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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 44(4): 552-560, 2023 Apr 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326996

ABSTRACT

Objective: To quantitatively estimate the incidence of COVID-19 in different backgrounds, including vaccination coverage, non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) measures, home quarantine willingness and international arrivals, and the demands of healthcare resource in Shanghai in the context of optimized epidemic prevention and control strategies. Methods: Based on the natural history of 2019-nCoV, local vaccination coverage and NPI performance, an age-structured Susceptible-Exposed-Infections-Removed (SEIR) epidemic dynamic model was established for the estimation of the incidence of COVID-19 and demand of hospital beds in Shanghai by using the data on December 1, 2022 as the basis. Results: Based on current vaccination coverage, it is estimated that 180 184 COVID-19 cases would need treatment in hospitals in Shanghai within 100 days. When the booster vaccination coverage reaches an ideal level, the number of the cases needing hospitalization would decrease by 73.20%. School closure or school closure plus workplace closure could reduce the peak demand of regular beds by 24.04% or 37.73%, respectively, compared with the situation without NPI. Increased willingness of home quarantine could reduce the number of daily new cases and delay incidence peak of COVID-19. The number of international arrivals has little impact on the development of the epidemic. Conclusions: According to the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 and the actual situation of vaccination in Shanghai, the incidence of COVID-19 and health resource demand might be reduced by increasing vaccination coverage and early implementation of NPI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Incidence , China/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8185, 2023 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325212

ABSTRACT

Two distinct strategies for controlling an emerging epidemic are physical distancing and regular testing with self-isolation. These strategies are especially important before effective vaccines or treatments become widely available. The testing strategy has been promoted frequently but used less often than physical distancing to mitigate COVID-19. We compared the performance of these strategies in an integrated epidemiological and economic model that includes a simple representation of transmission by "superspreading," wherein a relatively small fraction of infected individuals cause a large share of infections. We examined the economic benefits of distancing and testing over a wide range of conditions, including variations in the transmissibility and lethality of the disease meant to encompass the most prominent variants of COVID-19 encountered so far. In a head-to-head comparison using our primary parameter values, both with and without superspreading and a declining marginal value of mortality risk reductions, an optimized testing strategy outperformed an optimized distancing strategy. In a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis, an optimized policy that combined the two strategies performed better than either one alone in more than 25% of random parameter draws. Insofar as diagnostic tests are sensitive to viral loads, and individuals with high viral loads are more likely to contribute to superspreading events, superspreading enhances the relative performance of testing over distancing in our model. Both strategies performed best at moderate levels of transmissibility, somewhat lower than the transmissibility of the ancestral strain of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Physical Distancing , Epidemics/prevention & control , Uncertainty
3.
J Math Biol ; 86(5): 77, 2023 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315467

ABSTRACT

A discrete epidemic model with vaccination and limited medical resources is proposed to understand its underlying dynamics. The model induces a nonsmooth two dimensional map that exhibits a surprising array of dynamical behavior including the phenomena of the forward-backward bifurcation and period doubling route to chaos with feasible parameters in an invariant region. We demonstrate, among other things, that the model generates the above described phenomena as the transmission rate or the basic reproduction number of the disease gradually increases provided that the immunization rate is low, the vaccine failure rate is high and the medical resources are limited. Finally, the numerical simulations are provided to illustrate our main results.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Vaccination , Computer Simulation , Epidemics/prevention & control , Basic Reproduction Number
4.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1151038, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305534

ABSTRACT

Background: In the early stage of COVID-19 epidemic, the Chinese mainland once effectively controlled the epidemic, but COVID-19 eventually spread faster and faster in the world. The purpose of this study is to clarify the differences in the epidemic data of COVID-19 in different areas and phases in Chinese mainland in 2020, and to analyze the possible factors affecting the occurrence and development of the epidemic. Methods: We divided the Chinese mainland into areas I, I and III, and divided the epidemic process into phases I to IV: limited cases, accelerated increase, decelerated increase and containment phases. We also combined phases II and III as outbreak phase. The epidemic data included the duration of different phases, the numbers of confirmed cases, asymptomatic infections, and the proportion of imported cases from abroad. Results: In area I, II and III, only area I has a Phase I, and the Phase II and III of area I are longer. In Phase IV, there is a 17-day case clearing period in area I, while that in area II and III are 2 and 0 days, respectively. In phase III or the whole outbreak phase, the average daily increase of confirmed cases in area I was higher than that in areas II and III (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001 in phase III; P = 0.034 and P = 0.002 in the whole outbreak phase), and the average daily in-hospital cases were most in area I and least in area III (P = 0.000, P = 0.000, and P = 0.000 in phase III; P = 0.000, P = 0.000, and P = 0.009 in the whole outbreak phase). The average number of daily in-hospital COVID-19 cases in phase III was more than that in phase II in each area (P = 0.000, P = 0.000, and P = 0.001). In phase IV, from March 18, 2020 to January 1, 2021, the increase of confirmed cases in area III was higher than areas I and II (both P = 0.000), and the imported cases from abroad in Chinese mainland accounted for more than 55-61%. From June 16 to July 2, 2020, the number of new asymptomatic infections in area III was higher than that in area II (P = 0.000), while there was zero in area I. From July 3, 2020 to January 1, 2021, the increased COVID-19 cases in area III were 3534, while only 14 and 0, respectively, in areas I and II. Conclusions: The worst epidemic areas in Chinese mainland before March 18, 2020 and after June 15, 2020 were area I and area III, respectively, and area III had become the main battlefield for Chinese mainland to fight against imported epidemic since March 18, 2020. In Wuhan, human COVID-19 infection might occur before December 8, 2019, while the outbreak might occur before January 16 or even 10, 2020. Insufficient understanding of COVID-19 hindered the implementation of early effective isolation measures, leading to COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, and strict isolation measures were effective in controlling the epidemic. The import of foreign COVID-19 cases has made it difficult to control the epidemic of area III. When humans are once again faced with potentially infectious new diseases, it is appropriate to first and foremost take strict quarantine measures as soon as possible, and mutual cooperation between regions should be explored to combat the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Morbidity , Epidemics/prevention & control , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods
5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 11(5): e759-e769, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several vaccine candidates are in development against MERS-CoV, which remains a major public health concern. In anticipation of available MERS-CoV vaccines, we examine strategies for their optimal deployment among health-care workers. METHODS: Using data from the 2013-14 Saudi Arabia epidemic, we use a counterfactual analysis on inferred transmission trees (who-infected-whom analysis) to assess the potential impact of vaccination campaigns targeting health-care workers, as quantified by the proportion of cases or deaths averted. We investigate the conditions under which proactive campaigns (ie vaccinating in anticipation of the next outbreak) would outperform reactive campaigns (ie vaccinating in response to an unfolding outbreak), considering vaccine efficacy, duration of vaccine protection, effectiveness of animal reservoir control measures, wait (time between vaccination and next outbreak, for proactive campaigns), reaction time (for reactive campaigns), and spatial level (hospital, regional, or national, for reactive campaigns). We also examine the relative efficiency (cases averted per thousand doses) of different strategies. FINDINGS: The spatial scale of reactive campaigns is crucial. Proactive campaigns outperform campaigns that vaccinate health-care workers in response to outbreaks at their hospital, unless vaccine efficacy has waned significantly. However, reactive campaigns at the regional or national levels consistently outperform proactive campaigns, regardless of vaccine efficacy. When considering the number of cases averted per vaccine dose administered, the rank order is reversed: hospital-level reactive campaigns are most efficient, followed by regional-level reactive campaigns, with national-level and proactive campaigns being least efficient. If the number of cases required to trigger reactive vaccination increases, the performance of hospital-level campaigns is greatly reduced; the impact of regional-level campaigns is variable, but that of national-level campaigns is preserved unless triggers have high thresholds. INTERPRETATION: Substantial reduction of MERS-CoV morbidity and mortality is possible when vaccinating only health-care workers, underlining the need for countries at risk of outbreaks to stockpile vaccines when available. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, UK National Institute for Health Research, UK Research and Innovation, UK Academy of Medical Sciences, The Novo Nordisk Foundation, The Schmidt Foundation, and Investissement d'Avenir France.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 242, 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemic zoning is an important option in a series of measures for the prevention and control of infectious diseases. We aim to accurately assess the disease transmission process by considering the epidemic zoning, and we take two epidemics with distinct outbreak sizes as an example, i.e., the Xi'an epidemic in late 2021 and the Shanghai epidemic in early 2022. METHODS: For the two epidemics, the total cases were clearly distinguished by their reporting zone and the Bernoulli counting process was used to describe whether one infected case in society would be reported in control zones or not. Assuming the imperfect or perfect isolation policy in control zones, the transmission processes are respectively simulated by the adjusted renewal equation with case importation, which can be derived on the basis of the Bellman-Harris branching theory. The likelihood function containing unknown parameters is then constructed by assuming the daily number of new cases reported in control zones follows a Poisson distribution. All the unknown parameters were obtained by the maximum likelihood estimation. RESULTS: For both epidemics, the internal infections characterized by subcritical transmission within the control zones were verified, and the median control reproduction numbers were estimated as 0.403 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.352, 0.459) in Xi'an epidemic and 0.727 (95% CI: 0.724, 0.730) in Shanghai epidemic, respectively. In addition, although the detection rate of social cases quickly increased to 100% during the decline period of daily new cases until the end of the epidemic, the detection rate in Xi'an was significantly higher than that in Shanghai in the previous period. CONCLUSIONS: The comparative analysis of the two epidemics with different consequences highlights the role of the higher detection rate of social cases since the beginning of the epidemic and the reduced transmission risk in control zones throughout the outbreak. Strengthening the detection of social infection and strictly implementing the isolation policy are of great significance to avoid a larger-scale epidemic.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Humans , China/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Likelihood Functions , Poisson Distribution
7.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 682, 2023 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291529

ABSTRACT

The majority of disease transmission during the 2014-16 West Africa Ebola epidemic was driven by community-based behaviors that proved difficult to change in a social paradigm of misinformation, denial, and deep-seated distrust of government representatives and institutions. In Liberia, perceptions and beliefs about Ebola during and since the epidemic can provide insights useful to public health strategies aimed at improving community preparedness. In this 2018 study, we conducted nine focus groups with Liberians from three communities who experienced Ebola differently, to evaluate behaviors, attitudes, and trust during and after the epidemic. Focus group participants reported that some behaviors adopted during Ebola have persisted (e.g. handwashing and caretaking practices), while others have reverted (e.g. physical proximity and funeral customs); and reported ongoing distrust of the government and denial of the Ebola epidemic. These findings suggest that a lack of trust in the biomedical paradigm and government health institutions persists in Liberia. Future public health information campaigns may benefit from community engagement addressed at understanding beliefs and sources of trust and mistrust in the community to effect behavior change and improve community-level epidemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Humans , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Trust , Liberia/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Disease Outbreaks
8.
J Int Med Res ; 51(3): 3000605231159335, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299320

ABSTRACT

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) to generate automated early warnings in epidemic surveillance by harnessing vast open-source data with minimal human intervention has the potential to be both revolutionary and highly sustainable. AI can overcome the challenges faced by weak health systems by detecting epidemic signals much earlier than traditional surveillance. AI-based digital surveillance is an adjunct to-not a replacement of-traditional surveillance and can trigger early investigation, diagnostics and responses at the regional level. This narrative review focuses on the role of AI in epidemic surveillance and summarises several current epidemic intelligence systems including ProMED-mail, HealthMap, Epidemic Intelligence from Open Sources, BlueDot, Metabiota, the Global Biosurveillance Portal, Epitweetr and EPIWATCH. Not all of these systems are AI-based, and some are only accessible to paid users. Most systems have large volumes of unfiltered data; only a few can sort and filter data to provide users with curated intelligence. However, uptake of these systems by public health authorities, who have been slower to embrace AI than their clinical counterparts, is low. The widespread adoption of digital open-source surveillance and AI technology is needed for the prevention of serious epidemics.


Subject(s)
Biosurveillance , Epidemics , Humans , Public Health , Artificial Intelligence , Epidemics/prevention & control
9.
J Correct Health Care ; 27(1): 3-7, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255231

ABSTRACT

On March 7 and 8, 2020, revolts erupted in numerous Italian prisons after the announcement of regulations to contain the spread of COVID-19 in prisons. On April 2, 2020, the first prisoner died of COVID-19, and as of April 9, 58 prisoners and 178 penitentiary police officers have tested positive for the virus. The situation in Italy is made all the more dramatic because of endemic overcrowding: As of April 3, 2020, there were 56,830 prisoners in institutions meant for a maximum of 47,000 people, that is, an occupancy level of 121.75%. The Ministry of Justice and that of Health have established two strategies to limit the spread of COVID-19 in prisons: progressive isolation from the external world and adoption of practices to identify possible cases and to treat infected subjects. The legislation has significantly reduced individual rights in order to protect public health, but in the prison context, the limitations imposed do not guarantee the achievement of the goal of the entire legislation, which is to interrupt the chain of transmission of contagion. A prison cannot be entirely cut off, because its operations depend on people who come and go daily, The effects of these strategy are discussed critically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemics , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Police , Prisoners , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020045, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267694

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory infection is spreading in Korea. In order to prevent the spread of an infectious disease, infected people must be quickly identified and isolated, and contact with the infected must be blocked early. This study attempted to verify the intervention effects on the spread of an infectious disease by using these measures in a mathematical model. METHODS: We used the susceptible-infectious-recovery (SIR) model for a virtual population group connected by a special structured network. In the model, the infected state (I) was divided into I in which the infection is undetected and Ix in which the infection is detected. The probability of transitioning from an I state to Ix can be viewed as the rate at which an infected person is found. We assumed that only those connected to each other in the network can cause infection. In addition, this study attempted to evaluate the effects of isolation by temporarily removing the connection among these people. RESULTS: In Scenario 1, only the infected are isolated; in Scenario 2, those who are connected to an infected person and are also found to be infected are isolated as well. In Scenario 3, everyone connected to an infected person are isolated. In Scenario 3, it was possible to effectively suppress the infectious disease even with a relatively slow rate of diagnosis and relatively high infection rate. CONCLUSION: During the epidemic, quick identification of the infected is helpful. In addition, it was possible to quantitatively show through a simulation evaluation that the management of infected individuals as well as those who are connected greatly helped to suppress the spread of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4474, 2023 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256581

ABSTRACT

From September 2020 to May 2021 Madrid region (Spain) followed a rather unique non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI) by establishing a strategy of perimeter lockdowns (PLs) that banned travels to and from areas satisfying certain epidemiological risk criteria. PLs were pursued to avoid harsher restrictions, but some studies have found that the particular implementation by Madrid authorities was rather ineffective. Based on Madrid's case, we devise a general, minimal framework to investigate the PLs effectiveness by using a data-driven metapopulation epidemiological model of a city, and explore under which circumstances the PLs could be a good NPI. The model is informed with real mobility data from Madrid to contextualize its results, but it can be generalized elsewhere. The lowest lockdown activation threshold [Formula: see text] considered (14-day cumulative incidence rate of 20 cases per every [Formula: see text] inhabitants) shows a prevalence reduction [Formula: see text] with respect to the scenario [Formula: see text], more akin to the case of Madrid, and assuming no further mitigation. Only the combination of [Formula: see text] and mobility reduction [Formula: see text] can avoid PLs for more than [Formula: see text] of the system. The combination of low [Formula: see text] and strong local transmissibility reduction is key to minimize the impact, but the latter is harder to achieve given that we assume a situation with highly mitigated transmission, resembling the one observed during the second wave of COVID-19 in Madrid. Thus, we conclude that a generalized lockdown is hard to avoid under any realistic setting if only this strategy is applied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 52: 102556, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restrictions on international travel were widely applied to contain cross-border COVID-19 diffusion, while such applications varied globally, and little was known about their impacts on the long-term epidemic progression. METHODS: We explored the global diversity in maintaining border policies classified to four levels (screening, quarantine, ban on regions and total border closure) using data of 185 countries and regions between 01 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. By using Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) models, we examined the relationship between total COVID-19 incidence and the cumulative duration of each policy level in 2020-2021, and the heterogeneity of such association across different transmission severity countries. RESULTS: Firstly, "ban on regions" was the most durable policy applied in high-income countries, while in low-income countries, less stringent measures of screening and quarantine arrivals were applied the longest. Secondly, the cumulatively longer maintenance of the border quarantine was significantly associated with lower infections (log) in COVID-19 high-prevalent countries (75th QR, coefficient estimates [ß] = -0.0038, 95% confidence interval: -0.0066 to -0.0010). By contrast, in medium and high transmission severity countries, those with longer duration of imposing bans on regions showed no suppressing effects but significantly higher COVID-19 incidence (OLS regression, ß = 0.0028, 95% CI: 0.0009-0.0047; 75th QR, ß = 0.0039, 95% CI: 0.0014-0.0063). No other significant results were found. CONCLUSION: From the long-term perspective, inbound quarantine was effective in mitigating severe epidemics. However, in countries with medium or high COVID-19 prevalence, our findings of ban on regions highlighted its ineffectiveness in the long-term epidemic progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Epidemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , Incidence , Travel
13.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 740, 2023 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242072

ABSTRACT

In late 2020, the JCVI (the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation, which provides advice to the Department of Health and Social Care, England) made two important recommendations for the initial roll-out of the COVID-19 vaccine. The first was that vaccines should be targeted to older and vulnerable people, with the aim of maximally preventing disease rather than infection. The second was to increase the interval between first and second doses from 3 to 12 weeks. Here, we re-examine these recommendations through a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 infection in England. We show that targeting the most vulnerable had the biggest immediate impact (compared to targeting younger individuals who may be more responsible for transmission). The 12-week delay was also highly beneficial, estimated to have averted between 32-72 thousand hospital admissions and 4-9 thousand deaths over the first ten months of the campaign (December 2020-September 2021) depending on the assumed interaction between dose interval and efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , England/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Vaccination
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1076248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237304

ABSTRACT

Background: The Shanghai COVID-19 epidemic is an important example of a local outbreak and of the implementation of normalized prevention and disease control strategies. The precise impact of public health interventions on epidemic prevention and control is unknown. Methods: We collected information on COVID-19 patients reported in Shanghai, China, from January 30 to May 31, 2022. These newly added cases were classified as local confirmed cases, local asymptomatic infections, imported confirmed cases and imported asymptomatic infections. We used polynomial fitting correlation analysis and illustrated the time lag plot in the correlation analysis of local and imported cases. Analyzing the conversion of asymptomatic infections to confirmed cases, we proposed a new measure of the conversion rate (C r ). In the evolution of epidemic transmission and the analysis of intervention effects, we calculated the effective reproduction number (R t ). Additionally, we used simulated predictions of public health interventions in transmission, correlation, and conversion analyses. Results: (1) The overall level of R t in the first three stages was higher than the epidemic threshold. After the implementation of public health intervention measures in the third stage, R t decreased rapidly, and the overall R t level in the last three stages was lower than the epidemic threshold. The longer the public health interventions were delayed, the more cases that were expected and the later the epidemic was expected to end. (2) In the correlation analysis, the outbreak in Shanghai was characterized by double peaks. (3) In the conversion analysis, when the incubation period was short (3 or 7 days), the conversion rate fluctuated smoothly and did not reflect the effect of the intervention. When the incubation period was extended (10 and 14 days), the conversion rate fluctuated in each period, being higher in the first five stages and lower in the sixth stage. Conclusion: Effective public health interventions helped slow the spread of COVID-19 in Shanghai, shorten the outbreak duration, and protect the healthcare system from stress. Our research can serve as a positive guideline for addressing infectious disease prevention and control in China and other countries and regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Public Health Practice , Humans , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Epidemics/prevention & control , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(12): e40042, 2022 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major sports events are the focus of the world. However, the gathering of crowds during these events creates huge risks of infectious diseases transmission, posing a significant public health threat. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically review the epidemiological characteristics and prevention measures of infectious diseases at major sports events. METHODS: The procedure of this scoping review followed Arksey and O'Malley's five-step methodological framework. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase, were searched systematically. The general information (ie, publication year, study type) of each study, sports events' features (ie, date and host location), infectious diseases' epidemiological characteristics (ie, epidemics, risk factors), prevention measures, and surveillance paradigm were extracted, categorized, and summarized. RESULTS: A total of 24,460 articles were retrieved from the databases and 358 studies were included in the final data synthesis based on selection criteria. A rapid growth of studies was found over recent years. The number of studies investigating epidemics and risk factors for sports events increased from 16/254 (6.3%) before 2000 to 201/254 (79.1%) after 2010. Studies focusing on prevention measures of infectious diseases accounted for 85.0% (238/280) of the articles published after 2010. A variety of infectious diseases have been reported, including respiratory tract infection, gastrointestinal infection, vector-borne infection, blood-borne infection, and water-contact infection. Among them, respiratory tract infections were the most concerning diseases (250/358, 69.8%). Besides some routine prevention measures targeted at risk factors of different diseases, strengthening surveillance was highlighted in the literature. The surveillance system appeared to have gone through three stages of development, including manual archiving, network-based systems, and automated intelligent platforms. CONCLUSIONS: This critical summary and collation of previous empirical evidence is meaningful to provide references for holding major sports events. It is essential to improve the surveillance techniques for timely detection of the emergence of epidemics and to improve risk perception in future practice.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sports , Humans , Epidemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Public Health , Databases, Factual
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(49): e2208895119, 2022 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133964

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including mask wearing, have proved highly effective at reducing the transmission of endemic infections. A key public health question is whether NPIs could continue to be implemented long term to reduce the ongoing burden from endemic pathogens. Here, we use epidemiological models to explore the impact of long-term NPIs on the dynamics of endemic infections. We find that the introduction of NPIs leads to a strong initial reduction in incidence, but this effect is transient: As susceptibility increases, epidemics return while NPIs are in place. For low R0 infections, these return epidemics are of reduced equilibrium incidence and epidemic peak size. For high R0 infections, return epidemics are of similar magnitude to pre-NPI outbreaks. Our results underline that managing ongoing susceptible buildup, e.g., with vaccination, remains an important long-term goal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemiological Models , Public Health
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115998

ABSTRACT

In the post-epidemic era, China's urban communities are at the forefront of implementing the whole chain of accurate epidemic prevention and control. However, the uncertainty of COVID-19, the loopholes in community management and people's overly optimistic judgment of the epidemic have led to the frequent rebound of the epidemic and serious consequences. Existing studies have not yet formed a panoramic framework of community anti-epidemic work under the concept of resilience. Therefore, this article first summarizes the current research progress of resilient communities from three perspectives, including ideas and perspectives, theories and frameworks and methods and means, and summarizes the gap of the current research. Then, an innovative idea on the epidemic resilience of urban communities in China is put forward: (1) the evolution mechanism of community anti-epidemic resilience is described through the change law of dynamic networks; (2) the anti-epidemic resilience of urban communities is evaluated or predicted through the measurement criteria; (3) a simulation platform based on Multi-Agent and dynamic Bayesian networks simulates the interactive relationship between "epidemic disturbance-cost constraint--epidemic resilience"; (4) the anti-epidemic strategies are output intelligently to provide community managers with decision-making opinions on community epidemic prevention and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , China/epidemiology
20.
Lancet ; 395(10227): 871-877, 2020 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has spread from China to 25 countries. Local cycles of transmission have already occurred in 12 countries after case importation. In Africa, Egypt has so far confirmed one case. The management and control of COVID-19 importations heavily rely on a country's health capacity. Here we evaluate the preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against their risk of importation of COVID-19. METHODS: We used data on the volume of air travel departing from airports in the infected provinces in China and directed to Africa to estimate the risk of importation per country. We determined the country's capacity to detect and respond to cases with two indicators: preparedness, using the WHO International Health Regulations Monitoring and Evaluation Framework; and vulnerability, using the Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index. Countries were clustered according to the Chinese regions contributing most to their risk. FINDINGS: Countries with the highest importation risk (ie, Egypt, Algeria, and South Africa) have moderate to high capacity to respond to outbreaks. Countries at moderate risk (ie, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Sudan, Angola, Tanzania, Ghana, and Kenya) have variable capacity and high vulnerability. We identified three clusters of countries that share the same exposure to the risk originating from the provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, and the city of Beijing, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Many countries in Africa are stepping up their preparedness to detect and cope with COVID-19 importations. Resources, intensified surveillance, and capacity building should be urgently prioritised in countries with moderate risk that might be ill-prepared to detect imported cases and to limit onward transmission. FUNDING: EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020, Agence Nationale de la Recherche.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemics/prevention & control , Health Resources , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral , Population Surveillance , Vulnerable Populations , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Planning , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Assessment , Travel
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