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3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 869-874, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1341555

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo describe el inicio de las preocupaciones sanitarias vinculadas a las epidemias ocurridas durante el siglo XX en La Pampa, provincia argentina. Las epidemias, como las de la viruela, fueron un estímulo para estas políticas que frecuentemente tuvieron origen en Buenos Aires, la capital del país. El contagio de muchas epidemias dependía de carencias de infraestructura: agua, desagüe y desecho adecuado de basuras, de la ausencia de un número suficiente de trabajadores de salud, de la presencia de vectores transmisores de enfermedades como los mosquitos y, en última instancia, de la pobreza. La experiencia histórica descrita en este texto resalta la importancia de analizar el impacto del SARS-CoV-2 más allá de las grandes ciudades.


Abstract This article describes the emergence of health concerns relating to the epidemics that occurred during the twentieth century in La Pampa, a province in Argentina. Epidemics such as smallpox drove such policies, which frequently originated in Buenos Aires, the country's capital. The spread of many epidemics was due to shortages: water, sewage and adequate refuse disposal, an insufficient number of health care workers, the presence of disease transmission vectors such as mosquitos, and, ultimately, poverty. The historical experience described in this text highlights the importance of analyzing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 beyond the big cities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , History, 20th Century , Smallpox/history , Epidemics/history , COVID-19/history , Argentina/epidemiology , Poverty/history , Sewage , Water Supply/history , Smallpox/prevention & control , Smallpox/epidemiology , Indians, South American/history , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Refuse Disposal/history , Vaccination/history , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Cities/history , Cities/epidemiology , Health Personnel/history , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Disease Eradication/history , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy/history , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Insect Vectors , Military Personnel/history
4.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 388-395, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319039

ABSTRACT

Epidemic nowcasting broadly refers to assessing the current state by understanding key pathogenic, epidemiologic, clinical and socio-behavioral characteristics of an ongoing outbreak. Its primary objective is to provide situational awareness and inform decisions on control responses. In the event of large-scale sustained emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists need to constantly update their aims and analytics with respect to the rapidly evolving emergence of new questions, data and findings in order to synthesize real-time evidence for policy decisions. In this Perspective, we share our views on the functional aims, rationale, data requirements and challenges of nowcasting at different stages of an epidemic, drawing on the ongoing COVID-19 experience. We highlight how recent advances in the computational and laboratory sciences could be harnessed to complement traditional approaches to enhance the scope, timeliness, reliability and utility of epidemic nowcasting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Epidemics , Forecasting/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks/history , Epidemics/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(5): 599-607, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During 2009-2010, pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus (pH1N1) infections in England occurred in two epidemic waves. Reasons for a reported increase in case-severity during the second wave are unclear. METHODS: We analysed hospital-based surveillance for patients with pH1N1 infections in England during 2009-2010 and linked national data sets to estimate ethnicity, socio-economic status and death within 28 days of admission. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess whether changes in demographic, clinical and management characteristics of patients could explain an increase in ICU admission or death, and accounted for missing values using multiple imputation. RESULTS: During the first wave, 54/960 (6%) hospitalised patients required intensive care and 21/960 (2%) died; during the second wave 143/1420 (10%) required intensive care and 55/1420 (4%) died. In a multivariable model, during the second wave patients were less likely to be from an ethnic minority (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.26-0.42), have an elevated deprivation score (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.68-0.83), have known comorbidity (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63-0.97) or receive antiviral therapy ≤2 days before onset (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.92). Increased case-severity during the second wave was not explained by changes in demographic, clinical or management characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring changes in patient characteristics could help target interventions during multiple waves of COVID-19 or a future influenza pandemic. To understand and respond to changes in case-severity, surveillance is needed that includes additional factors such as admission thresholds and seasonal coinfections.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Adult , England/epidemiology , Epidemics/history , Female , History, 21st Century , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Young Adult
7.
Eur J Health Law ; 28(2): 113-141, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158160

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 crisis of 2020 triggered a number of unprecedented reactions of European states, in particular in the form of either constitutional emergency measures or statutory anti-epidemic emergency measures. Poland chose to deal with the crisis by delegating powers to the executive by ordinary legislative means and declared a nationwide state of epidemic emergency on 13 March 2020 and a week later a state of epidemic on the basis of the Act of 5 December 2008 on preventing and combating infections and infectious diseases. For a century, Poland has been dealing with epidemics by delegating powers to the executive by ordinary legislative means. Anti-epidemic emergency measures were developed under the relevant acts of 1919, 1935, 1963, 2001, 2008 and now form an autonomous normative model authorised directly by Article 68 (4) of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2 April 1997. The Constitution of 2 April 1997 authorises also extraordinary measures in situations of particular danger, "if ordinary constitutional measures are inadequate". This article analyses anti-epidemic emergency regimes under Polish law in a comparative, historical and jurisprudential perspective.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Epidemics/history , Epidemics/legislation & jurisprudence , Jurisprudence , COVID-19/epidemiology , History, 20th Century , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Bull Hist Med ; 94(4): 627-636, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156069

ABSTRACT

This essay considers what thirty years of scholarship on the history of epidemics in Latin America and the larger hemisphere can bring to a current reading of Charles Rosenberg's influential 1989 essay, "What Is an Epidemic? AIDS in Historical Perspective." It advocates that taking a broader geographical view is valuable to understanding better the arc of an epidemic in society. In addition, it proposes that, to see the ways in which the United States is experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic, we need to place the United States alongside the experiences of other countries of the Americas rather than making comparisons to Europe.


Subject(s)
Epidemics/history , Public Policy , Socioeconomic Factors , COVID-19 , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
9.
Bull Hist Med ; 94(4): 602-625, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156068

ABSTRACT

This essay explores how epidemics in the past and present give rise to distinctive, recurring racial scripts about bodies and identities, with sweeping racial effects beyond the Black experience. Using examples from cholera, influenza, tuberculosis, AIDS, and COVID-19, the essay provides a dramaturgical analysis of race and epidemics in four acts, moving from Act I, racial revelation; to Act II, the staging of bodies and places; to Act III, where race and disease is made into spectacle; and finally, Act IV, in which racial boundaries are fixed, repaired, or made anew in the response to the racial dynamics revealed by epidemics. Focusing primarily on North America but touching on global racial narratives, the essay concludes with reflections on the writers and producers of these racialized dramas, and a discussion of why these racialized repertoires have endured.


Subject(s)
Epidemics/history , /psychology , Racism/history , Social Class , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans
12.
J Med Humanit ; 42(1): 63-80, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092713

ABSTRACT

Modern scholarship has drawn hasty and numerous parallels between the Yellow Peril discourses of the 19th- and 20th-century plagues and the recent racialization of infectious disease in the 21st-century. While highlighting these similarities is politically useful against Sinophobic epidemic narratives, Michel Foucault argues that truly understanding the past's continuity in the present requires a more rigorous genealogical approach. Employing this premise in a comparative analysis, this work demonstrates a critical discontinuity in the epidemic imaginary that framed the Chinese as pathogenic. Consequently, those seeking to prevent future disease racialization must understand modern Sinophobia as fundamentally distinct from that of the past.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , China , Epidemics/history , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Narration , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
13.
Nurs Outlook ; 69(3): 257-264, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19, a Kaggle challenge was issued to data scientists to leverage text mining to provide high-level summaries of full-text articles in the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19) data set, a data set containing articles around COVID-19 and other epidemics. A question was asked: "What if nursing had something similar?" PURPOSE: Describe the development and function of the Nursing COVID and Historical Epidemic Literature and describe high-level summaries of abstracts within the repository. METHOD: Nurse-specific literature was abstracted from two data sets: CORD-19 and LitCOVID. LitCOVID is a data set containing the most up-to-date literature around COVID-19. Multiple text mining algorithms were utilized to provide summaries of the articles. DISCUSSION: As of July 2020, the repository contains 760 articles. Summaries indicate the importance of psychological support for nurses and of high-impact rapid education. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this repository is the only repository specific for nursing that utilizes text mining to provide summaries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Mining , Datasets as Topic , Nursing Research , Program Development , Publications/history , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Epidemics/history , Evidence-Based Nursing , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans
14.
Monash Bioeth Rev ; 38(Suppl 1): 1-16, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978206

ABSTRACT

Interactions between microbes and human hosts can lead to a wide variety of possible outcomes including benefits to the host, asymptomatic infection, disease (which can be more or less severe), and/or death. Whether or not they themselves eventually develop disease, asymptomatic carriers can often transmit disease-causing pathogens to others. This phenomenon has a range of ethical implications for clinical medicine, public health, and infectious disease research. The implications of asymptomatic infection are especially significant in situations where, and/or to the extent that, the microbe in question is transmissible, potentially harmful, and/or untreatable. This article reviews the history and concept of asymptomatic infection, and relevant ethical issues associated with this phenomenon. It illustrates the role and ethical significance of asymptomatic infection in outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics-including recent crises involving drug resistance, Zika, and Covid19. Serving as the Introduction to this Special Issue of Monash Bioethics Review, it also provides brief summaries of the other articles comprising this collection.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Bioethical Issues , Epidemics/ethics , Epidemics/history , Ethics, Clinical , Ethics, Research , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Public Health/ethics
15.
Med Leg J ; 89(1): 19-22, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926241

ABSTRACT

At the early stage of an emerging disease, information is often insufficient for governments to determine what actions are necessary to contain its transmission. Taiwanese society was not prepared when the SARS epidemic hit in 2003. After the SARS epidemic, Taiwan began to overhaul its Communicable Disease Control Act authorising the government to act in a murky situation without the fear of violating due process. In hindsight, the new law has contributed a large part to the effective containment of Covid-19 in Taiwan. However, a new issue emerged concerning the conflict between an individual's freedom of confidential communication and the government's use of cell phone positioning to monitor self-quarantine. Although Taiwan's Council of Grand Justices previously resolved the concern over potential breaching of due-process, the legislature may have to strike a balance between public health emergency and the use of an electronic footprint to trace individual activities.


Subject(s)
Civil Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Epidemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Phone/legislation & jurisprudence , Contact Tracing/legislation & jurisprudence , Epidemics/history , Geographic Information Systems/legislation & jurisprudence , History, 21st Century , Humans , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
16.
Rev Med Interne ; 42(1): 58-60, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894194

ABSTRACT

Since Hippocrates, the cornerstone of medical practice has been the doctor-patient relationship. The question here is whether these basic principles are still compatible with this unusual COVID-period. This pandemic represents a serious threat to human health, leading to profound changes in behavior in daily life but also in health care. Because of limited resources, health-managers must choose well-balanced solutions able to protect patients and citizens on the one hand and to provide maximal benefit for the society on the other hand. We are going through a moment of rupture that we must acknowledge. Here, we discussed how the doctor-patient relationship could be compromised. Doctors are focused on cares whereas patients are focused on scare. Profound changes occur presently, from the way we present ourselves to each other (including the masks), the poor conditions for physical examination, the mental suffering of both patient and caregiver until sometimes terrible end-of-life conditions. The historical point-of-view helps us to keep in mind previous experiences, and the philosophical perspective helps to contextualize this unedited situation. We should stop briefly our daily rush to put these considerations into perspective to overcome these challenges. Nothing is as effective as trust: let's rebuild it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Physician-Patient Relations , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/history , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Trust , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemics/history , History, 17th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics/history , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Precision Medicine/psychology , Precision Medicine/standards , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/trends
17.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(6-7): 642-646, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851322

ABSTRACT

TITLE: Épidémies: Leçons d'Histoire. ABSTRACT: Jusqu'au milieu du XVIIIe siècle, l'espérance de vie était de 25 ans dans les pays d'Europe, proche alors de celle de la préhistoire. À cette époque, nos ancêtres succombaient, pour la plupart, à une infection bactérienne ou virale, quand la mort n'était pas le résultat d'un épisode critique, comme la guerre ou la famine. Un seul microbe suffisait à terrasser de nombreuses victimes. L'épidémie de SARS-CoV-2 est là pour nous rappeler que ce risque est désormais à nouveau d'actualité. Si son origine zoonotique par la chauve-souris est probable, la contamination interhumaine montre son adaptation rapide à l'homme et permet d'évoquer ainsi la transmission des épidémies, qu'elle soit ou non liée à des vecteurs, ces derniers pouvant représenter dans d'autres occasions un des maillons de la chaîne.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics/history , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Animals , Bacterial Infections/history , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cattle , Chiroptera/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/history , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/microbiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Dogs , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , Humans , Life Expectancy/history , Life Expectancy/trends , Longevity/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep/microbiology , Sheep/virology , Swine/microbiology , Swine/virology , Virus Diseases/history , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
19.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(8): 578-581, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749392

ABSTRACT

In the past two centuries, several fatal infectious outbreaks have arisen in Iran. Presented here is a brief historical account of four fatal epidemics including cholera, plague, Spanish influenza of 1918 and smallpox between1796 and 1979. The lessons from these outbreaks could be helpful for better combatting other deadly epidemics including the present-day disastrous COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Cholera/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Epidemics/history , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Plague/history , Smallpox/history , Cholera/epidemiology , Cholera/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Plague/epidemiology , Plague/prevention & control , Smallpox/epidemiology , Smallpox/prevention & control
20.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 481-488, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745336

ABSTRACT

Based on archival materials, the Xiangya's anti-epidemic history in a century from its establishment to 2020 is divided into 4 stages. The first stage (1906-1926), Edward Hicks Hume and YAN Fuqing, the founders of Xiangya, prevented and controlled smallpox and plague. The second stage (1929-1953), during the resumption of Xiangya, students prevented and controlled cholera, plague, dysentery, typhus, and other infectious diseases. In the third stage (1953-1999), in a peacetime, Xiangya actively fought against schistosomiasis, hydatidosis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis and other epidemics. The fourth stage (2000-2020), the era of Central South University. Medical staff in Xiangya fight SARS, influenza A (H1N1) flu, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, coronavirus disease 2019, etc. Over the past hundred years, Xiangya people joined together to spread benevolence and love, apply medical knowledge and skills, combat the epidemic and rescue people in difficulties, which made a great contribution to the motherland and the people.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/history , Epidemics/history , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Communicable Diseases/history , Coronavirus Infections , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
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