes containing advanced ions of biotic origin and ECs of biotic origin are highly recommended for contaminants. This study introduces the fundamentals of the treatment of tertiary wastewater, including membranes, filtration, UV (ultraviolet) irradiation, ozonation, chlorination, advanced oxidation processes, activated carbon (AC), and algae. Next, a detailed description of recent developments and innovations in each component of the emerging contaminant removal process is provided.


Subject(s)
Cosmetics , Endocrine Disruptors , Ozone , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Charcoal , Ecosystem , Endocrine Disruptors/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Sewage , Waste Water/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
11.
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng ; 57(11): 970-976, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087557

ABSTRACT

The main goal of this study is to compare concentrations of atmospheric Hg(p) for various particles sizes Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), PM18, PM10, PM2.5, PM1, PM<1 before (2018-2019) and during (2019-2020 and 2020-2021) COVID-19 occurred periods in central Taiwan. In addition, test the statistical differences concentrations of Hg(p) for various particles sizes before and during COVID-19 occurred periods in central Taiwan. Finally, calculate the Hg(p) health risk assessment before and during COVID-19 occurred period in central Taiwan.The result indicated that the mean Hg(p) concentrations in TSP and PM2.5 were higher during (2020-2021) the COVID-19 occurred period than that of the mean Hg(p) concentrations in TSP and PM2.5 before the COVID-19 occurred period. In addition, the Hg(p)concentrations PM18, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and PM<1 were all increased during the COVID-19 occurred period. The Hg(p) concentrations in TSP were decreased during (2019-2020) the COVID-19 occurred period when compared with that of the before the COVID-19 occurred period. Moreover, significant mean Hg(p) concentrations differences were existed at PM18, PM10 and PM2.5 before and during (2020-2021) COVID-19 occurred periods. Finally, the HQ and HI values for Hg(p) were both increased during COVID-19 occurred periods when compared with before COVID-19 occurred period in this study.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Mercury , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particle Size , Environmental Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology , Mercury/analysis , Dust , Particulate Matter/analysis , Seasons
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 19, 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085444

ABSTRACT

The health risks associated with consumption of water from river Gomti polluted with potentially toxic elements (PTEs), including As, Fe, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Hg were investigated at the initiation of unlocking of COVID-19 lockdown and compared with pre-COVID-19 lockdown status. In the current investigation, the total hazard index (THI) values exceeded the acceptable limit of "unity" at all sampling stations. The use of river water for drinking and domestic purposes by millions of people with high THI values has emerged as a matter of huge concern. The individual hazard quotients associated with Cd and Pb were found to be most severe (> 1). A vivid difference between the THI values during the two study phases indicated the positive impact of COVID-19 lockdown signifying the prominent impact of anthropogenic activities on the PTE concentrations. The closure of local manufacturing units (textile, battery, etc.) emerged as a potential reason for decreased health risks associated with PTE levels. The higher susceptibility of children to health risks in comparison with adults through the values of THI and HQs was interpreted across the study area. Potential remedial measures for PTE contamination have also been suggested in the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mercury , Metals, Heavy , Nanostructures , Soil Pollutants , Adult , Child , Humans , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Cadmium , Lead , Risk Assessment , Communicable Disease Control , Water , Soil Pollutants/analysis
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156516, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082807

ABSTRACT

The worldwide restrictions of social contacts that were implemented in spring 2020 to slow down infection rates of the SARS-CoV-2 virus resulted in significant modifications in mobility behaviour of urban residents. We used three-year eddy covariance measurements of size-resolved particle number fluxes from an urban site in Berlin to estimate the effects of reduced traffic intensity on particle fluxes. Similar observations of urban surface-atmosphere exchange of size-resolved particles that focus on COVID-19 lockdown-related effects are not available, yet. Although the site remained a net emission source for ultrafine particles (UFP, Dp < 100 nm), the median upward flux of ultrafine particles (FUFP) decreased from 8.78 × 107 m-2 s-1 in the reference period to 5.44 × 107 m-2 s-1 during the lockdown. This was equivalent to a relative reduction of -38 % for median FUFP, which was similar to -35 % decrease of road traffic intensity in the flux source area during that period. The size-resolved analysis demonstrated that, on average, net deposition of UFP occurred only during night when particle emission source strength by traffic was at its minimum, whereas accumulation mode particles (100 nm < Dp < 200 nm) showed net deposition also during daytime. The results indicate the benefits of traffic reductions as a mitigation strategy to reduce UFP emissions to the urban atmosphere.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Atmosphere , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081995

ABSTRACT

Air is a diverse mixture of gaseous and suspended solid particles. Several new substances are being added to the air daily, polluting it and causing human health effects. Particulate matter (PM) is the primary health concern among these air toxins. The World Health Organization (WHO) addressed the fact that particulate pollution affects human health more severely than other air pollutants. The spread of air pollution and viruses, two of our millennium's most serious concerns, have been linked closely. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can spread through the air, and PM could act as a host to spread the virus beyond those in close contact. Studies on COVID-19 cover diverse environmental segments and become complicated with time. As PM pollution is related to everyday life, an essential awareness regarding PM-impacted COVID-19 among the masses is required, which can help researchers understand the various features of ambient particulate pollution, particularly in the era of COVID-19. Given this, the present work provides an overview of the recent developments in COVID-19 research linked to ambient particulate studies. This review summarizes the effect of the lockdown on the characteristics of ambient particulate matter pollution, the transmission mechanism of COVID-19, and the combined health repercussions of PM pollution. In addition to a comprehensive evaluation of the implementation of the lockdown, its rationales-based on topographic and socioeconomic dynamics-are also discussed in detail. The current review is expected to encourage and motivate academics to concentrate on improving air quality management and COVID-19 control.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Monitoring
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081823

ABSTRACT

Managing indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is a challenge in educational buildings in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Adequate indoor air quality is essential to ensure that indoor spaces are safe for students and teachers. In fact, poor IEQ can affect academic performance and student comfort. This study proposes a framework for integrating occupants' feedback into the building information modelling (BIM) methodology to assess indoor environmental conditions (thermal, acoustic and lighting) and the individual airborne virus transmission risk during teaching activities. The information contained in the parametric 3D BIM model and the algorithmic environment of Dynamo were used to develop the framework. The IEQ evaluation is based on sensor monitoring and a daily schedule, so the results show real problems of occupants' dissatisfaction. The output of the framework shows in which range the indoor environmental variables were (optimal, acceptable and unacceptable) and the probability of infection during each lecture class (whether or not 1% is exceeded). A case study was proposed to illustrate its application and validate it. The outcomes provide key information to support the decision-making process for managing IEQ and controlling individual airborne virus transmission risks. Long-term application could provide data that support the management of ventilation strategies and protocol redesign.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ventilation , Educational Status , Environmental Monitoring/methods
16.
Environ Pollut ; 315: 120408, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068946

ABSTRACT

Large reductions in anthropogenic emissions during the Chinese New Year (CNY) holiday in Beijing have been well reported. However, the changes during the CNY of 2021 are different because most people stayed in Beijing to control the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) was deployed for characterization of the changes in size-resolved aerosol composition and sources during the CNY. We found that the reductions in traffic-related NOx and fossil fuel-related organic aerosol (OA), and cooking OA (1.3-12.7%) during the CNY of 2021 were much smaller than those in previous CNY holidays of 2013, 2015, and 2020. In contrast, the mass concentrations of secondary aerosol species except nitrate showed ubiquitous increases (17.6-30.4%) during the CNY of 2021 mainly due to a 4-day severe haze episode. OA composition also changed substantially during the CNY of 2021. In particular, we observed a large increase by nearly a factor of 2 in oxidized primary OA likely from biomass burning, and a decrease of 50.1% in aqueous-phase secondary OA. A further analysis of the severe haze episode during the CNY illustrated a rapid transition of secondary formation from photochemical to aqueous-phase processing followed by a scavenging process, leading to significant changes in aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation degree of OA. A parameterization relationship between oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) and f44 (fraction of m/z 44 in OA) from a collocated capture vaporizer aerosol chemical speciation monitor (CV-ACSM) was developed, which has a significant implication for characterization of OA evolution and the impacts on hygroscopicity due to the rapidly increased deployments of CV-ACSM worldwide.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Beijing , Environmental Monitoring
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066081

ABSTRACT

Under the clean air action plans and the lockdown to constrain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the air quality improved significantly. However, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution still occurred on the North China Plain (NCP). This study analyzed the variations of PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) during 2017-2021 on the northern (Beijing) and southern (Henan) edges of the NCP. Furthermore, the drivers for the PM2.5 pollution episodes pre- to post-COVID-19 in Beijing and Henan were explored by combining air pollutant and meteorological datasets and the weighted potential source contribution function. Results showed air quality generally improved during 2017-2021, except for a slight rebound (3.6%) in NO2 concentration in 2021 in Beijing. Notably, the O3 concentration began to decrease significantly in 2020. The COVID-19 lockdown resulted in a sharp drop in the concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO in February of 2020, but PM2.5 and CO in Beijing exhibited a delayed decrease in March. For Beijing, the PM2.5 pollution was driven by the initial regional transport and later secondary formation under adverse meteorology. For Henan, the PM2.5 pollution was driven by the primary emissions under the persistent high humidity and stable atmospheric conditions, superimposing small-scale regional transport. Low wind speed, shallow boundary layer, and high humidity are major drivers of heavy PM2.5 pollution. These results provide an important reference for setting mitigation measures not only for the NCP but for the entire world.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066023

ABSTRACT

Air pollution may change people's gym sports behavior. To test this claim, first, we used big data crawler technology and ordinary least square (OLS) models to investigate the effect of air pollution on people' gym visits in Beijing, China, especially under the COVID-19 pandemic of 2019-2020, and the results showed that a one-standard-deviation increase in PM2.5 concentration (fine particulate matter with diameters equal to or smaller than 2.5 µm) derived from the land use regression model (LUR) was positively associated with a 0.119 and a 0.171 standard-deviation increase in gym visits without or with consideration of the COVID-19 variable, respectively. Second, using spatial autocorrelation analysis and a series of spatial econometric models, we provided consistent evidence that the gym industry of Beijing had a strong spatial dependence, and PM2.5 and its spatial spillover effect had a positive impact on the demand for gym sports. Such a phenomenon offers us a new perspective that gym sports can be developed into an essential activity for the public due to this avoidance behavior regarding COVID-19 virus contact and pollution exposure.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065929

ABSTRACT

In this work, the effect of the meteorological conditions and the agricultural waste burning on PM air pollution levels has been investigated in the city of Avellino, located in the Sabato Valley (southern Italy). Avellino has been described among the most polluted towns in Italy in terms of particulate matter (PM) during the last 10 years. The main aim of this study was to analyze the air quality data collected in Avellino and its surroundings during September 2021. In this period, the air quality in the Sabato Valley has been adversely affected by agricultural practices, which represent a significant source of PM. The impact of agricultural waste burning on PM levels in Avellino has been determined through an integrated monitoring network, consisting of two fixed urban reference stations and by several low-cost sensors distributed in the Sabato Valley. In the considered period, the two reference stations recorded several exceedances of the daily average PM10 legislative limit value (50 µg m-3) in addition to high concentrations of PM2.5. Moreover, we provide a detailed description of the event that took place on 25 September 2021, when the combined effect of massive agricultural practices and very stable atmospheric conditions produced a severe pollution episode. Results show PM exceedances in Avellino concurrent with high PM values in the areas bordering the city due to agricultural waste burning and adverse meteorological conditions, which inhibit PM dispersion in the atmosphere.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Particulate Matter/analysis , Seasons
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(12): 874, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059930

ABSTRACT

The accent of the present study is determination of Urban Aerosol Pollution Island (UAPI) intensity and spatial variability in particulate matter concentration (PM10 and PM2.5) over Delhi. For analysis, the hourly concentration dataset of PM2.5 and PM10 from January 2019 to December 2020 was obtained from ten air quality monitoring stations of Delhi. Additionally, UAPI Index has been calculated to assess the intensity of particulate pollution. The daily, monthly, and annual variations in the trends of PM10, PM2.5, and UAPI index along with related meteorological parameters have been analyzed. Particulate pollution peaked majorly during two seasons, i.e., summer and winter. The highest concentration of PM10 was observed to be 426.77 µg/m3 while that of PM2.5 was observed to be 301.91 µg/m3 in January 2019 for traffic-affected regions. During winters, higher PM2.5 concentration was observed which can be ascribed to increased local emissions and enhanced secondary particle formations. While the increase in PM10 concentrations led to an increment in pollution episodes during summers over most of the sites in Delhi. The UAPI index was found to be declining in 2020 over traffic affected regions (77.92 and 27.22 for 2019 and 2020, respectively) as well as in the background regions (64.91 and 19.80 for 2019 and 2020, respectively) of Delhi. Low traffic intensity and reduced pollutant emission could have been responsible for the reduction of UAPI intensity in the year 2020. The result indicates that lockdown implemented to control the COVID-19 outbreak led to an unexpected decrease in the PM10 pollution over Delhi.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India , Particulate Matter/analysis , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Seasons
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