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2.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 65, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias currently represent the fifth most common cause of death in the world, according to the World Health Organization, with a projected future increase as the proportion of the elderly in the population is growing. Air pollution has emerged as a plausible risk factor for AD, but studies estimating dementia cases attributable to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and resulting monetary estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used data on average population-weighted exposure to ambient PM2.5 for the entire population of Sweden above 30 years of age. To estimate the annual number of dementia cases attributable to air pollution in the Swedish population above 60 years of age, we used the latest concentration response functions (CRF) between PM2.5 exposure and dementia incidence, based on ten longitudinal cohort studies, for the population above 60 years of age. To estimate the monetary burden of attributable cases, we calculated total costs related to dementia, including direct and indirect lifetime costs and intangible costs by including quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost. Two different monetary valuations of QALYs in Sweden were used to estimate the monetary value of reduced quality-of-life from two different payer perspectives. RESULTS: The annual number of dementia cases attributable to PM2.5 exposure was estimated to be 820, which represents 5% of the annual dementia cases in Sweden. Direct and indirect lifetime average cost per dementia case was estimated to correspond € 213,000. A reduction of PM2.5 by 1 µg/m3 was estimated to yield 101 fewer cases of dementia incidences annually, resulting in an estimated monetary benefit ranging up to 0.01% of the Swedish GDP in 2019. CONCLUSION: This study estimated that 5% of annual dementia cases could be attributed to PM2.5 exposure, and that the resulting monetary burden is substantial. These findings suggest the need to consider airborne toxic pollutants associated with dementia incidence in public health policy decisions.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants , Particulate Matter , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cost of Illness , Dementia/economics , Dementia/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/economics , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/economics , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/economics , Quality of Life , Sweden/epidemiology
3.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 127(3): 312-317, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To present an update of birth cohort study designs and their contributions to allergic risk. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed database was used to search for relevant articles. STUDY SELECTIONS: Peer-reviewed prospective and retrospective studies involving the assessment of allergy using human birth cohorts between 2014 and 2021 were evaluated. RESULTS: Parental history of allergic diseases, especially in cases involving both parents, is associated with increased risk of allergy. Exposure to prenatal and postnatal smoking and limited diet diversity were associated with increased allergic burden. The impact of early-life infections and antibiotics on disease development may be associated with the onset of asthma, though this remains debated. Cohort studies also revealed that the mode of delivery and breastfeeding duration affect the odds ratio of asthma and eczema development. Household exposures, including pets, house dust mites, and scented aeroallergens may confer protective effects, whereas high air pollution exposure and low socioeconomic status may be risk enhancing. Exposure to antibiotics during early life may be associated with increased asthma risk, whereas viral infections may lead to disease protection, though the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on allergic risk is yet to be understood. CONCLUSION: Although evaluating the risk of allergic disease development is complex, clinicians can apply these insights on the multifactorial nature of atopy to better understand and potentially mitigate disease development.


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , Breast Feeding/methods , Diet/methods , Eczema/immunology , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Inheritance Patterns/immunology , Allergens/administration & dosage , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/genetics , Asthma/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Eczema/etiology , Eczema/genetics , Eczema/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Hypersensitivity/genetics , Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Pets/immunology , Pregnancy , Pyroglyphidae/chemistry , Pyroglyphidae/immunology , Risk Factors , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 78(2): 479-503, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080922

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (AD, PD) have a pediatric and young adult onset in Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC). The SARS-CoV-2 neurotropic RNA virus is triggering neurological complications and deep concern regarding acceleration of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes already in progress. This review, based on our MMC experience, will discuss two major issues: 1) why residents chronically exposed to air pollution are likely to be more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 systemic and brain effects and 2) why young people with AD and PD already in progress will accelerate neurodegenerative processes. Secondary mental consequences of social distancing and isolation, fear, financial insecurity, violence, poor health support, and lack of understanding of the complex crisis are expected in MMC residents infected or free of SARS-CoV-2. MMC residents with pre-SARS-CoV-2 accumulation of misfolded proteins diagnostic of AD and PD and metal-rich, magnetic nanoparticles damaging key neural organelles are an ideal host for neurotropic SARS-CoV-2 RNA virus invading the body through the same portals damaged by nanoparticles: nasal olfactory epithelium, the gastrointestinal tract, and the alveolar-capillary portal. We urgently need MMC multicenter retrospective-prospective neurological and psychiatric population follow-up and intervention strategies in place in case of acceleration of neurodegenerative processes, increased risk of suicide, and mental disease worsening. Identification of vulnerable populations and continuous effort to lower air pollution ought to be critical steps.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/complications , Brain Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Parkinson Disease/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Disease Progression , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population
5.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 416: 115444, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065612

ABSTRACT

Health disparities exist dependent on socioeconomic status, living conditions, race/ethnicity, diet, and exposures to environmental pollutants. Herein, the various exposures contributing to a person's exposome are collectively considered social determinants of health (SDOH), and the SDOH-exposome impacts health more than health care. This review discusses the extent of evidence of the physiologic consequences of these exposures at the intracellular level. We consider how the SDOH-exposome, which captures how individuals live, work and age, induces cell processes that modulate a conceptual "redox rheostat." Like an electrical resistor, the SDOH-exposome, along with genetic predisposition and age, regulate reductive and oxidative (redox) stress circuits and thereby stimulate inflammation. Regardless of the source of the SDOH-exposome that induces chronic inflammation and immunosenescence, the outcome influences cardiometabolic diseases, cancers, infections, sepsis, neurodegeneration and autoimmune diseases. The endogenous redox rheostat is connected with regulatory molecules such as NAD+/NADH and SIRT1 that drive redox pathways. In addition to these intracellular and mitochondrial processes, we discuss how the SDOH-exposome can influence the balance between metabolism and regulation of immune responsiveness involving the two main molecular drivers of inflammation, the NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB induction. Mitochondrial and inflammasome activities play key roles in mediating defenses against pathogens and controlling inflammation before diverse cell death pathways are induced. Specifically, pyroptosis, cell death by inflammation, is intimately associated with common disease outcomes that are influenced by the SDOH-exposome. Redox influences on immunometabolism including protein cysteines and ion fluxes are discussed regarding health outcomes. In summary, this review presents a translational research perspective, with evidence from in vitro and in vivo models as well as clinical and epidemiological studies, to outline the intracellular consequences of the SDOH-exposome that drive health disparities in patients and populations. The relevance of this conceptual and theoretical model considering the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are highlighted. Finally, the case of asthma is presented as a chronic condition that is modified by adverse SDOH exposures and is manifested through the dysregulation of immune cell redox regulatory processes we highlight in this review.


Subject(s)
Health Status Disparities , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Intracellular Fluid/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Social Determinants of Health/trends , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/immunology , Environmental Pollutants/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Intracellular Fluid/immunology , /trends
6.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110136, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671591

ABSTRACT

Neurologic symptoms have been reported in some COVID-19 patients. However, little is known on what factors influence the risk of developing these symptoms. While some studies suggest that exposure to pollution is associated with higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, its role is unknown in the development of neurologic symptoms in COVID-19 patients. The response of the central nervous system (CNS) to a SARS-CoV-2 infection may be influenced by its inflammatory state. Interestingly, environmental pollutants such as particulate matter may have neuroinflammatory effects, providing a possible link between exposure to these pollutants and the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the CNS. This article explores the hypothesis that the neurologic symptoms in COVID-19 may be exacerbated through a neuroinflammatory mechanism that is promoted by environmental pollutant exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Central Nervous System/virology , Comorbidity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation , Models, Theoretical , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Particulate Matter , Risk , Treatment Outcome
7.
Arch Toxicol ; 94(6): 1879-1897, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209836

ABSTRACT

Arsenic (As) is widely used in the modern industry, especially in the production of pesticides, herbicides, wood preservatives, and semiconductors. The sources of As such as contaminated water, air, soil, but also food, can cause serious human diseases. The complex mechanism of As toxicity in the human body is associated with the generation of free radicals and the induction of oxidative damage in the cell. One effective strategy in reducing the toxic effects of As is the usage of chelating agents, which provide the formation of inert chelator-metal complexes with their further excretion from the body. This review discusses different aspects of the use of metal chelators, alone or in combination, in the treatment of As poisoning. Consideration is given to the therapeutic effect of thiol chelators such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol, penicillamine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and other recent agents against As toxicity. The review also considers the possible role of flavonoids, trace elements, and herbal drugs as promising natural chelating and detoxifying agents.


Subject(s)
Antidotes/therapeutic use , Arsenic Poisoning/drug therapy , Arsenicals/adverse effects , Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Animals , Antidotes/adverse effects , Arsenic Poisoning/etiology , Arsenic Poisoning/metabolism , Arsenicals/metabolism , Chelating Agents/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants/metabolism , Humans , Plant Preparations/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
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