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1.
mSphere ; 6(5): e0075221, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526451

ABSTRACT

During the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), immune response and inflammation reactions are dynamic events that develop rapidly and are associated with the severity of disease. Here, we aimed to develop a predictive model based on the immune and inflammatory response to discriminate patients with severe COVID-19. COVID-19 patients were enrolled, and their demographic and immune inflammatory reaction indicators were collected and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors, which were further used to construct a predictive model. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve, and optimal diagnostic threshold was calculated; these were further validated by 5-fold cross-validation and external validation. We screened three key indicators, including neutrophils, eosinophils, and IgA, for predicting severe COVID-19 and obtained a combined neutrophil, eosinophil, and IgA ratio (NEAR) model (NEU [109/liter] - 150×EOS [109/liter] + 3×IgA [g/liter]). NEAR achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.961, and when a threshold of 9 was applied, the sensitivity and specificity of the predicting model were 100% and 88.89%, respectively. Thus, NEAR is an effective index for predicting the severity of COVID-19 and can be used as a powerful tool for clinicians to make better clinical decisions. IMPORTANCE The immune inflammatory response changes rapidly with the progression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and is responsible for clearance of the virus and further recovery from the infection. However, the intensified immune and inflammatory response in the development of the disease may lead to more serious and fatal consequences, which indicates that immune indicators have the potential to predict serious cases. Here, we identified both eosinophils and serum IgA as prognostic markers of COVID-19, which sheds light on new research directions and is worthy of further research in the scientific research field as well as clinical application. In this study, the combination of NEU count, EOS count, and IgA level was included in a new predictive model of the severity of COVID-19, which can be used as a powerful tool for better clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Decision Rules , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Disease Progression , Eosinophils/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/virology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 192, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lippia javanica (lemon bush) is commonly used in the treatment of respiratory ailments, including asthma in southern African countries but there is no scientific evidence to support this claim. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-asthmatic effects of L. javanica using a rat model of asthma. METHODS: A 5% w/v L. javanica tea infusion was prepared and characterised by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Animals were intraperitoneally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently challenged intranasal with OVA on day 15 except the control group. Animals were grouped (n = 5/group) for treatment: unsensitised control, sensitised control, sensitised + prednisolone and sensitised + L. javanica at 50 mg/kg/day and 100 mg/kg/day - equivalent to 1 and 2 cups of tea per day, respectively. After 2 weeks of treatment, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count. Nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were also assessed in BALF. Ovalbumin specific IgE antibody and inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-alpha were measured in serum. Lung and muscle tissues were histological examined. RESULTS: L. javanica was rich in phenolic compounds. OVA sensitisation resulted in development of allergic asthma in rats. L. javanica treatment resulted in a reduction in total WBC count as well as eosinophils, lymphocytes and neutrophils in BALF. L. javanica inhibited Th2-mediated immune response, which was evident by a decrease in serum IgE and inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α. L. javanica treatment also reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO, and increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Histology showed significant attenuation of lung infiltration of inflammatory cells, alveolar thickening, and bronchiole smooth muscle thickening. CONCLUSION: L. javanica suppressed allergic airway inflammation by reducing Th2-mediated immune response and oxidative stress in OVA-sensitized rats which may be attributed to the presence of phenolic compound in the plant. This finding validates the traditional use of L. javanica in the treatment of respiratory disorders.


Subject(s)
Asthma/drug therapy , Lippia , Teas, Herbal , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Asthma/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lung/pathology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Th2 Cells/drug effects
3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 192, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lippia javanica (lemon bush) is commonly used in the treatment of respiratory ailments, including asthma in southern African countries but there is no scientific evidence to support this claim. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-asthmatic effects of L. javanica using a rat model of asthma. METHODS: A 5% w/v L. javanica tea infusion was prepared and characterised by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Animals were intraperitoneally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently challenged intranasal with OVA on day 15 except the control group. Animals were grouped (n = 5/group) for treatment: unsensitised control, sensitised control, sensitised + prednisolone and sensitised + L. javanica at 50 mg/kg/day and 100 mg/kg/day - equivalent to 1 and 2 cups of tea per day, respectively. After 2 weeks of treatment, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count. Nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were also assessed in BALF. Ovalbumin specific IgE antibody and inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-alpha were measured in serum. Lung and muscle tissues were histological examined. RESULTS: L. javanica was rich in phenolic compounds. OVA sensitisation resulted in development of allergic asthma in rats. L. javanica treatment resulted in a reduction in total WBC count as well as eosinophils, lymphocytes and neutrophils in BALF. L. javanica inhibited Th2-mediated immune response, which was evident by a decrease in serum IgE and inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α. L. javanica treatment also reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO, and increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Histology showed significant attenuation of lung infiltration of inflammatory cells, alveolar thickening, and bronchiole smooth muscle thickening. CONCLUSION: L. javanica suppressed allergic airway inflammation by reducing Th2-mediated immune response and oxidative stress in OVA-sensitized rats which may be attributed to the presence of phenolic compound in the plant. This finding validates the traditional use of L. javanica in the treatment of respiratory disorders.


Subject(s)
Asthma/drug therapy , Lippia , Teas, Herbal , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Asthma/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lung/pathology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Th2 Cells/drug effects
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231491

ABSTRACT

Eosinophils are important effector cells involved in allergic inflammation. When stimulated, eosinophils release a variety of mediators initiating, propagating, and maintaining local inflammation. Both, the activity and concentration of secreted and cytosolic phospholipases (PLAs) are increased in allergic inflammation, promoting the cleavage of phospholipids and thus the production of reactive lipid mediators. Eosinophils express high levels of secreted phospholipase A2 compared to other leukocytes, indicating their direct involvement in the production of lipid mediators during allergic inflammation. On the other side, eosinophils have also been recognized as crucial mediators with regulatory and homeostatic roles in local immunity and repair. Thus, targeting the complex network of lipid mediators offer a unique opportunity to target the over-activation and 'pro-inflammatory' phenotype of eosinophils without compromising the survival and functions of tissue-resident and homeostatic eosinophils. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the critical role of phospholipase-derived lipid mediators in modulating eosinophil activity in health and disease. We focus on lysophospholipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and eicosanoids with exciting new perspectives for future drug development.


Subject(s)
Eicosanoids/metabolism , Eosinophils/immunology , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/metabolism , Phospholipases/metabolism , Animals , Eosinophils/metabolism , Eosinophils/pathology , Humans
5.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223959

ABSTRACT

A malfunction of the innate immune response in COVID-19 is associated with eosinopenia, particularly in more severe cases. This study tested the hypothesis that this eosinopenia is COVID-19 specific and is associated with systemic activation of eosinophils. Blood of 15 healthy controls and 75 adult patients with suspected COVID-19 at the ER were included before PCR testing and analyzed by point-of-care automated flow cytometry (CD10, CD11b, CD16, and CD62L) in the absence or presence of a formyl peptide (fNLF). Forty-five SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patients were grouped based on disease severity. PCR negative patients with proven bacterial (n = 20) or other viral (n = 10) infections were used as disease controls. Eosinophils were identified with the use of the FlowSOM algorithm. Low blood eosinophil numbers (<100 cells/µL; p < 0.005) were found both in patients with COVID-19 and with other infectious diseases, albeit less pronounced. Two discrete eosinophil populations were identified in healthy controls both before and after activation with fNLF based on the expression of CD11b. Before activation, the CD11bbright population consisted of 5.4% (CI95% = 3.8, 13.4) of total eosinophils. After activation, this population of CD11bbright cells comprised nearly half the population (42.21%, CI95% = 35.9, 54.1). Eosinophils in COVID-19 had a similar percentage of CD11bbright cells before activation (7.6%, CI95% = 4.5, 13.6), but were clearly refractory to activation with fNLF as a much lower percentage of cells end up in the CD11bbright fraction after activation (23.7%, CI95% = 18.5, 27.6; p < 0.001). Low eosinophil numbers in COVID-19 are associated with refractoriness in responsiveness to fNLF. This might be caused by migration of fully functional cells to the tissue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Immunity, Innate , N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cell Separation , Cohort Studies , Eosinophils/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Leukocyte Count , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 650331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156125

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection represents a global health crisis. Immune cell activation via pattern recognition receptors has been implicated as a driver of the hyperinflammatory response seen in COVID-19. However, our understanding of the specific immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. Mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils are innate immune cells that play pathogenic roles in many inflammatory responses. Here we report MC-derived proteases and eosinophil-associated mediators are elevated in COVID-19 patient sera and lung tissues. Stimulation of viral-sensing toll-like receptors in vitro and administration of synthetic viral RNA in vivo induced features of hyperinflammation, including cytokine elevation, immune cell airway infiltration, and MC-protease production-effects suppressed by an anti-Siglec-8 monoclonal antibody which selectively inhibits MCs and depletes eosinophils. Similarly, anti-Siglec-8 treatment reduced disease severity and airway inflammation in a respiratory viral infection model. These results suggest that MC and eosinophil activation are associated with COVID-19 inflammation and anti-Siglec-8 antibodies are a potential therapeutic approach for attenuating excessive inflammation during viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Lectins/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/drug effects , Eosinophils/metabolism , Eosinophils/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lectins/antagonists & inhibitors , Lectins/genetics , Lectins/metabolism , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mast Cells/virology , Mice, Transgenic , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
7.
Virulence ; 12(1): 444-469, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117781

ABSTRACT

Owing to the recent outbreak of Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19), it is urgent to develop effective and safe drugs to treat the present pandemic and prevent other viral infections that might come in the future. Proteins from our own innate immune system can serve as ideal sources of novel drug candidates thanks to their safety and immune regulation versatility. Some host defense RNases equipped with antiviral activity have been reported over time. Here, we try to summarize the currently available information on human RNases that can target viral pathogens, with special focus on enveloped single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses. Overall, host RNases can fight viruses by a combined multifaceted strategy, including the enzymatic target of the viral genome, recognition of virus unique patterns, immune modulation, control of stress granule formation, and induction of autophagy/apoptosis pathways. The review also includes a detailed description of representative enveloped ssRNA viruses and their strategies to interact with the host and evade immune recognition. For comparative purposes, we also provide an exhaustive revision of the currently approved or experimental antiviral drugs. Finally, we sum up the current perspectives of drug development to achieve successful eradication of viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Ribonuclease, Pancreatic/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Eosinophils/metabolism , Humans , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(5): 100078, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694586

ABSTRACT

Severe disease of SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by vigorous inflammatory responses in the lung, often with a sudden onset after 5-7 days of stable disease. Efforts to modulate this hyperinflammation and the associated acute respiratory distress syndrome rely on the unraveling of the immune cell interactions and cytokines that drive such responses. Given that every patient is captured at different stages of infection, longitudinal monitoring of the immune response is critical and systems-level analyses are required to capture cellular interactions. Here, we report on a systems-level blood immunomonitoring study of 37 adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and followed with up to 14 blood samples from acute to recovery phases of the disease. We describe an IFNγ-eosinophil axis activated before lung hyperinflammation and changes in cell-cell co-regulation during different stages of the disease. We also map an immune trajectory during recovery that is shared among patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Basophils/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Cell Communication , Convalescence , Eosinophils/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
9.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 40(9): 443-445, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690435

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of COVID-19 and the identification of accessible biomarkers of disease progression is of clinical importance in the management of this novel and serious disease. This study was completed to provide information regarding 1 possible uniquely upregulated marker in this illness, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN-1). A literature search was undertaken to provide medical data regarding EDN-1 as a biomarker in the clinical setting. The literature identified was further analyzed to identify its use in the clinical setting of viral disease and asthma.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Eosinophils/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome/genetics
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