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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 791348, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608514

ABSTRACT

Background: Striking similarities have been found between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody (Ab)-related dermatomyositis, implying a shared autoinflammatory aberrance. Herein, we aim to investigate whether the anti-MDA5 Ab is present in COVID-19 and correlates with the severity and adverse outcome of COVID-19 patients. Methods and Findings: We retrospectively recruited 274 adult inpatients with COVID-19 in this study, including 48, 164, and 62 cases of deaths, severe, and non-severe patients respectively. The anti-MDA5 Ab was determined by ELISA and verified by Western Blotting, which indicated that the positive rate of anti-MDA5 Ab in COVID-19 patients was 48.2% (132/274). The clinical and laboratory features, as well as outcomes between patients with positive and negative anti-MDA5 Ab were compared and we found that the anti-MDA5 Ab positive patients tended to represent severe disease (88.6% vs 66.9%, P<0.0001). We also demonstrated that the titer of anti-MDA5 Ab was significantly elevated in the non-survivals (5.95 ± 5.16 vs 8.22 ± 6.64, P=0.030) and the positive rate was also higher than that in the survivals (23.5% vs 12.0%, P=0.012). Regarding severe COVID-19 patients, we found that high titer of anti-MDA5 Ab (≥10.0 U/mL) was more prevalent in the non-survivals (31.2% vs 14.0%, P=0.006). Moreover, a dynamic analysis of anti-MDA5 Ab was conducted at different time-points of COVID-19, which revealed that early profiling of anti-MDA5 Ab could distinguish severe patients from those with non-severe ones. Conclusions: Anti-MDA5 Ab was prevalent in the COVID-19 patients and high titer of this antibody is correlated with severe disease and unfavorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
2.
Bioengineered ; 13(1): 876-883, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585254

ABSTRACT

This research has developed a method for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 N protein on a paper-based microfluidic chip. The chitosan-glutaraldehyde cross-linking method is used to fix the coated antibody, and the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent method is used to achieve the specific detection of the target antigen. The system studied the influence of coating antibody concentration and enzyme-labeled antibody concentration on target antigen detection. According to the average gray value measured under different N protein concentrations, the standard curve of the method was established and the sensitivity was tested, and its linear regression was obtained. The equation is y = 9.8286x+137.6, R2 = 0.9772 > 0.90, which shows a high degree of fit. When the concentration of coating antibody and enzyme-labeled antibody were 1 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL, P > 0.05, the difference was not statistically significant, so the lower concentration of 1 µg/mL was chosen as the coating antibody concentration. The results show that the minimum concentration of N protein that can be detected by this method is 8 µg/mL, and the minimum concentration of coating antibody and enzyme-labeled antibody is 1 µg/mL, which has the characteristics of high sensitivity and good repeatability.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomedical Engineering , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices/standards , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices/statistics & numerical data , Microchip Analytical Procedures/methods , Microchip Analytical Procedures/standards , Microchip Analytical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Paper , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/standards
3.
Lab Med ; 52(6): e147-e153, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, the performance of 2 commercially available SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays is evaluated. METHODS: The Siemens SARS-CoV-2 Total (COV2T) and IgG (COV2G) antibody tests were evaluated on a Siemens Atellica IM1300 analyzer. Imprecision was assessed with the CLSI EP15 protocol using positive controls. Ninety control group specimens were analyzed for specificity, and 175 specimens from 58 patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were measured for the sensitivity and kinetics of the antibody response. RESULTS: Within-run and total imprecision were acceptable for both assays. Both tests showed a specificity of 100%. Sensitivity earlier in the disease state was greater for the COV2T assay than for the COV2G assay, but sensitivity >14 days after onset of symptoms approached 100% for both. For all patients, antibody titers remained above the seroconversion cutoff for all follow-up specimens. CONCLUSION: This study shows acceptable performance for both the Siemens COV2T and COV2G test, although seroconversion occurs earlier with the COV2T test.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Automation, Laboratory , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6696-6702, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544322

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 has caused enormous fatalities worldwide. Serological assays are important for detection of asymptomatic or mild cases of COVID-19, and sero-prevalence and vaccine efficacy studies. Here, we evaluated and compared the performance of seven commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)s for detection of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG). The ELISAs were evaluated with a characterized panel of 100 serum samples from qRT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients, collected 14 days post onset disease, 100 SARS-CoV-2 negative samples and compared the results with that of neutralization assay. Results were analysed by creating the receiver operating characteristic curve of all the assays in reference to the neutralization assay. All kits, were found to be suitable for detection of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 with high accuracy. The DiaPro COVID-19 IgG ELISA showed the highest sensitivity (98%) among the kits. The assays demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in detecting the IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. However, the presence of IgG antibodies does not always correspond to neutralizing antibodies. Due to their good accuracy indices, these assays can also aid in tracing mild infections, in cohort studies and in pre-vaccine evaluations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0105921, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495012

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has since caused a global pandemic resulting in millions of cases and deaths. Diagnostic tools and serological assays are critical for controlling the outbreak, especially assays designed to quantitate neutralizing antibody levels, considered the best correlate of protection. As vaccines become increasingly available, it is important to identify reliable methods for measuring neutralizing antibody responses that correlate with authentic virus neutralization but can be performed outside biosafety level 3 (BSL3) laboratories. While many neutralizing assays using pseudotyped virus have been developed, there have been few studies comparing the different assays to each other as surrogates for authentic virus neutralization. Here, we characterized three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and three pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) neutralization assays and assessed their concordance with authentic virus neutralization. The most accurate assays for predicting authentic virus neutralization were luciferase- and secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP)-expressing pseudotyped virus neutralizations, followed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing pseudotyped virus neutralization, and then the ELISAs. IMPORTANCE The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Prior infection or vaccination can be detected by the presence of antibodies in the blood. Antibodies in the blood are also considered to be protective against future infections from the same virus. The "gold standard" assay for detecting protective antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 is neutralization of authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, this assay can only be performed under highly restrictive biocontainment conditions. We therefore characterized six antibody-detecting assays for their correlation with authentic virus neutralization. The significance of our research is in outlining the advantages and disadvantages of the different assays and identifying the optimal surrogate assay for authentic virus neutralization. This will allow for more accurate assessments of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 following infection and vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus/immunology
8.
Anal Biochem ; 631: 114360, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474246

ABSTRACT

To monitor the levels of protecting antibodies raised in the population in response to infection and/or to immunization with SARS-CoV-2, we need a technique that allows high throughput and low-cost quantitative analysis of human IgG antibodies reactive against viral antigens. Here we describe an ultra-fast, high throughput and inexpensive assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in humans. The assay is based on Ni2+ magnetic particles coated with His tagged SARS-CoV-2 antigens. A simple and inexpensive 96 well plate magnetic extraction/homogenization process is described which allows the simultaneous analysis of 96 samples and delivers results in 7 min with high accuracy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/economics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/economics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Magnets/chemistry , Nickel/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion , Time Factors
9.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469383

ABSTRACT

The human Betacoronavirus OC43 is a common cause of respiratory viral infections in adults and children. Lung infections with OC43 are associated with mortality, especially in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Neutralizing antibodies play a major role in protection against many respiratory viral infections, but to date a live viral neutralization assay for OC43 has not been described. We isolated a human monoclonal antibody (OC2) that binds to the spike protein of OC43 and neutralizes the live virus derived from the original isolate of OC43. We used this monoclonal antibody to develop and test the performance of two readily accessible in vitro assays for measuring antibody neutralization, one utilizing cytopathic effect and another utilizing an ELISA of infected cells. We used both methods to measure the neutralizing activity of the OC2 monoclonal antibody and of human plasma. These assays could prove useful for studying humoral responses to OC43 and cross-neutralization with other medically important betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Cell Line , Common Cold/immunology , Common Cold/pathology , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0068021, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455680

ABSTRACT

Validated assays are essential for reliable serosurveys; however, most SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays have been validated using specimens from China, Europe, or U.S. populations. We evaluated the performance of five commercial SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays to inform their use in serosurveys in Nigeria. Four semiquantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Euroimmun anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein [NCP] immunoglobulin G [IgG], Euroimmun spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG, Mologic Omega COVID-19 IgG, Bio-Rad Platelia SARS-CoV-2 Total Ab) and one chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG) were evaluated. We estimated the analytical performance characteristics using plasma from 100 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive patients from varied time points post-PCR confirmation and 100 prepandemic samples (50 HIV positive and 50 hepatitis B positive). The Bio-Rad assay failed the manufacturer-specified validation steps. The Euroimmun NCP, Euroimmun spike, and Mologic assays had sensitivities of 73.7%, 74.4%, and 76.9%, respectively, on samples taken 15 to 58 days after PCR confirmation and specificities of 97%, 100%, and 83.8%, respectively. The Abbott assay had 71.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity on the same panel. Parallel or serial algorithms combining two tests did not substantially improve the sensitivity or specificity. Our results showed lower sensitivity and, for one immunoassay, lower specificity compared to the manufacturers' results and other reported validations. Seroprevalence estimates using these assays might need to be interpreted with caution in Nigeria and similar settings. These findings highlight the importance of in-country validations of SARS-CoV-2 serological assays prior to use to ensure that accurate results are available for public health decision-making to control the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. IMPORTANCE This study used positive and negative sample panels from Nigeria to test the performance of several commercially available SARS-CoV-2 serological assays. Using these prepandemic and SARS-CoV-2-positive samples, we found much lower levels of sensitivity in four commercially available assays than most assay manufacturer reports and independent evaluations. The use of these assays with suboptimal sensitivity and specificity in Nigeria or countries with population exposure to similar endemic pathogens could lead to a biased estimate of the seroprevalence, over- or underestimating the true disease prevalence, and limit efforts to stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2. It is important to conduct in-country validations of serological SARS-CoV-2 assays prior to their widespread use, especially in countries with limited representation in published assay validations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(10): 1212-1220, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444461

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Emerging evidence shows correlation between the presence of neutralization antibodies (nAbs) and protective immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently available commercial serology assays lack the ability to specifically identify nAbs. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based nAb assay (GenScript cPass neutralization antibody assay) has recently received emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate the performance characteristics of this assay and compare and correlate it with the commercial assays that detect SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG). DESIGN.­: Specimens from SARS-COV-2 infected patients (n = 124), healthy donors obtained prepandemic (n = 100), and patients with non-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory infections (n = 92) were analyzed using this assay. Samples with residual volume were also tested on 3 commercial serology platforms (Abbott, Euroimmun, Siemens). Twenty-eight randomly selected specimens from patients with COVID-19 and 10 healthy controls were subjected to a plaque reduction neutralization test. RESULTS.­: The cPass assay exhibited 96.1% (95% CI, 94.9%-97.3%) sensitivity (at >14 days post-positive PCR), 100% (95% CI, 98.0%-100.0%) specificity, and zero cross-reactivity for the presence of non-COVID-19 respiratory infections. When compared with the plaque reduction assay, 97.4% (95% CI, 96.2%-98.5%) qualitative agreement and a positive correlation (R2 = 0.76) was observed. Comparison of IgG signals from each of the commercial assays with the nAb results from plaque reduction neutralization test/cPass assays displayed greater than 94.7% qualitative agreement and correlations with R2 = 0.43/0.68 (Abbott), R2 = 0.57/0.85 (Euroimmun), and R2 = 0.39/0.63 (Siemens), respectively. CONCLUSIONS.­: The combined data support the use of cPass assay for accurate detection of the nAb response. Positive IgG results from commercial assays associated reasonably with nAbs presence and can serve as a substitute.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257452, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A few studies on antibody testing have focused on asymptomatic or mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with low initial anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody responses. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody-testing performance was evaluated using blood samples from asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 143 COVID-19 patients during an outbreak on a cruise ship 3 weeks after diagnosis. Simultaneously, a follow-up SARS-CoV-2 genetic test was performed. Samples stored before the COVID-19 pandemic were also used to evaluate the lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA) and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike proteins were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to confirm which antibodies were influenced on LFA- and ECLIA- false-negative result in crew-member samples. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive, and negative-predictive values of LFA-detected IgM antibodies were 0.231, 1.000, 1.000, and 0.613, respectively; those of LFA-detected IgG antibodies were 0.483, 0.989, 0.972, and 0.601, respectively; and those of ECLIA-detected total antibodies were 0.783, 1.000, 1.000, and 0.848, respectively. All antibody titers measured using ELISA were significantly lower in blood samples with negative results than in those with positive results in both LFA and ECLIA. In the patients with negative results from the follow-up genetic testing, IgM-, IgG-, and total-antibody positivity rates were 22.9%, 47.6%, and 72.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing has lower performance in asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 patients than required in the guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/trends , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ships
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741589, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441110

ABSTRACT

Autoantibodies targeting prothrombin (aPT) can be found in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients. However, their detection has proven difficult to standardize. Here, we developed a new ELISA assay to improve the identification of aPT and compared its performance with currently available anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT) and autoantibodies targeting prothrombin bound to the plastic plate (aPT-A) assays using a cohort of 27 APS patients at high risk of thrombosis. We generated a novel prothrombin variant, ProTS525A-Biot, carrying an artificial tag at the C-terminus suitable for site-specific biotinylation and added the mutation S525A to improve stability. ProTS525A-Biot was immobilized to neutravidin-coated plates at the desired density and with a defined orientation, i.e., pointing the N-terminal fragment-1 toward the solvent. Antibodies against ProTS525A-Biot (aPT-Bio) were found in 24 out of 27 triple-positive APS patients (88%). When compared to aPS/PT and aPT-A, aPT-Bio showed an excellent linear correlation with aPS/PT (R2 = 0.85) but not with aPT-A (R2 = 0.40). Since aPS/PT but not aPT-A are an emerging biomarker of thrombosis in APS, this method may find utility for detecting pathogenic aPT in APS but also other prothrombotic conditions such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Prothrombin/immunology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/immunology , Biotinylation , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mutation , Phosphatidylserines/immunology , Prothrombin/genetics , Risk , Thrombosis
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18984, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437691

ABSTRACT

Serological diagnostic of the severe respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a valuable tool for the determination of immunity and surveillance of exposure to the virus. In the context of an ongoing pandemic, it is essential to externally validate widely used tests to assure correct diagnostics and epidemiological estimations. We evaluated the performance of the COVID-19 ELISA IgG and the COVID-19 ELISA IgM/A (Vircell, S.L.) against a highly specific and sensitive in-house Luminex immunoassay in a set of samples from pregnant women and cord blood. The agreement between both assays was moderate to high for IgG but low for IgM/A. Considering seropositivity by either IgG and/or IgM/A, the technical performance of the ELISA was highly imbalanced, with 96% sensitivity at the expense of 22% specificity. As for the clinical performance, the negative predictive value reached 87% while the positive predictive value was 51%. Our results stress the need for highly specific and sensitive assays and external validation of diagnostic tests with different sets of samples to avoid the clinical, epidemiological and personal disturbances derived from serological misdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/trends , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods
15.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 210(5-6): 283-289, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437271

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, responsible for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), has become a major global health problem. The molecular testing is the accepted assay in SARS-CoV-2 detection. However, there are several reasons for low sensitivity by RNA detection, causing challenges in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological patterns of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM, and IgG in 111 hospitalized, and 34 recovered COVID-19 patients and 311 prepandemic normal serum specimens by ELISA. The validity of the ELISA kits was evaluated using samples from normal and recovered cases. This showed that 98.1%, and 98.4% of prepandemic normal samples were negative for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM, and IgG, respectively. Assessment of 34 COVID-19 confirmed recovered patients showed a test sensitivity of 76.5%, and 94.1% for IgM, and IgG, respectively. In COVID-19 hospitalized patients, 42.3%, and 51.4% were positive for IgM and IgG, respectively. Viral RNA was not detectable in 43.3% of the hospitalized patients. Interestingly, combined molecular and serological testing improved the sensitivity of COVID-19 diagnosis to 79.6%. Using PCR with combined IgM/IgG results augmented the patient diagnosis sensitivity to 65.3% and 87.2% in ≤ 7 days, and > 7 days intervals, respectively. Overall, serological tests in combination with PCR can improve the sensitivity of COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257615, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435618

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) calls for the development of a rapid, biomarker-based, non-sputum test capable of detecting all forms of tuberculosis (TB) at the point-of-care to enable immediate treatment initiation. Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is the only WHO-endorsed TB biomarker that can be detected in urine, an easily collected sample matrix. For obtaining optimal sensitivity, we and others have shown that some form of sample pretreatment is necessary to remove background from patient urine samples. A number of systems are paper-based often destined for resource limited settings. Our current work presents incorporation of one such sample pretreatment, proteinase K (ProK) immobilized on paper (IPK) and test its performance in comparison to standard proteinase K (SPK) treatment that involves addition and deactivation at high temperature prior to performing a capture ELISA. Herein, a simple and economical method was developed for using ProK immobilized strips to pretreat urine samples. Simplification and cost reduction of the proposed pretreatment strip were achieved by using Whatman no.1 paper and by minimizing the concentration of ProK (an expensive but necessary reagent) used to pretreat the clinical samples prior to ELISA. To test the applicability of IPK, capture ELISA was carried out on either LAM-spiked urine or the clinical samples after pretreatment with ProK at 400 µg/mL for 30 minutes at room temperature. The optimal conditions and stability of the IPK were tested and validation was performed on a set of 25 previously analyzed archived clinical urine samples with known TB and HIV status. The results of IPK and SPK treated samples were in agreement showing that the urine LAM test currently under development has the potential to reach adult and pediatric patients regardless of HIV status or site of infection, and to facilitate global TB control to improve assay performance and ultimately treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/urine , Endopeptidase K/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Endopeptidase K/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Enzymes, Immobilized/chemistry , Enzymes, Immobilized/metabolism , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/urine , Paper , Temperature
17.
J Infect Dis ; 224(5): 764-770, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413436

ABSTRACT

The kinetics of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity maturation during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection obtained from 217 participants of the Ischgl cohort, Austria, was studied 0.5-1.5 months (baseline) and 7-8 months (follow-up) after infection. The IgG avidity assay, using a modified IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 5.5 M urea, revealed that old age does not diminish the increase in avidity, detected in all participants positive at both time points, from 18% to 42%. High avidity was associated with a marked residual neutralization capacity in 97.2.% of participants (211/217), which was even higher in the older age group, revealing an important role of avidity assays as easy and cheap surrogate tests for assessing the maturation of the immune system conveying potential protection against further SARS-CoV-2 infections without necessitating expensive and laborious neutralization assays.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Austria , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
18.
Theranostics ; 11(18): 9133-9161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410987

ABSTRACT

During an epidemic or pandemic, the primary task is to rapidly develop precise diagnostic approaches and effective therapeutics. Oligonucleotide aptamer-based pathogen detection assays and control therapeutics are promising, as aptamers that specifically recognize and block pathogens can be quickly developed and produced through simple chemical synthesis. This work reviews common aptamer-based diagnostic techniques for communicable diseases and summarizes currently available aptamers that target various pathogens, including the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Moreover, this review discusses how oligonucleotide aptamers might be leveraged to control pathogen propagation and improve host immune system responses. This review offers a comprehensive data source to the further develop aptamer-based diagnostics and therapeutics specific for infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Bacteria/genetics , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Viruses/genetics , Aptamers, Nucleotide/pharmacology , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , SELEX Aptamer Technique , Virus Internalization
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257351, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406752

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the name of the acute respiratory disease caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a close relative of those that caused the severe outbreaks of SARS and MERS several years ago. Since first appearance on December of 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has cause extremely high levels of mortality, morbidity, global economic breakdown, and the consequent human suffering. The main diagnostic test for the confirmation of symptomatic individuals is the detection of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR). Additionally, serology techniques, such as ELISA are useful to measure the antibodies produced in humans after contact with the virus, as well as the direct presence of viral antigens. In this study we aim to assemble and evaluate four ELISA assays to measure the presence of IgG or IgM specific for the viral Spike protein in COVID-19 patients, using either the full recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein or the fragment corresponding to the receptor binding domain. As a control, we analyzed a group of pre-pandemic serum samples obtained before 2017. Strong reactivity was observed against both antigens. A few pre-pandemic samples displayed high OD values, suggesting the possibility of some cross reactivity. All four assays show very good repeatability, both intra- and inter-assay. Receiver operating characteristic analysis allowed the definition of cutoffs and evaluation of performance for each ELISA by estimation of the area under the curve. This performance parameter was high for all tests (AUC range: 0.98-0.99). Multiple comparisons between tests revealed no significant difference between each other (P values: 0.24-0.95). Our results show that both antigens are effective to detect both specific IgG and IgM antibodies, with high sensitivity (range 0.92-0.99), specificity (range 0.93-0.97) and congruence with the RT-PCR test (Cohen´s Kappa range 0.87-0.93). These assays will allow health authorities to have a new tool to estimate seroprevalence, in order to manage and improve the severe sanitary situation caused by this virus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Panama/epidemiology , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
20.
Transfusion ; 61(10): 2981-2990, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) ideally contains high titers of (neutralizing) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Several scalable immunoassays for CCP selection have been developed. We designed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that measures neutralizing antibodies (of all isotypes) in plasma by determining the level of competition between CCP and a mouse neutralizing antibody for binding to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Plasma was collected from 72 convalescent individuals and inhibition of viral infection was determined by plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT50). The level of neutralizing antibodies was measured in the novel competition ELISA and in a commercially available ELISA that measures inhibition of recombinant ACE2 binding to immobilized RBD. These results were compared with a high throughput chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). RESULTS: The results from both ELISAs were correlating, in particular for high titer CCP (PRNT50 ≥ 1:160) (Spearman r = .73, p < .001). Moderate correlation was found between the competition ELISA and CMIA (r = .57 for high titer and r = .62 for low titer CCP, p < .001). Receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that the competition ELISA selected CCP with a sensitivity and specificity of 61% and 100%, respectively. However, discrimination between low and high titer CCP had a lower resolution (sensitivity: 34% and specificity: 89%). CONCLUSION: The competition ELISA screens for neutralizing antibodies in CCP by competition for just a single epitope. It exerts a sensitivity of 61% with no false identifications. These ELISA designs can be used for epitope mapping or for selection of CCP.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans
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