Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 178
Filter
1.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e177, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106269

ABSTRACT

Limited prospective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) data in children regarding the impact of Omicron variant in seropositivity have been reported. We investigated SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in children between 1 September 2021 and 30 April 2022, representing Delta and Omicron predominance periods. Serum samples from children admitted to the major tertiary Greek paediatric hospital for any cause, except for COVID-19, were randomly collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 natural infection antibodies against nucleocapsid antigen (Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 reagent). A total of 506/1312 (38.6%) seropositive children (0-16 years) were detected (males: 261/506(51.6%); median age (IQR): 95.2 months(24-144)). Seropositivity rates (%) increased from Delta to Omicron period from 29.7% to 48.5% (P-value<0.0001). Seropositivity increased for all age groups, except for the age group of 0-1 year (P-value:0.914). The highest seropositivity rate was detected in April 2022 (52.6%) and reached 73.9% specifically for the age group 12-16 years. No significant differences were detected in seropositivity with respect to gender, origin, or hospitalisation status. Median (IQR) antibody titres were higher in the Omicron vs. Delta period in all age groups, especially in 12-16 years [32.2 COI (7-77.1) vs. 11.4 COI(2.8-50.2), P-value:0.009). During Omicron variant period increased SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was detected in paediatric population, especially in adolescents, implicating either increased transmissibility or reinfection rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Prospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Female , Child, Preschool
2.
Anal Biochem ; 658: 114902, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031059

ABSTRACT

The development of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is one of the most important efforts in controlling the pandemic. Serological tests are used to identify highly reactive human donors for convalescent plasma therapy, measuring vaccine efficacy and durability. This review article presents a review of serology tests and how antibody titers in response to vaccines have been developed. Some of the serological test methods discussed are Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA), chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), and Chemiluminescent Micro-particle Immunoassay (CMIA). This review can provide an understanding of the application of the body's immune response to vaccines to get some new strategies for vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Antibodies, Viral , Serologic Tests/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing
3.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(4): 331-340, 2022 09 12.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030645

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The main approach to the rabies prevention is the vaccination of domestic and wild carnivores. For the routine evaluation the anti-rabies vaccination effectiveness, World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommends various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).The aim of the study was to design and validate a competitive ELISA (cELISA) test system for the detection of antibodies to the rabies virus (RABV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The development of the cELISA was carried out following the OIE recommendations. RESULTS: The repeatability of the cELISA results within one laboratory was satisfactory (coefficient of variation 7.95-13.61%). The coefficient of determination (CD) between the results of the virus neutralization reaction (FAVN) and cELISA was 0.988, p < 0.001. The lower threshold for antibody detection was less than 0.02 IU/ml. The cELISA did not demonstrate cross-reactivity against antibodies to canine distemper virus, parainfluenza virus, parvovirus, coronavirus, and canine adenovirus (types I and II). During the study of 137 dog blood sera, diagnostic specificity (DSp) and diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) for the cELISA were 83.1% and 94.9%, respectively, and CD between the cELISA and FAVN results was 0.968, p < 0.001. DISCUSSION: Indirect ELISA test systems for determining the level of antibodies to RABV are not sensitive enough compared to reference tests, unlike cELISA. The developed test system is not inferior for its DSp and DSe to the commercial cELISA BioPro ELISA Rabies Ab (DSp 66.7%, DSe 94.4%). CONCLUSION: The developed cELISA test system can be used to detect antibodies to RABV in the blood serum of dogs for evaluating the effectiveness of mass vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
Lyssavirus , Rabies virus , Rhabdoviridae , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary
4.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010308

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogen which mainly causes diarrhea, dehydration and death in nursing piglets, threatening the global swine industry. Moreover, it can infect multiple animal species and humans. Hence, reliable diagnostic assays are needed to better control this zoonotic pathogen. Here, a blocking ELISA was developed using a recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein as the coating antigen paired with an N-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) as the detection antibody. The percent inhibition (PI) of the ELISA was determined using 384 swine serum samples, with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) as the reference method. Through receiver operating characteristic analysis in conjunction with Youden's index, the optimal PI cut-off value was determined to be 51.65%, which corresponded to a diagnostic sensitivity of 98.79% and a diagnostic specificity of 100%. Of the 330 serum samples tested positive via IFA, 326 and 4 were tested positive and negative via the ELISA, respectively, while the 54 serum samples tested negative via IFA were all negative via the ELISA. The overall coincidence rate between the two assays was 98.96% (380/384). The ELISA exhibited good repeatability and did not cross-react with antisera against other swine pathogens. Overall, this is the first report on developing a blocking ELISA for PDCoV serodiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Swine
5.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 136: 102253, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004564

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) stays a major cause of death globally after COVID-19 and HIV. An early diagnosis to control TB effectively, needs a fast reliable diagnostic method with high sensitivity. Serodiagnosis involving polyclonal antibodies detection against an antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in serum samples can be instrumental. In our study, Rv3874 and Rv3875 antigens were cloned, expressed, and purified individually and as a chimeric construct in Escherichia coli BL21. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) based findings revealed that the Rv3874-Rv3875 chimeric construct was two-fold more sensitive (59.7%) than the individual sensitivities of Rv3874 (28.4%) and Rv3875 (24.9%) for 201 serum TB positive samples. Furthermore, the fusion construct was a little more sensitive (60.4%) for male subjects than that for females (58.8%). Lastly, our preliminary findings, molecular insights of secondary structure, and statistical and in silico analysis of each construct also advocate that CEP can be considered a better immunodiagnostic tool in addition to previously reported EC skin test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Antigens, Bacterial , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Escherichia coli , Female , Humans , Male , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 319, 2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), a swine epidemic disease caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), is characterized by severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in piglets, and has caused serious economic losses to the global porcine industry. The level of PEDV IgA antibody is a key marker to assess the extent of passive immunity of the resistance against PEDV infection. However, current commercial structure proteins-based kits for detection of PEDV antibody are not affordable, and those kits require complicated antigen preparation procedures, which cannot meet the scope of economic benefits of many large-scale pig companies in China. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop an accurate, simple, and economical method for IgA detection in clinical samples. In this study, an indirect ELISA (i-ELISA) method was developed based on a purified PEDV epidemic strain (NH-TA2020). RESULTS: The results show that optimal working dilution ratios of PEDV antigen and HRP anti-swine IgA are at 1: 1000 and 1:15000 respectively. The sensitivity of this method is high with the maximum dilution of samples up to 1:160, and coefficients of variation (CV) of both the intra assays and inter assays were no more than 15%. In addition, the relative sensitivities of the i-ELISA were above 90% compared with values from commercial kits in both serum and oral fluid samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the i-ELISA developed in this study was an accurate, simple, and economical method for PEDV-IgA detection in clinical samples.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Immunoglobulin A , Swine
7.
J Clin Virol ; 155: 105270, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996329

ABSTRACT

Dried Blood Spots (DBS) are broadly used in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance studies, reporting either the presence or absence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. However, quantitative follow-up has become increasingly important to monitor humoral vaccine responses. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of DBS for the detection of anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations using a commercially available assay, reporting in a standardised unitage (International Units/mL; IU/mL). To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the ImmunoDiagnostics ELISA on serum and DBS for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection, we analysed 72 paired DBS and serum samples. The SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG ELISA kit (EUROIMMUN) on serum was used as the reference method. We performed a statistical assessment to optimise the cut-off value for DBS and serum and assessed the correlation between DBS and serum antibody concentrations. We found that anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations detected in DBS are highly correlated to those detected in paired serum (Pearson correlation 0.98; p-value < 0.0001), allowing to assess serum antibody concentration using DBS. The optimal cut-off for antibody detection on DBS was found to be 26 IU/mL, with 98.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity. For serum, the optimal cut-off was 14 IU/mL, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Therefore, we conclude that the ImmunoDiagnostics ELISA kit has optimal performance in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies on both DBS and serum. This makes DBS ideal for large-scale follow-up of humoral SARS-CoV-2 immune responses, as it is an easy but valuable sampling method for quantification of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, compared to serum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1225: 340246, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982438

ABSTRACT

Protein-based diagnostics are the standard of care for screening and diagnosing a broad range of diseases and medical conditions. The current gold standard method for quantifying proteins in clinical specimens is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which offers high analytical sensitivity, can process many samples at once, and is widely available in many diagnostic laboratories worldwide. However, running an ELISA is cumbersome, requiring multiple liquid handling and washing steps, and time-intensive (∼2 - 4 h per test). Here, we demonstrate a unique magneto-ELISA that utilizes dually labeled magnetic nanoparticles (DMPs) coated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and an HRP-conjugated detection antibody, enabling rapid immunomagnetic enrichment and signal amplification. For proof of concept, this assay was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2), a malaria parasite biomarker, which exhibited a lower limit of detection of 2 pg mL-1 (33 fM) in human serum. Measurements of PfHRP2 in clinical blood samples from individuals with and without P. falciparum infection revealed that this magneto-ELISA offers a superior diagnostic accuracy compared to a commercial PfHRP2 ELISA kit. We also demonstrate the versatility of this platform by adapting it for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, which could be detected at concentrations as low as 8 pg mL-1 (174 fM) in human serum. In addition to its high analytical performance, this assay can be completed in 30 min, requires no specialized equipment, and is compatible with standard microplate readers and ELISA protocols, allowing it to integrate readily into current clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria, Falciparum , Nanoparticles , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262591, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968842

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid (N) is the most abundant viral protein expressed in host samples and is an important antigen for diagnosis. N is a 45 kDa protein that does not present disulfide bonds. Intending to avoid non-specific binding of SARS-CoV-2 N to antibodies from patients who previously had different coronaviruses, a 35 kDa fragment of N was expressed without a conserved motif in E. coli as inclusion bodies (N122-419-IB). Culture media and IB washing conditions were chosen to obtain N122-419-IB with high yield (370 mg/L bacterial culture) and protein purity (90%). High pressure solubilizes protein aggregates by weakening hydrophobic and ionic interactions and alkaline pH promotes solubilization by electrostatic repulsion. The association of pH 9.0 and 2.4 kbar promoted efficient solubilization of N122-419-IB without loss of native-like tertiary structure that N presents in IB. N122-419 was refolded with a yield of 85% (326 mg/L culture) and 95% purity. The refolding process takes only 2 hours and the protein is ready for use after pH adjustment, avoiding the necessity of dialysis or purification. Antibody binding of COVID-19-positive patients sera to N122-419 was confirmed by Western blotting. ELISA using N122-419 is effective in distinguishing between sera presenting antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 from those who do not. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed condition for IB solubilization is one of the mildest described. It is possible that the refolding process can be extended to a wide range of proteins with high yields and purity, even those that are sensible to very alkaline pH.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Inclusion Bodies/chemistry , Protein Refolding , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrostatic Pressure , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Solubility
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928574

ABSTRACT

Avian coronavirus-infectious bronchitis virus (AvCoV-IBV) is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis (IB) that has brought great threat and economic losses to the global poultry industry. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods are very necessary for effective disease monitoring. At the present study, we screened a novel nanobody against IBV-N protein for development of a rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific competitive ELISA for IBV antibody detection in order to enable the assessment of inoculation effect and early warning of disease infection. Using the phage display technology and bio-panning, we obtained 7 specific nanobodies fused with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) which were expressed in culture supernatant of HEK293T cells. Out of which, the nanobody of IBV-N-Nb66-vHRP has highly binding with IBV-N protein and was easily blocked by the IBV positive serums, which was finally employed as an immunoprobe for development of the competitive ELISA (cELISA). In the newly developed cELISA, we reduce the use of enzyme-conjugated secondary antibody, and the time of whole operation process is approximately 1 h. Moreover, the IBV positive serums diluted at 1:1000 can still be detected by the developed cELISA, and it has no cross reactivity with others chicken disease serums including Newcastle disease virus, Fowl adenovirus, Avian Influenza Virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Hepatitis E virus. The cut-off value of the established cELISA was 36%, and the coefficient of variation of intra- and inter-assay were 0.55-1.65% and 2.58-6.03%, respectively. Compared with the commercial ELISA (IDEXX kit), the agreement rate of two methods was defined as 98% and the kappa value was 0.96, indicating the developed cELISA has high consistency with the commercial ELISA. Taken together, the novel cELISA for IBV antibody detection is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay, which has the potential to rapidly test IBV antibody contributing to the surveillance and control of the disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , HEK293 Cells , Horseradish Peroxidase , Humans
11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(6): e0007522, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909572

ABSTRACT

Sensitive and specific serological tests are mandatory for epidemiological studies evaluating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prevalence as well as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) morbidity and mortality rates. The accuracy of results is challenged by antibody waning after convalescence and by cross-reactivity induced by previous infections with other pathogens. By employing a patented platform technology based on capturing antigen-antibody complexes with a solid-phase-bound Fcγ receptor (FcγR) and truncated nucleocapsid protein as the antigen, two SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), featuring different serum and antigen dilutions, were developed. Validation was performed using a serum panel comprising 213 longitudinal samples from 35 COVID-19 patients and a negative-control panel consisting of 790 pre-COVID-19 samples from different regions of the world. While both assays show similar diagnostic sensitivities in the early convalescent phase, ELISA 2 (featuring a higher serum concentration) enables SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody detection for a significantly longer time postinfection (≥15 months). Correspondingly, analytical sensitivity referenced to indirect immunofluorescence testing (IIFT) is significantly higher for ELISA 2 in samples with a titer of ≤1:640; for high-titer samples, a prozone effect is observed for ELISA 2. The specificities of both ELISAs were excellent not only for pre-COVID-19 serum samples from Europe, Asia, and South America but also for several challenging African sample panels. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG FcγR ELISAs, methodically combining antigen-antibody binding in solution and isotype-specific detection of immune complexes, are valuable tools for seroprevalence studies requiring the (long-term) detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in populations with a challenging immunological background and/or in which spike-protein-based vaccine programs have been rolled out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, IgG , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104109, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies serve a crucial immuno-protective function mediated by IgG Fc receptors (FcγR). Absence of fucose on the highly conserved N-linked glycan in the IgG Fc domain strongly enhances IgG binding and activation of myeloid and natural killer (NK) cell FcγRs. Although afucosylated IgG can provide increased protection (malaria and HIV), it also boosts immunopathologies in alloimmune diseases, COVID-19 and dengue fever. Quantifying IgG fucosylation currently requires sophisticated methods such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and extensive analytical skills reserved to highly specialized laboratories. METHODS: Here, we introduce the Fucose-sensitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Antigen-Specific IgG (FEASI), an immunoassay capable of simultaneously quantitating and qualitatively determining IgG responses. FEASI is a two-tier immunoassay; the first assay is used to quantify antigen-specific IgG (IgG ELISA), while the second gives FcγRIIIa binding-dependent readout which is highly sensitive to both the IgG quantity and the IgG Fc fucosylation (FcγR-IgG ELISA). FINDINGS: IgG Fc fucosylation levels, independently determined by LC-MS and FEASI, in COVID-19 responses to the spike (S) antigen, correlated very strongly by simple linear regression (R2=0.93, p < 0.0001). The FEASI method was then used to quantify IgG levels and fucosylation in COVID-19 convalescent plasma which was independently validated by LC-MS. INTERPRETATION: FEASI can be reliably implemented to measure relative and absolute IgG Fc fucosylation and quantify binding of antigen-specific IgG to FcγR in a high-throughput manner accessible to all diagnostic and research laboratories. FUNDING: This work was funded by the Stichting Sanquin Bloedvoorziening (PPOC 19-08 and SQI00041) and ZonMW 10430 01 201 0021.


Subject(s)
Fucose , Immunoglobulin G , Receptors, IgG , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fucose/chemistry , Fucose/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Receptors, IgG/chemistry
13.
J Virol Methods ; 307: 114571, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895296

ABSTRACT

Serological assays for detection of IgG, IgM or IgA against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) play an important role in surveillance, antibody persistence, vaccine coverage and infection rate. Serological assays, including both ELISA and rapid lateral flow assays, are available commercially but the cost limits their accessibility for low resource countries. Although serological assays based on mammalian-expressed SARS-CoV-2 spike protein have been previously described these assays need to be validated using samples from local populations within the continent, or country, in which they will be used. Interpretation of results could be influenced by differences in specificity and potential for pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies. In this study, we investigated two laboratory developed serological assays, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunofluorescent assay (IFA), developed using recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, for use in South African populations. The tests were compared with commercially available and South Africa Health Products Regulatory Authority (SAPHRA) approved assays. A panel of 100 residual diagnostic serum samples, collected prior to the pandemic, were tested on three separate occasions to determine a suitable cut-off value for differentiation of positive from negative samples. Specificity of 96 % and 100 % for ELISA and IFA respectively was demonstrated. A total of 82/89 serum samples collected between days 2-94 after onset of illness from patients with a positive molecular result were positive for IgG antibody. The sensitivity of the laboratory developed assays on samples collected > one week after onset of illness was shown to be 100 % and 98.8 % for ELISA and IFA respectively. Positive predictive values were 92.1 % for ELISA and 91.0 % for IFA using characterization of samples as positive based on confirmation of infection using RT-PCR. Serum samples (n = 62) collected from RT-PCR positive patients infected with either ancestral, or emerging variants such as Beta or Delta, tested positive for IgG antibody (62/62) using the laboratory developed assays confirming application of the assays regardless of currently circulating variant during the time of evaluation. High concordance was demonstrated between the laboratory developed assays and the commercial immunoassay among samples collected from South African populations, although the small sample size, especially for the comparison with commercial assays, must be noted. If all quality assurance controls are in place, the use of local laboratory developed assays for high-throughput screening in resource-constrained environments is a realistic alternative option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Sensitivity and Specificity , South Africa , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
Hum Antibodies ; 30(2): 105-115, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 caused a global pandemic since the last two years. The urgent need to control the spread of the virus and rapid application of the suitable health measures raised the importance of available, rapid, and accurate diagnostic approaches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe a rapid in-house optimized ELISA based on the expression of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in a prokaryotic system. METHODS: We show the expression of the 30 kDa recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD-6×His in four different E. coli strains (at 28∘C using 0.25mM IPTG) including the expression strain E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta Gami. SARS-CoV-2 rRBD-6×His protein was purified, refolded, and used as an antigen coat to assess antibody response in human sera against SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The assessment was carried out using a total of 155 human sero-positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The ELISA showed 69.5% sensitivity, 88% specificity, 78.5% agreement, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 92.3%, and a negative predictive value of 56.5%. Moreover, the optical density (OD) values of positive samples significantly correlated with the commercial kit titers. CONCLUSIONS: Specific human antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were detected by rapid in-house ELISA in sera of human COVID-19-infected patients. The availability of this in-house ELISA protocol would be valuable for various diagnostic and epidemiological applications, particularly in developing countries. Future studies are planned for the use of the generated SARS-CoV-2 rRBD-6×His protein in vaccine development and other diagnostic applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
Sci Adv ; 8(19): eabn7424, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846317

ABSTRACT

Serum-based ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) has been widely used to detect anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. However, to date, no study has investigated patient urine as a biological sample to detect SARS-CoV-2 virus-specific antibodies. An in-house urine-based ELISA was developed using recombinant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in urine was established, with 94% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with the urine-based ELISA and 88% sensitivity and 100% specificity with a paired serum-based ELISA. The urine-based ELISA that detects anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is a noninvasive method with potential application as a facile COVID-19 immunodiagnostic platform, which can be used to report the extent of exposure at the population level and/or to assess the risk of infection at the individual level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250319, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833525

ABSTRACT

Projections of the stage of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and local, regional and national public health policies to limit coronavirus spread as well as "reopen" cities and states, are best informed by serum neutralizing antibody titers measured by reproducible, high throughput, and statically credible antibody (Ab) assays. To date, a myriad of Ab tests, both available and FDA authorized for emergency, has led to confusion rather than insight per se. The present study reports the results of a rapid, point-in-time 1,000-person cohort study using serial blood donors in the New York City metropolitan area (NYC) using multiple serological tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and high throughput serological assays (HTSAs). These were then tested and associated with assays for neutralizing Ab (NAb). Of the 1,000 NYC blood donor samples in late June and early July 2020, 12.1% and 10.9% were seropositive using the Ortho Total Ig and the Abbott IgG HTSA assays, respectively. These serological assays correlated with neutralization activity specific to SARS-CoV-2. The data reported herein suggest that seroconversion in this population occurred in approximately 1 in 8 blood donors from the beginning of the pandemic in NYC (considered March 1, 2020). These findings deviate with an earlier seroprevalence study in NYC showing 13.7% positivity. Collectively however, these data demonstrate that a low number of individuals have serologic evidence of infection during this "first wave" and suggest that the notion of "herd immunity" at rates of ~60% or higher are not near. Furthermore, the data presented herein show that the nature of the Ab-based immunity is not invariably associated with the development of NAb. While the blood donor population may not mimic precisely the NYC population as a whole, rapid assessment of seroprevalence in this cohort and serial reassessment could aid public health decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 52(2): 332-335, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) is the gold standard for diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), simpler and faster antibody detection tests can be complementary for diagnosis of COVID-19. To manage the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for serologic testing has increased. In this report, the newly developed antibody detection assays ACCEL ELISA COVID-19 (ACCEL) and Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 (Elecsys) were evaluated. METHODS: Serum samples submitted for routine laboratory testing were analyzed (66 and 161 PCR-positive and PCR-negative samples). After the samples were aliquoted, antibody detection tests were performed using ACCEL and Elecsys assays. RESULTS: When detection of viral RNA using RT-PCR was set as the reference method for diagnosis of COVID-19, the sensitivity was 83.3% and 75.8, and the specificity was 96.9 and 99.4% in ACCEL and Elecsys, respectively. The true positivity rates of ACCEL and Elecsys assays were 57.1%/42.9%, 57.1%/28.6%, 77.8%/66.7%, and 97.1%/97.1% among the specimens collected ≤3, 4-7, 8-14, and >14 days after symptom onset, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The ACCEL assay showed high sensitivity in samples collected within 7 days after symptom onset. Because many patients are asymptomatic in the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the ACCEL assay could be a good screening tool due to high sensitivity in the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742723

ABSTRACT

In December 2020, WHO presented the first international standard (WHO IS) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin. This standard is intended to serve as a reference reagent against which serological tests can be calibrated, thus creating better comparability of results between different tests, laboratories, etc. Here, we have examined three different commercial ELISA kits for the quantification of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, namely the Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (IgG) (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany), the SERION ELISA agile (Institut Virion Serion, Würzburg, Germany), and the COVID-19 quantitative IgG ELISA (DeMediTec Diagnostics, Kiel, Germany). According to the manufacturers, all are calibrated against the WHO IS and can provide results in either international units (IU) (DeMediTec) or arbitrary antibody units (BAU) per milliliter (Euroimmun, Virion Serion), which are numerically identical, according to the WHO. A total of 50 serum samples from vaccinated individuals were tested side by side and according to the manufacturer's instructions. We compared the test results of all three assays with each other to assess comparability and with a quantitative in-house virus neutralization test (micro-NT). In summary, our data are consistent with other studies published on this topic that tested similar assays from different manufacturers. Overall, the agreement between quantitative ELISAs is variable and cannot be used interchangeably despite calibration against a standard. Therefore, interpretation of results must still be individualized and tailored to each case. More importantly, our results highlight that quantitative ELISAs in their current form cannot replace neutralization tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Serologic Tests
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742485

ABSTRACT

The B and T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system are important for the control of most viral infections, including COVID-19. Identification of epitopes recognized by these cells is fundamental for understanding how the immune system detects and removes pathogens, and for antiviral vaccine design. Intriguingly, several cross-reactive T lymphocyte epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 with other betacoronaviruses responsible for the common cold have been identified. In addition, antibodies that cross-recognize the spike protein, but not the nucleoprotein (N protein), from different betacoronavirus have also been reported. Using a consensus of eight bioinformatic methods for predicting B-cell epitopes and the collection of experimentally detected epitopes for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, we identified four surface-exposed, conserved, and hypothetical antigenic regions that are exclusive of the N protein. These regions were analyzed using ELISA assays with two cohorts: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and pre-COVID-19 samples. Here we describe four epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 N protein that are recognized by the humoral response from multiple individuals infected with COVID-19, and are conserved in other human coronaviruses. Three of these linear surface-exposed sequences and their peptide homologs in SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 were also recognized by antibodies from pre-COVID-19 serum samples, indicating cross-reactivity of antibodies against coronavirus N proteins. Different conserved human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cross-reactive B epitopes against SARS-CoV-2 N protein are detected in a significant fraction of individuals not exposed to this pandemic virus. These results have potential clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitope Mapping/methods , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cross Reactions/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
20.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101203, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740310

ABSTRACT

Antibodies in milk obtained from those previously SARS-CoV-2-infected or vaccinated against COVID-19 may provide passive immunity to the breastfed infant. Few assays have been established to measure antibodies in human milk, despite the public health importance of this topic. In the present protocol, we describe an optimized indirect ELISA assay aimed to measure SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies in human milk, which can be used as a rapid screen on undiluted samples or to designate samples as relatively low, moderate, or high titer. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Fox et al. (2020).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Immunoassay/methods , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL