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1.
J Immunol ; 208(6): 1500-1508, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715878

ABSTRACT

Oral fluids offer a noninvasive sampling method for the detection of Abs. Quantification of IgA and IgG Abs in saliva allows studies of the mucosal and systemic immune response after natural infection or vaccination. We developed and validated an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to detect and quantify salivary IgA and IgG Abs against the prefusion-stabilized form of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein expressed in suspension-adapted HEK-293 cells. Normalization against total Ab isotype was performed to account for specimen differences, such as collection time and sample volume. Saliva samples collected from 187 SARS-CoV-2 confirmed cases enrolled in 2 cohorts and 373 prepandemic saliva samples were tested. The sensitivity of both EIAs was high (IgA, 95.5%; IgG, 89.7%) without compromising specificity (IgA, 99%; IgG, 97%). No cross-reactivity with endemic coronaviruses was observed. The limit of detection for SARS-CoV-2 salivary IgA and IgG assays were 1.98 ng/ml and 0.30 ng/ml, respectively. Salivary IgA and IgG Abs were detected earlier in patients with mild COVID-19 symptoms than in severe cases. However, severe cases showed higher salivary Ab titers than those with a mild infection. Salivary IgA titers quickly decreased after 6 wk in mild cases but remained detectable until at least week 10 in severe cases. Salivary IgG titers remained high for all patients, regardless of disease severity. In conclusion, EIAs for both IgA and IgG had high specificity and sensitivity for the confirmation of current or recent SARS-CoV-2 infections and evaluation of the IgA and IgG immune response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saliva/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reference Standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
2.
Bioengineered ; 13(1): 876-883, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585254

ABSTRACT

This research has developed a method for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 N protein on a paper-based microfluidic chip. The chitosan-glutaraldehyde cross-linking method is used to fix the coated antibody, and the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent method is used to achieve the specific detection of the target antigen. The system studied the influence of coating antibody concentration and enzyme-labeled antibody concentration on target antigen detection. According to the average gray value measured under different N protein concentrations, the standard curve of the method was established and the sensitivity was tested, and its linear regression was obtained. The equation is y = 9.8286x+137.6, R2 = 0.9772 > 0.90, which shows a high degree of fit. When the concentration of coating antibody and enzyme-labeled antibody were 1 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL, P > 0.05, the difference was not statistically significant, so the lower concentration of 1 µg/mL was chosen as the coating antibody concentration. The results show that the minimum concentration of N protein that can be detected by this method is 8 µg/mL, and the minimum concentration of coating antibody and enzyme-labeled antibody is 1 µg/mL, which has the characteristics of high sensitivity and good repeatability.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomedical Engineering , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices/standards , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices/statistics & numerical data , Microchip Analytical Procedures/methods , Microchip Analytical Procedures/standards , Microchip Analytical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Paper , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/standards
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6696-6702, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544322

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 has caused enormous fatalities worldwide. Serological assays are important for detection of asymptomatic or mild cases of COVID-19, and sero-prevalence and vaccine efficacy studies. Here, we evaluated and compared the performance of seven commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)s for detection of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG). The ELISAs were evaluated with a characterized panel of 100 serum samples from qRT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients, collected 14 days post onset disease, 100 SARS-CoV-2 negative samples and compared the results with that of neutralization assay. Results were analysed by creating the receiver operating characteristic curve of all the assays in reference to the neutralization assay. All kits, were found to be suitable for detection of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 with high accuracy. The DiaPro COVID-19 IgG ELISA showed the highest sensitivity (98%) among the kits. The assays demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in detecting the IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. However, the presence of IgG antibodies does not always correspond to neutralizing antibodies. Due to their good accuracy indices, these assays can also aid in tracing mild infections, in cohort studies and in pre-vaccine evaluations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 156-159, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534405

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care (POC) tests to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies offer quick assessment of serostatus after natural infection or vaccination. We compared the field performance of the BioMedomics COVID-19 IgM/IgG Rapid Antibody Test against an ELISA in 303 participants enrolled in a SARS-CoV-2 household cohort study. The rapid antibody test was easily implemented with consistent interpretation across 14 users in a variety of field settings. Compared with ELISA, detection of seroconversion lagged by 5 to 10 days. However, it retained a sensitivity of 90% (160/177, 95% confidence interval [CI] 85-94%) and specificity of 100% (43/43, 95% CI 92-100%) for those tested 3 to 5 weeks after symptom onset. Sensitivity was diminished among those with asymptomatic infection (74% [14/19], 95% CI 49-91%) and early in infection (45% [29/64], 95% CI 33-58%). When used appropriately, rapid antibody tests offer a convenient way to detect symptomatic infections during convalescence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Family Characteristics , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 635701, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399135

ABSTRACT

Serological testing is a powerful tool in epidemiological studies for understanding viral circulation and assessing the effectiveness of virus control measures, as is the case of SARS-CoV-2, the pathogenic agent of COVID-19. Immunoassays can quantitatively reveal the concentration of antiviral antibodies. The assessment of antiviral antibody titers may provide information on virus exposure, and changes in IgG levels are also indicative of a reduction in viral circulation. In this work, we describe a serological study for the evaluation of antiviral IgG and IgM antibodies and their correlation with antiviral activity. The serological assay for IgG detection used two SARS-CoV-2 proteins as antigens, the nucleocapsid N protein and the 3CL protease. Cross-reactivity tests in animals have shown high selectivity for detection of antiviral antibodies, using both the N and 3CL antigens. Using samples of human serum from individuals previously diagnosed by PCR for COVID-19, we observed high sensitivity of the ELISA assay. Serological results with human samples also suggest that the combination of higher titers of antiviral IgG antibodies to different antigen targets may be associated with greater neutralization activity, which can be enhanced in the presence of antiviral IgM antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunologic Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Cross Reactions , Dengue Virus/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Sensitivity and Specificity , Zika Virus/immunology
6.
Immunology ; 164(1): 1-2, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354493

ABSTRACT

Mass vaccination of the global population against SARS-CoV-2 will, we hope, turn the tide against this devastating pandemic. To complement vaccinations, better tools are needed to enable viral infections and immunological protection to be monitored. Accurate tools provide sound data for informed decision-making at many levels, from personal to governmental. The measurement of viral RNA is currently routinely used to detect active infections, but only gives a positive result during infection and is unable to reveal historic infections. Tests involving a detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies can reveal prior exposures to virus and can measure anti-viral immune responses induced after natural infection or after vaccination. They may eventually also be used to predict an individual's likelihood of becoming re-infected. Here, we report on the development of a sensitive ELISA technique to detect multiple isotypes of antibodies against the spike glycoprotein, in samples of both serum and saliva. This paper provides an important step towards understanding the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and may therefore eventually help us to effectively control it.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Susceptibility , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Liquid Biopsy , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
7.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(18): 4645-4654, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245612

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid detection technology based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody detection based on immunochromatography still have many problems such as false negatives for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, it is of great importance to develop new techniques to improve the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19. We herein developed an ultrasensitive, rapid, and duplex digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dELISA) for simultaneous detection of spike (S-RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 based on a single molecule array. This assay effectively combines magnetic bead encoding technology and the ultrasensitive detection capability of a single molecule array. The detection strategies of S-RBD protein and N-protein exhibited wide response ranges of 0.34-1065 pg/mL and 0.183-338 pg/mL with detection limits of 20.6 fg/mL and 69.8 fg/mL, respectively. It is a highly specific method for the simultaneous detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein and has minimal interference from other blood proteins. Moreover, the spike assay showed a satisfactory and reproducible recovery rate for the detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein in serum samples. Overall, this work provides a highly sensitive method for the simultaneous detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein, which shows ultrasensitivity and high signal-to-noise ratio and contributes to improve the diagnosis accuracy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single Molecule Imaging/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Magnetics , Microspheres , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 803-811, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196402

ABSTRACT

The development of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serological tests is massive. The external validation of their performance is needed before use in clinical routine practice. Our study aims at assessing the analytical and clinical performance of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests detecting antibodies directed against the virus nucleocapsid protein: The NovaLisa SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) test (NovaTec) allowing a separate detection of each antibody and the Platelia SARS-CoV-2 Total Ab test (Bio-Rad) detecting total antibodies (IgM, IgA, and IgG). Two-hundred and eight coronavirus disease 2019 samples from 48 quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) confirmed patients were used to perform the sensitivity analysis. Non-SARS-CoV-2 sera (n = 79) with a potential cross-reaction to SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays were included in the specificity analysis. In addition, using receiver operator characteristic curves, adapted cut-off for improvement of the performances were proposed. The kinetics of these antibodies was also assessed over 8 weeks. Two weeks after the RT-qPCR positive detection, the NovaLisa test shows a sensitivity and specificity of 94.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 83.1%-98.6%) and 96.2% (95% CI: 89.4%-98.7%) for IgG, of 89.7% (95% CI: 76.4%-95.9%) and 98.7% (95% CI: 93.2%-98.8%) for IgA, and of 48.7% (95% CI: 33.9%-63.8%) and 98.7% (95% CI: 93.2%-99.8%) for IgM. With the Platelia system, the specificity and sensitivity were 97.4% (95% CI: 92.1%-99.7%) and 94.9% (95% CI: 87.7%-98.0%) for total antibodies using the adapted cut-offs. The NovaLisa and the Platelia tests have satisfactory analytical performances. The clinical performances are excellent for IgG, IgA, and total antibodies especially if the cut-off is optimized.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
9.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 118(6): 2202-2219, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1098874

ABSTRACT

Serological assays are valuable tools to study SARS-CoV-2 spread and, importantly, to identify individuals that were already infected and would be potentially immune to a virus reinfection. SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and its receptor binding domain (RBD) are the antigens with higher potential to develop SARS-CoV-2 serological assays. Moreover, structural studies of these antigens are key to understand the molecular basis for Spike interaction with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor, hopefully enabling the development of COVID-19 therapeutics. Thus, it is urgent that significant amounts of this protein became available at the highest quality. In this study, we produced Spike and RBD in two human derived cell hosts: HEK293-E6 and Expi293F™. We evaluated the impact of different and scalable bioprocessing approaches on Spike and RBD production yields and, more importantly, on these antigens' quality attributes. Using negative and positive sera collected from human donors, we show an excellent performance of the produced antigens, assessed in serologic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests, as denoted by the high specificity and sensitivity of the test. We show robust Spike productions with final yields of approx. 2 mg/L of culture that were maintained independently of the production scale or cell culture strategy. To the best of our knowledge, the final yield of 90 mg/L of culture obtained for RBD production, was the highest reported to date. An in-depth characterization of SARS-CoV-2 Spike and RBD proteins was performed, namely the antigen's oligomeric state, glycosylation profiles, and thermal stability during storage. The correlation of these quality attributes with ELISA performance show equivalent reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 positive serum, for all Spike and RBD produced, and for all storage conditions tested. Overall, we provide straightforward protocols to produce high-quality SARS-CoV-2 Spike and RBD antigens, that can be easily adapted to both academic and industrial settings; and integrate, for the first time, studies on the impact of bioprocess with an in-depth characterization of these proteins, correlating antigen's glycosylation and biophysical attributes to performance of COVID-19 serologic tests.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/biosynthesis , Glycosylation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/biosynthesis , Cold Temperature , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Freezing , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Conformation , Protein Stability , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/standards , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/standards
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 187, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thresholds for SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays have typically been determined using samples from symptomatic, often hospitalised, patients. In this setting the sensitivity and specificity of the best performing assays can both exceed 98%. However, antibody assay performance following mild infection is less clear. METHODS: We assessed quantitative IgG responses in a cohort of healthcare workers in Oxford, UK, with a high pre-test probability of Covid-19, in particular the 991/11,475(8.6%) who reported loss of smell/taste. We use anosmia/ageusia and other risk factors as probes for Covid-19 infection potentially undiagnosed by immunoassays by investigating their relationship with antibody readings either side of assay thresholds. RESULTS: The proportion of healthcare workers reporting anosmia/ageusia increased at antibody readings below diagnostic thresholds using an in-house ELISA (n = 9324) and the Abbott Architect chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA; n = 11,324): 426/906 (47%) reported anosmia/ageusia with a positive ELISA, 59/449 (13.1%) with high-negative and 326/7969 (4.1%) with low-negative readings. Similarly, by CMIA, 518/1093 (47.4%) with a positive result reported anosmia/ageusia, 106/686 (15.5%) with a high-negative and 358/9563 (3.7%) with a low-negative result. Adjusting for the proportion of staff reporting anosmia/ageusia suggests the sensitivity of both assays in mild infection is lower than previously reported: Oxford ELISA 89.8% (95%CI 86.6-92.8%) and Abbott CMIA 79.3% (75.9-82.7%). CONCLUSION: Following mild SARS-CoV-2 infection 10-30% of individuals may have negative immunoassay results. While lowered diagnostic thresholds may result in unacceptable specificity, our findings have implications for epidemiological analyses and result interpretation in individuals with a high pre-test probability. Samples from mild PCR-confirmed infections should be included in SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay evaluations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Adult , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , Asymptomatic Infections , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoassay/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Undiagnosed Diseases , United Kingdom
11.
Cytometry A ; 99(1): 90-99, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086336

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, with lockdown due to the coronavirus pandemic underway, the Francis Crick Institute (the Crick) regeared its research laboratories into clinical testing facilities. Two pipelines were established, one for polymerase chain reaction and the other for Serology. This article discusses the Cricks Flow Cytometry Science Technology Platform (Flow STP) role in setting up the Serology pipeline. Pipeline here referring to the overarching processes in place to facilitate the receipt of human sera through to a SARs-CoV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay result. We examine the challenges that had to be overcome by a research laboratory to incorporate clinical diagnostics and the processes by which this was achieved. It describes the governance required to run the service, the design of the standard operating procedures (SOPs) and pipeline, the setting up of the assay, the validation required to show the robustness of the pipeline and reporting the results of the assay. Finally, as the lockdown started to ease in June 2020, it examines how this new service affects the daily running of the Flow STP. © 2020 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry/standards , Laboratories/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/trends , Flow Cytometry/trends , Humans , Laboratories/trends , Reproducibility of Results
12.
Virology ; 557: 15-22, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071993

ABSTRACT

Serological testing is important method for diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant virus derived protein and strong immunogen. We aimed to find its efficient, low-cost production. SARS-CoV-2 recombinant fragment of nucleocapsid protein (rfNP; 58-419 aa) was expressed in E. coli in soluble form, purified and characterized biochemically and immunologically. Purified rfNP has secondary structure of full-length recombinant N protein, with high percentage of disordered structure (34.2%) and of ß-sheet (40.7%). rfNP was tested in immunoblot using sera of COVID-19 convalescent patients. ELISA was optimized with sera of RT-PCR confirmed positive symptomatic patients and healthy individuals. IgG detection sensitivity was 96% (47/50) and specificity 97% (67/68), while IgM detection was slightly lower (94% and 96.5%, respectively). Cost-effective approach for soluble recombinant N protein fragment production was developed, with reliable IgG and IgM antibodies detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Case-Control Studies , Cloning, Molecular , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 28-32, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was isolated from the respiratory samples of patients with pneumonia as showed by the sequence analysis of the virus genomes obtained in Wuhan, China. The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 is not well understood yet, but the availability of sensitive and specific serological assays will be crucial for the early diagnosis of infection, for epidemiological studies and for defining the presence of neutralizing antibodies in response to a possible vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested and compared the performances of one chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). RESULTS: The ECLIA serological assay performed best and may be a valid screening method for SARS-COV-2 infection. The IgA detected by the ELISA assay might be a more reliable and stable early serological marker than IgM. Instead, IgGs, as expected, showed stable level after 10 days from symptoms onset. CONCLUSION: The ECLIA method could be used as screening test, considering both the excellent performance and the cost per single test; while ELISA assay for IgG and IgA, which are present at a higher level than IgM and last longer, might be used as confirmatory test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin A/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Reproducibility of Results
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 113, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007629

ABSTRACT

The extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection throughout the United States population is currently unknown. High quality serology is key to avoiding medically costly diagnostic errors, as well as to assuring properly informed public health decisions. Here, we present an optimized ELISA-based serology protocol, from antigen production to data analyses, that helps define thresholds for IgG and IgM seropositivity with high specificities. Validation of this protocol is performed using traditionally collected serum as well as dried blood on mail-in blood sampling kits. Archival (pre-2019) samples are used as negative controls, and convalescent, PCR-diagnosed COVID-19 patient samples serve as positive controls. Using this protocol, minimal cross-reactivity is observed for the spike proteins of MERS, SARS1, OC43 and HKU1 viruses, and no cross reactivity is observed with anti-influenza A H1N1 HAI. Our protocol may thus help provide standardized, population-based data on the extent of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, immunity and infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pandemics , Reference Standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Bioanalysis ; 13(1): 13-28, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977787

ABSTRACT

Aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 antibody testing often relies on venous blood collection, which is labor-intensive, inconvenient and expensive compared with finger-stick capillary dried blood spot (DBS) collection. The purpose of our work was to determine if two commercially available anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for IgG antibodies against spike S1 subunit and nucleocapsid proteins could be validated for use with DBS. Materials & methods: Kit supplied reagents were used to extract DBS, and in-house DBS calibrators were included on every run. Results: Positive/negative concordance between DBS and serum was 100/99.3% for the spike S1 subunit assay and 100/98% for the nucleocapsid assay. Conclusion: Validation of the DBS Coronavirus disease 2019 IgG antibody assays demonstrated that serum and DBS can produce equivalent results with minimal kit modifications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dried Blood Spot Testing/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/blood , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
16.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2243-2247, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935138

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serological assays are urgently needed for rapid diagnosis, contact tracing, and for epidemiological studies. So far, there is limited data on how commercially available tests perform with real patient samples, and if positive tested samples show neutralizing abilities. Focusing on IgG antibodies, we demonstrate the performance of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays (Euroimmun SARS-CoV-2 IgG and Vircell COVID-19 ELISA IgG) in comparison to one lateral flow assay (FaStep COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test Device) and two in-house developed assays (immunofluorescence assay [IFA] and plaque reduction neutralization test [PRNT]). We tested follow up serum/plasma samples of individuals polymerase chain reaction-diagnosed with COVID-19. Most of the SARS-CoV-2 samples were from individuals with moderate to the severe clinical course, who required an in-patient hospital stay. For all examined assays, the sensitivity ranged from 58.8 to 76.5% for the early phase of infection (days 5-9) and from 93.8% to 100% for the later period (days 10-18).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/standards , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
17.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(3): 343-353, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Serologic detection of prior severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is needed for definition of convalescent plasma donors, for confounding SARS-CoV-2 presentation, and for seroprevalence studies. Reliable serologic assays with independent validation are required. METHODS: Six SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays from Beckman Coulter, Euroimmun (IgG, IgA), Roche, and Siemens (Centaur, Vista) were assessed for specificity (n = 184), sensitivity (n = 154), and seroconversion in a defined cohort with clinical correlates and molecular SARS-CoV-2 results. RESULTS: Assay specificity was 99% or greater for all assays except the Euroimmun IgA (95%). Sensitivity at more than 21 days from symptom onset was 84%, 95%, 72%, 98%, 67%, and 96% for Beckman Coulter, Centaur, Vista, Roche, Euroimmun IgA, and Euroimmun IgG, respectively. Average day of seroconversion was similar between assays (8-10 d), with 2 patients not producing nucleocapsid antibodies during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies may be less reliably produced early in disease than spike protein antibodies. Assessment of convalescent plasma donors at more than 30 days from symptom onset and seroprevalence studies should use assays with defined sensitivity at time points of interest because not all assays detected antibodies reliably at more than 30 days.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(3): e2181, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909129

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) serological test methods and the kinetics of antibody positivity. Systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline. We included articles evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serological tests and the kinetics of antibody positivity. MEDLINE through PubMed, Scopus, medRxiv and bioRxiv were sources of articles. Methodological qualities of included articles were appraised using QUADAS-2 while Metandi performs bivariate meta-analysis of DTA using a generalized linear mixed-model approach. Stata 14 and Review Manager 5.3 were used for data analysis. The summary sensitivity/specificity of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) were 92% (95% CI: 86%-95%)/99% (CI: 97%-99%), 86% (CI: 82%-89%)/99% (CI: 98%-100%) and 78% (CI: 71%-83%)/98% (95% CI: 96%-99%), respectively. Moreover, CLIA-based assays produced nearly 100% sensitivity within 11-15 days post-symptom onset (DPSO). Based on antibody type, the sensitivity of ELISA-total antibody, CLIA-IgM/G and CLIA-IgG gauged at 94%, 92% and 92%, respectively. The sensitivity of CLIA-RBD assay reached 96%, while LFIA-S demonstrated the lowest sensitivity, 71% (95% CI: 58%-80%). CLIA assays targeting antibodies against RBD considered the best DTA. The antibody positivity rate increased corresponding with DPSO, but there was some decrement when moving from acute phase to convalescent phase of infection. As immunoglobulin isotope-related DTA was heterogeneous, our data have insufficient evidence to recommend CLIA/ELISA for clinical decision-making, but likely to have comparative advantage over RT-qPCR in certain circumstances and geographic regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Flow Cytometry/standards , Luminescent Measurements/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Convalescence , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Infection ; 49(1): 75-82, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic challenges national health systems and the global economy. Monitoring of infection rates and seroprevalence can guide public health measures to combat the pandemic. This depends on reliable tests on active and former infections. Here, we set out to develop and validate a specific and sensitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels. METHODS: In our ELISA, we used SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and a stabilized version of the spike (S) ectodomain as antigens. We assessed sera from patients infected with seasonal coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 and controls. We determined and monitored IgM-, IgA- and IgG-antibody responses towards these antigens. In addition, for a panel of 22 sera, virus neutralization and ELISA parameters were measured and correlated. RESULTS: The RBD-based ELISA detected SARS-CoV-2-directed antibodies, did not cross-react with seasonal coronavirus antibodies and correlated with virus neutralization (R2 = 0.89). Seroconversion started at 5 days after symptom onset and led to robust antibody levels at 10 days after symptom onset. We demonstrate high specificity (99.3%; N = 1000) and sensitivity (92% for IgA, 96% for IgG and 98% for IgM; > 10 days after PCR-proven infection; N = 53) in serum. CONCLUSIONS: With the described RBD-based ELISA protocol, we provide a reliable test for seroepidemiological surveys. Due to high specificity and strong correlation with virus neutralization, the RBD ELISA holds great potential to become a preferred tool to assess thresholds of protective immunity after infection and vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Neutralization Tests/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Protein Domains , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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