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1.
JAMA ; 329(18): 1549-1550, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236188

ABSTRACT

This Viewpoint looks back at the US Supreme Court's 2021 and 2022 terms and forward to the 2023 term and beyond with a focus on decisions that affect health care, public health and safety, environmental policy, and social equity.


Subject(s)
Environmental Policy , Public Health , Safety , Supreme Court Decisions , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Environmental Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Safety/legislation & jurisprudence , United States
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(33): 80758-80767, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245363

ABSTRACT

Financial inclusion enhances economic growth by facilitating businesses and individuals to access financial resources. Financial inclusion also contributes to environmental sustainability; however, very few studies have explored the link between financial inclusion and the environment. Also, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on environmental performance remains unexplored. From this perspective, this study probes the objective of whether financial inclusion and environmental performance co-move in COVID-19 in highly polluted economies. This objective is tested with the help of 2SLS and GMM approaches. The study also gets assistance from a panel quantile regression approach for empirical tasks. The results show that financial inclusion and the COVID-19 pandemic have a negative impact on CO2 emissions. Based on these findings, the study suggests that highly polluted economies should promote financial inclusion and assimilate environmental policies with financial inclusion policies to attain environment-related goals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environment , Humans , Pandemics , Carbon Dioxide , Environmental Policy , Economic Development
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(24): 66209-66227, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298831

ABSTRACT

Air pollution caused by SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses in human settlements will have a great impact on human health, but also a great risk of transmission. The transmission power of the virus can be represented by quanta number in the Wells-Riley model. In order to solve the problem of different dynamic transmission scenarios, only a single influencing factor is considered when predicting the infection rate, which leads to large differences in quanta calculated in the same space. In this paper, an analog model is established to define the indoor air cleaning index RL and the space ratio parameter. Based on infection data analysis and rule summary in animal experiments, factors affecting quanta in interpersonal communication were explored. Finally, by analogy, the factors affecting person-to-person transmission mainly include viral load of infected person, distance between individuals, etc., the more severe the symptoms, the closer the number of days of illness to the peak, and the closer the distance to the quanta. In summary, there are many factors that affect the infection rate of susceptible people in the human settlement environment. This study provides reference indicators for environmental governance under the COVID-19 epidemic, provides reference opinions for healthy interpersonal communication and human behavior, and provides some reference for accurately judging the trend of epidemic spread and responding to the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Animal Experimentation , COVID-19 , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Policy
4.
J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28514, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209119

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the association between air pollutants and outpatient visits for influenza-like illnesses (ILI) under the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) stage in the subcenter of Beijing. The data on ILI in the subcenter of Beijing from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2020 were obtained from the Beijing Influenza Surveillance Network. A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to examine the associations between the concentrations of air pollutants and daily outpatient visits for ILI when controlling meteorological factors and temporal trend. A total of 171 943 ILI patients were included. In the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) stage, an increased risk of ILI outpatient visits was associated to a high air quality index (AQI) and the high concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 (PM2.5 ), particulate matter 10 (PM10 ), sulphur dioxide (SO2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), and carbon monoxide (CO), and a low concentration of ozone (O3 ) on lag0 day and lag1 day, while a higher increased risk of ILI outpatient visits was observed by the air pollutants in the COVID-19 stage on lag0 day. Except for PM10 , the concentrations of other air pollutants on lag1 day were not significantly associated with an increased risk of ILI outpatient visits during the COVID-19 stage. The findings that air pollutants had enhanced immediate effects and diminished lag-effects on the risk of ILI outpatient visits during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is important for the development of public health and environmental governance strategies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Beijing , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Outpatients , Pandemics , Conservation of Natural Resources , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Policy , Particulate Matter/analysis , China/epidemiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116047

ABSTRACT

For more than 20 years, disaster dynamic monitoring and early warning have achieved orderly and sustainable development in China, forming a systematic academic research system and top-down policy design, which are inseparable from the research of China's scientific community and the promotion of government departments. In the past, most of the research on dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning focused on specific research in a certain field, scene, and discipline, while a few studies focused on research review or policy analysis, and few studies combined macro and meso research reviews in academia with national policy analysis for comparative analysis. It is necessary and urgent to explore the interaction between scholars' research and policy deployment, which can bring theoretical contributions and policy references to the top-down design, implementation promotion, and academic research of China's dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning. Based on 608 international research articles on dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning published by Chinese scholars from 2000-2021 and 187 national policy documents published during this period, this paper conducts a comparative analysis between the knowledge maps of international research hotspots and the co-occurrence maps of policy keywords on dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning. The research shows that in the stage of initial development (2000-2007), international research articles are few and focused, and research hotspots are somewhat alienated from policy keywords. In the stage of rising development (2008-2015), after the Wenchuan earthquake, research hotspots are closely related to policy keywords, mainly in the fields of geology, engineering disasters, meteorological disasters, natural disasters, etc. Meanwhile, research hotspots also focus on cutting-edge technologies and theories, while national-level policy keywords focus more on overall governance and macro promotion, but the two are gradually closely integrated. In the stage of rapid development (2016-2021), with the continuous attention and policy promotion of the national government, the establishment of the Ministry of Emergency Management, and the gradual establishment and improvement of the disaster early warning and monitoring system, research hotspots and policy keywords are integrated and overlapped with each other, realizing the organic linkage and mutual promotion between academic research and political deployment. The motivation, innovation, integration, and transformation of dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning are promoted by both policy and academic research. The institutions that issue policies at the national level include the State Council and relevant departments, the Ministry of Emergency Management, the Ministry of Water Resources, and other national ministries and commissions. The leading affiliated institutions of scholars' international research include China University of Mining and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan University, Shandong University of Science and Technology, and other institutions. The disciplines involved are mainly multidisciplinary geosciences, environmental sciences, electrical and electronic engineering, remote sensing, etc. It is worth noting that in the past two to three years, research and policies focusing on COVID-19, public health, epidemic prevention, environmental governance, and emergency management have gradually increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Policy , Disasters/prevention & control , China
7.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(9): e769-e773, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008223

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has devastated global communities and economies. The pandemic has exposed socioeconomic disparities and weaknesses in health systems worldwide. Long-term health effects and economic recovery are major concerns. Ecosystem restoration-ie, the repair of ecosystems that have been degraded-relates directly to tackling the health and socioeconomic burdens of COVID-19, because stable and resilient ecosystems are fundamental determinants of health and socioeconomic stability. Here, we use COVID-19 as a case study, showing how ecosystem restoration can reduce the risk of infection and adverse sequelae and have an integral role in humanity's recovery from COVID-19. The next decade will be crucial for humanity's recovery from COVID-19 and for ecosystem repair. Indeed, in the absence of effective, large-scale restoration, 95% of the Earth's land could be degraded by 2050. The UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021-30) declaration reflects the growing urgency and scale at which we should repair ecosystems. Importantly, ecosystem restoration could also help to combat the health and socioeconomic issues that are associated with COVID-19, yet it is poorly integrated into current responses to the disease. Ecosystem restoration can be a core public health intervention and assist in COVID-19 recovery if it is closely integrated with socioeconomic, health, and environmental policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ecosystem , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Policy , Humans
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 181: 113920, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926765

ABSTRACT

This empirical study examines the factors enhancing environmental governance for marine plastic litter abatement in Manila, the Philippines. We use a combined covariance-based hybrid structural equation modeling (SEM) and DPSIR framework, with data collected via an online survey from 456 barangays in Manila, the Philippines. The survey was processed and analyzed using a combined model, validated through interviews and focused group discussions. With Higher-Order Model good internal consistency (0.917) and achieved measures of CFI (0.992), RMSEA (0.036), and SRMR (0.019), the findings revealed that environmental governance (COVID-19 waste), community participation, socio-economic factors, and solution measures have positively affected marine plastic litter (MPL) abatement. Notwithstanding, environmental governance (SWM policies and guidelines) has a negative impact on MPL abatement. There is, however, no link between waste infrastructure and MPL abatement. The findings provide significant perspectives in Manila to enhance environmental governance for MPL abatement. This paper presents policy-actions implications drawn from DPSIR-SEM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plastics , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Monitoring , Environmental Policy , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Philippines , Waste Products/analysis
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 844: 157142, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914988

ABSTRACT

The repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change - two major current global crises - are far-reaching, the parallels between the two are striking, and their influence on one another are significant. Based on the wealth of evidence that has emerged from the scientific literature during the first two years of the pandemic, this study argues that these two global crises require holistic multisectoral mitigation strategies. Despite being different in nature, neither crisis can be effectively mitigated without considering their interdependencies. Herein, significant interactions between these two crises are highlighted and discussed. Major implications related to the economy, energy, technology, environment, food systems and agriculture sector, health systems, policy, management, and communities are detailed via a review of existing joint literature. Based on these outcomes, practical recommendations for future research and management are provided. While the joint timing of these crises has created a global conundrum, the COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated opportunities and lessons for devising sustainable recovery plans in relation to the climate crisis. The findings indicated that governments should work collaboratively to develop durable and adjustable strategies in line with long-term, global decarbonisation targets, promote renewable energy resources, integrate climate change into environmental policies, prioritise climate-smart agriculture and local food systems, and ensure public and ecosystem health. Further, differences in geographic distributions of climate change and COVID-19 related death cases revealed that these crises pose different threats to different parts of the world. These learnings provide insights to address the climate emergency - and potential future global problems with similar characteristics - if international countries act urgently and collectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Climate Change , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Environmental Policy , Humans , Pandemics
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 832904, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785444

ABSTRACT

Under the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), green, low-carbon, and sustainable development has become a global consensus, and the world will enter a low-carbon and intelligent production mode faster. As the largest contributor to world economic growth and an active participant in global environmental governance, achieving green recovery and the high-quality economic and social development of China is of great significance to promote the global sustainable development strategy. The green transformation of resource-based cities in Western China is the key factor for China to build a high-quality modern economic system and promote long-term sustainable development. This article used the Super Efficiency Slack Based Model (Super-SBM) model and Malmquist index model of the Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) method to measure the static and dynamic green transformation efficiency of resource-based cities in Western China. It investigated the impact of different factors on the static and dynamic efficiency by constructing panel Tobit and dynamic panel models. The research found that the static efficiency of the green transformation of resource-based cities in Western China is low, and the development is uneven. The dynamic efficiency of green transformation showed a fluctuating upward trend first and an accelerating upward trend later. Different factors have different effects on green transformation efficiency. This article holds that the combination of post-epidemic economic recovery and green transformation is expected to promote the green transformation of western resource-based cities while injecting new vitality into China's green sustainable development in the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon , China/epidemiology , Cities , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Policy , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 824202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776021

ABSTRACT

This paper offers an evaluation index system of agricultural green development level based on the Rural Vitalization Strategy. The evaluation index system includes four dimensions: agricultural development, ecological resource protection, environment-friendly, and industrial extension and integration. Then, the paper calculates the level of agricultural green development in the three provinces of Northeast China using the entropy-gray correlation method from 2009 to 2019. The calculation results show that between 2009 and 2019, the level of agricultural green development in the three northeastern provinces of China fluctuates and increases, and there is some variation between them: in terms of the overall level of agricultural green development Heilongjiang Province > Liaoning Province > Jilin Province, in terms of the average change speed of agricultural green development level, Heilongjiang Province > Liaoning Province > Jilin Province; in terms of each dimension, the average level of correlation degree of agricultural development dimension is Liaoning Province > Heilongjiang Province > Jilin Province, the average level of correlation degree of ecological resource protection dimension is Heilongjiang Province > Jilin Province > Liaoning Province, the average level of correlation degree of environment-friendly dimension is Heilongjiang Province > Jilin Province > Liaoning Province, and the average level of correlation degree of industrial extension and integration is Liaoning Province > Heilongjiang Province > Jilin Province. Finally, the basis of the calculation results, combined with the actual situation of agricultural development in the three provinces, the countermeasures, and suggestions for promoting the green development of agriculture are put forward. Specifically, it includes the establishment of an evaluation system for agricultural green development; strengthening the protection of agricultural ecological resources; increasing rural environmental governance; promoting the integrated development of rural tertiary industries; vigorously supporting agricultural scientific and technological innovation; and strengthening regional cooperation and other suggestions.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Conservation of Natural Resources , Sustainable Development , China , Environmental Policy , Humans
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 743087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775903

ABSTRACT

Background: With the development of the social economy, air pollution has resulted in increased social costs. Medical costs and health issues due to air pollution are important aspects of environmental governance in various countries. Methods: This study uses daily air pollution monitoring data from 122 cities in China to empirically investigate the impact of air pollution on residents' medical expenses using the Heckman two-stage and instrumental variable methods, matching data from the 2018 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) survey. Results: The study found that poor air quality, measured by the air quality index (AQI), significantly increased the probability of chronic lung disease, heart disease, and self-rated poor health. Additionally, the AQI (with an effect of 4.51%) significantly impacted health-seeking behavior and medical expenses. The medical expenditure effects of mild, moderate, severe, and serious pollution days were 3.27, 7.21, 8.62, and 42.66%, respectively. Conclusion: In the long run, residents' health in areas with a higher air pollution index, indicating poor air quality, is negatively impacted. The more extreme the pollution, the higher the probability of residents' medical treatment and the subsequent increase in medical expenses. Group and regional heterogeneity also play a role in the impact of air pollution on medical expenses. Compared with the existing literature, this study is based on individuals aged 15 years and above and produces reliable research conclusions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Adolescent , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Cities , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Policy , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760573

ABSTRACT

Climate change and environmental issues caused by carbon emissions have attracted the attention of governments around the world. Drawing on the experience of the EU, China is actively developing a national carbon emissions trading market, trying to encourage emission entities to incorporate carbon emissions reduction into production and consumption decisions through carbon pricing. Is this scheme an effective market-incentivized environmental regulatory policy? Since China successively launched ETS pilots in 2013, the effectiveness of reducing carbon emissions has become one of the current focus issues. This study uses the difference-in-differences (DID) method to evaluate the impact of ETS implementation on emissions reduction and employs the Super-SBM model in data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the emission-reduction efficiency of eight ETS pilots in China. We find that the carbon trading policy has achieved emission-reduction effects in the implementation stage, and the greenness of economic growth has a significant positive impact on regional GDP. The establishment of China's unified carbon market should be coordinated with regional development. Some supporting measures for regional ecological compensation and the mitigation of regional development are yet to be adopted.


Subject(s)
Greenhouse Gases , Pilots , Carbon/analysis , China , Environmental Policy , Humans
14.
Waste Manag Res ; 40(10): 1480-1493, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741764

ABSTRACT

The rapid transmission of COVID-19 has meant that all economic and human efforts have been focused on confronting it, ignoring environmental aspects whose consequences are causing adverse situations all over the planet. The saturation of the sanitary system and confinement measures have multiplied the waste generated, which implies the need to adapt environmental policies to this new situation caused by the pandemic. It is a review article whose objective was to identify the environmental policies that would facilitate an adequate treatment of the waste generated by the pandemic. It was proposed to analyse the current lines of research developed on this paradigm, applying the text mining methodology. A systematic review of 111 studies published in environmental journals indexed in the Web of Science was carried out. The results identified three areas of interest: knowledge of transmission routes, management of the massive generation of plastics and appropriate treatment of solid waste in extreme situations. Leaders are called upon to implement the contingency plans to sustainably alleviate the enormous waste burden caused by society's adaptation to the restrictions imposed by the pandemic. Specifically, innovation aimed at achieving the reuse of medical products, the promotion of the circular economy and educational campaigns to promote clean environments should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Mining , Environmental Policy , Humans , Plastics , Solid Waste/analysis
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1165, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730283

ABSTRACT

The EU emissions trading system's (ETS) invalidation rule implies that shocks and overlapping policies can change cumulative carbon emissions. This paper explains these mechanisms and simulates the effect of COVID-19, the European Green Deal, and the recovery stimulus package on cumulative EU ETS emissions and allowance prices. Our results indicate that the negative demand shock of the pandemic should have a limited effect on allowance prices and rather translates into lower cumulative carbon emissions. Aligning EU ETS with the 2030 reduction target of -55% might increase allowance prices to 45-94 €/ton CO2 today and reduce cumulative carbon emissions to 14.2-18.3 GtCO2 compared to 23.5-33.1 GtCO2 under a -40% 2030 reduction target. Our results crucially depend on when the waterbed will be sealed again, which is an endogenous market outcome, driven by the EU ETS design, shocks and overlapping climate policies such as the recovery plan.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Conservation of Energy Resources/methods , Air Pollution/economics , Air Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Conservation of Energy Resources/economics , Conservation of Energy Resources/legislation & jurisprudence , Environment , Environmental Policy , European Union , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 116-123, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591384

ABSTRACT

Arguing for the importance of robust public participation and meaningful Tribal consultation to address the cumulative impacts of federal projects, we bridge interdisciplinary perspectives across law, public health, and Indigenous studies. We focus on openings in existing federal law to involve Tribes and publics more meaningfully in resource management planning, while recognizing the limits of this involvement when only the federal government dictates the terms of participation and analysis. We first discuss challenges and opportunities for addressing cumulative impacts and environmental justice through 2 US federal statutes: the National Environmental Policy Act and the National Historic Preservation Act. Focusing on a major federal planning process involving fracking in the Greater Chaco region of northwestern New Mexico, we examine how the Department of the Interior attempted Tribal consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also highlight local efforts to monitor Diné health and well-being. For Diné people, human health is inseparable from the health of the land. But in applying the primary legal tools for analyzing the effects of extraction across the Greater Chaco region, federal agencies fragment categories of impact that Diné people view holistically. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):116-123. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306562).


Subject(s)
American Indian or Alaska Native , Community Participation , Decision Making , Environmental Justice , Environmental Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Hydraulic Fracking/legislation & jurisprudence , Federal Government , Government Regulation , Humans , New Mexico/ethnology , Public Health
20.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13682, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is generating clinical challenges, lifestyle changes, economic consequences. The pandemic imposes to familiarize with concepts as prevention, vulnerability and resilience. METHODS: We analysed and reviewed the most relevant papers in the MEDLINE database on syndemic, noncommunicable diseases, pandemic, climate changes, pollution, resilience, vulnerability, health costs, COVID-19. RESULTS: We discuss that comprehensive strategies must face multifactorial consequences since the pandemic becomes syndemic due to interactions with noncommunicable diseases, climate changes and iniquities. The lockdown experience, on the other hand, demonstrates that it is rapidly possible to reverse epidemiologic trends and to reduce pollution. The worst outcome is evident in eight highly industrialized nations, where 12% of the world population experienced about one-third of all COVID-19-deaths worldwide. Thus, a great economic power has not been fully protective, and a change of policy is obviously needed to avoid irreversible consequences. CONCLUSIONS: We are accumulating unhealthy populations living in unhealthy environments and generating unhealthy offspring. The winning policy should tackle structural inequities through a syndemic approach, to protect vulnerable populations from present and future harms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate Change , Environmental Pollution , Health Inequities , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Public Policy , Socioeconomic Factors , Syndemic , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Susceptibility , Environmental Policy , Health Care Costs , Health Policy , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/mortality , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
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