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1.
J Child Neurol ; 37(2): 127-132, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1602856

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to assess current recommendations from child neurologists and epileptologists on masking for school-age children with epilepsy. METHODS: A 7-item survey was created and sent out to members of the Child Neurology Society and Pediatric Epilepsy Research Consortium in August of 2021 to assess current practice and provider recommendations on masking. RESULTS: One hundred four individuals participated with representation from all regions of the United States. Masking was recommended by 95.1%, with 63.4% (n = 66) noting exception of those with severe intellectual disability, autism, and behavioral problems. Of those who write exemption letters, 54% write these <5% of the time. Only 3% reported potential adverse events associated with masking. CONCLUSION: Nearly all respondents recommended masking for school-age children with epilepsy. Potential risks of masking and adverse events were low. Improved guidance on masking is needed to ensure academic success of our patients with epilepsy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Child , Consensus , Humans , Neurologists/statistics & numerical data , SARS Virus , United States
2.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 18(1): 162-168, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Robust evidence has described that Parkinson´s disease (PD) is associated with an increased risk for developing epileptic seizures. In fact, an interplay between PD and epilepsy has been of interest for many years. An emerging hypothesis is that inflammation could link both diseases. OBJECTIVE: Bearing in mind the experience of our group in the field of Ca2+/cAMP signalling pathways, this article discussed, beyond inflammation, the role of these signalling pathways in this link between PD and epilepsy. METHODS: Publications involving Ca2+/cAMP signalling pathways, PD, and epilepsy (alone or combined) were collected by searching PubMed and EMBASE. RESULTS: The comprehension of the interplay between PD and epilepsy could improve the drug therapy. In addition, a Ca2+ signalling dyshomeostasis due to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging and rapidly evolving situation, has been reported. CONCLUSION: Thus, this article also debated recent findings about therapeutics involving Ca2+ channel blockers for preventing Ca2+ signalling dyshomeostasis due to COVID-19, including the correlation among COVID-19, epilepsy, and PD.


Subject(s)
Calcium Signaling , Cyclic AMP , Epilepsy/complications , Inflammation/complications , Parkinson Disease/complications , Signal Transduction , COVID-19/complications , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology
3.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(9): 2248-2250, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366484

ABSTRACT

Restructuring of healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to lockdown of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMUs) in many hospitals. The ad-hoc taskforce of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN) highlights the detrimental effect of postponing video-EEG monitoring of patients with epilepsy and other paroxysmal events. The taskforce calls for action to continue functioning of Epilepsy Monitoring Units during emergency situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Long-term video-EEG monitoring is an essential diagnostic service. Access to video-EEG monitoring of the patients in the EMUs must be given high priority. Patients should be screened for COVID-19, before admission, according to the local regulations. Local policies for COVID-19 infection control should be adhered to during the video-EEG monitoring. In cases of differential diagnosis where reduction of antiseizure medication is not required, consider home video-EEG monitoring as an alternative in selected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Electroencephalography/standards , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Neurophysiology/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Consensus , Electroencephalography/methods , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Humans , Internationality , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Monitoring, Physiologic/standards , Neurophysiology/methods
4.
Epilepsy Res ; 176: 106741, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356224

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, wearing face masks was recommended, including patients with epilepsy doing the hyperventilation (HV) test during electroencephalogram (EEG) examination somewhere. However, evidence was still limited about the effect of HV with face mask on cortical excitability of patients with epilepsy. The motivation of this work is to make use of the graph theory of EEG to characterize the cortical excitability of patients with epilepsy when they did HV under the condition wearing a surgical face mask. METHODS: We recruited 19 patients with epilepsy and 17 normal controls. All of participants completed two HV experiments, including HV with face mask (HV+) and HV without a mask (HV). The interval was 30 min and the sequence was random. Each experiment consisted of three segments: resting EEG, EEG of HV, and EEG of post-HV. EEG were recorded successively during each experiment. Participants were asked to evaluate the discomfort degree using a questionnaire when every HV is completed. RESULTS: All of the participants felt more uncomfortable after HV + . Moreover, not only HV decreased small-worldness index in patients with epilepsy, but also HV + significantly increased the clustering coefficient in patients with epilepsy. Importantly, the three-way of Mask*HV*Epilepsy showed interaction in the clustering coefficient in the delta band, as well as in the path length and the small-worldness index in the theta band. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that patients with epilepsy showed the increased excitability of brain network during HV + . We should pay more attention to the adverse effect on brain network excitability caused by HV + in patients with epilepsy. In the clinical practice under the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important that the wearing face mask remain cautious for the individuals with epilepsy when they carried out HV behavior such as exercise (e.g., running, etc.).


Subject(s)
Epilepsy/complications , Hyperventilation/etiology , Masks/adverse effects , Nerve Net/physiopathology , Adult , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hyperventilation/physiopathology , Male
6.
Seizure ; 84: 66-68, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065590

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of COVID-19, as reported during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2019-2020, are primarily respiratory and gastrointestinal, with sparse reports on neurological manifestations. We describe the case of a 17-year old female with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and well controlled epilepsy, who sustained significant cortical injury during a COVID-19 associated multi-inflammatory syndrome.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , De Lange Syndrome/complications , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Airway Extubation , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/complications , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Necrosis , Phenobarbital/therapeutic use , Pseudomonas Infections/complications , Respiration, Artificial , Rhabdomyolysis/complications , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 177, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031188

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) disease, which was declared in China in December 2019, very early on became a pandemic, claiming more than 28 million victims worldwide to date. Its impact on the central nervous system is still poorly understood. The objective of this work is to assess the involvement of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the aggravation of seizures in children known to have epilepsy and in the epileptogenesis of children hitherto seizure-free. Prior to conducting this work, we had obtained informed consent from patients and parents. We report the cases of three (3) patients, one known epileptic and the other two apparently healthy, who presented a febrile seizure in a context of COVID-19 infection. The aggravation of the epileptic seizure was indicative of a SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first patient, while the seizure occurred after induction of chloroquine sulfate treatment in the 2 other patients. Although our current concern is to limit the spread of the disease to COVID-19, it is crucial to address its possible complications. Notably, the worsening of seizures in children with epilepsy and the occurrence of first seizures in children without epilepsy following drug treatment. Equipping our COVID-19 patient management facilities with electroencephalogram (EEG) equipment could facilitate continuous electroencephalographic monitoring of children for proper management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Epilepsy/virology , Seizures, Febrile/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Seizures, Febrile/virology
8.
Seizure ; 83: 1-4, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023745

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our objective is to describe the most prevalent electroencephalographic findings in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, and to determine possible predictors of mortality including EEG and clinical variables. METHODS: A multicentric prospective observational study in patients with COVID-19 requiring EEG during hospitalization. RESULTS: We found 94 EEG from 62 patients (55 % men, mean age 59.7 ± 17.8 years) were analyzed. Most frequent comorbidity was cardiac (52 %), followed by metabolic (45 %) and CNS disease (39 %). Patients required ICU management by 60 %, with a mortality of 27 % in the whole cohort. The most frequent EEG finding was generalized continuous slow-wave activity (66 %). Epileptic activity was observed in 19 % including non-convulsive status epilepticus, seizures and interictal epileptiform discharges. Periodic patterns were observed in 3 patients (3.2 %). Multivariate analysis found that cancer comorbidity and requiring an EEG during the third week of evolution portended a higher risk of mortality CONCLUSION: We observed that the most prevalent EEG finding in this cohort was generalized continuous slow-wave activity, while epileptic activity was observed in less than 20 % of the cases. Mortality risk factors were comorbidity with cancer and requiring an EEG during the third week of evolution, possibly related to the hyperinflammatory state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Electroencephalography , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seizures/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electroencephalography/methods , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Epilepsy/virology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Seizures/virology , Status Epilepticus/mortality , Status Epilepticus/physiopathology , Status Epilepticus/virology
9.
Epilepsy Behav ; 115: 107682, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957493

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize and quantitatively evaluate the electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.Gov databases were comprehensively assessed and searched for observational studies with EEG findings in patients with COVID-19. Pooled proportions of EEG findings with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed using a random effects model. The quality of assessment for each study, heterogeneity between the studies, and publication bias were also evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 12 studies with 308 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Abnormal background activity and generalized slowing in the pooled proportions were common findings among the patients with COVID-19 (96.1% [95% CI: 89.4-99.9]; I2 = 60%; p < 0.01 and 92.3% [95% CI: 81.2-99.3]; I2 = 74%; p < 0.01, respectively). The proportion of patients with epileptiform discharges (EDs) was 20.3% ([95% CI: 9.85-32.9]; I2 = 78%; p < 0.01). The proportion of EDs varied between patients with a history of epilepsy or seizures (59.5% [95% CI: 33.9-83.2]; I2 = 0%; p = 0.49) and patients without them (22.4% [95% CI: 10.4-36.4]; I2 = 46%; p = 0.07). The findings of seizures and status epilepticus on EEG were observed in 2.05% ([95% CI: 0.02-6.04]; I2 = 39%; p = 0.08) and 0.80% ([95% CI: 0.00.-3.69]; I2 = 28%; p = 0.17) of the patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: The proportion of abnormal background activity in patients with COVID-19 was high (96.1%). Epileptiform discharges were present in 20.3% of the cases and the proportion varied between people who had a history of epilepsy/seizure and those who did not. However, the proportion of seizures and status epilepticus on EEG was low (2.05% and 0. 80%, respectively).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electroencephalography/methods , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Humans
10.
Neurol Sci ; 42(2): 415-431, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We discuss the evidence on the occurrence of de novo seizures in patients with COVID-19, the consequences of this catastrophic disease in people with epilepsy (PWE), and the electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This systematic review was prepared according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase from inception to August 15, 2020 were systematically searched. These key words were used: "COVID" AND "seizure" OR "epilepsy" OR "EEG" OR "status epilepticus" OR "electroencephalography". RESULTS: We could identify 62 related manuscripts. Many studies were case reports or case series of patients with COVID-19 and seizures. PWE showed more psychological distress than healthy controls. Many cases with new-onset focal seizures, serial seizures, and status epilepticus have been reported in the literature. EEG studies have been significantly ignored and underused globally. CONCLUSION: Many PWE perceived significant disruption in the quality of care to them, and some people reported increase in their seizure frequency since the onset of the pandemic. Telemedicine is a helpful technology that may improve access to the needed care for PWE in these difficult times. De novo seizures may occur in people with COVID-19 and they may happen in a variety of forms. In addition to prolonged EEG monitoring, performing a through metabolic investigation, electrocardiogram, brain imaging, and a careful review of all medications are necessary steps. The susceptibility of PWE to contracting COVID-19 should be investigated further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy , Seizures , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Humans , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology
11.
Epileptic Disord ; 22(5): 548-554, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890240

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) pandemic affects availability and performance of neurophysiological diagnostic methods, including EEG. Our objective was to outline the current situation regarding EEG-based investigations across Europe. A web-based survey was distributed to centres within the European Reference Network on rare and complex epilepsies (ERN EpiCARE). Responses were collected between April 9 and May 15, 2020. Results were analysed with Microsoft Excel, Python Pandas and SciPy. Representants from 47 EpiCARE centres from 22 countries completed the survey. At the time of completing the survey, inpatient video-EEGs had been stopped or restricted in most centres (61.7% vs. 36.2% for adults, and 38.3% vs. 53.2% for children). Invasive investigations and epilepsy surgery were similarly affected. Acute EEGs continued to be performed, while indications for outpatient EEGs were limited and COVID-19 triage put in place. The strictness of measures varied according to extent of the outbreak in a given country. The results indicate a profound impact of COVID-19 on neurophysiological diagnostics, especially inpatient video-EEGs, invasive investigations, and epilepsy surgery. The COVID-19 pandemic may hamper care for patients in need of EEG-based investigations, particularly patients with seizure disorders. ERN EpiCARE will work on recommendations on how to rapidly adapt to such situations in order to alleviate consequences for our patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Electroencephalography , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Continuity of Patient Care , Delivery of Health Care , Electroencephalography/statistics & numerical data , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Europe/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage , Video Recording/statistics & numerical data
12.
Seizure ; 83: 234-241, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of the literature to synthesize the data on EEG findings in COVID-19. Frontal EEG patterns are reported to be a characteristic finding in COVID-19 encephalopathy. Although several reports of EEG abnormalities are available, there is lack of clarity about typical findings. METHODS: Research databases were queried with the terms "COVID" OR "coronavirus" OR "SARS" AND "EEG". Available data was analyzed from 617 patients with EEG findings reported in 84 studies. RESULTS: The median age was 61.3 years (IQR 45-69, 33.3 % female). Common EEG indications were altered mental status (61.7 %), seizure-like events (31.2 %), and cardiac arrest (3.5 %). Abnormal EEG findings (n = 543, 88.0 %) were sub-classified into three groups: (1) Background abnormalities: diffuse slowing (n = 423, 68.6 %), focal slowing (n = 105, 17.0 %), and absent posterior dominant rhythm (n = 63, 10.2 %). (2) Periodic and rhythmic EEG patterns: generalized periodic discharges (n = 35, 5.7 %), lateralized/multifocal periodic discharges (n = 24, 3.9 %), generalized rhythmic activity (n = 32, 5.2 %). (3) Epileptiform changes: focal (n = 35, 5.7 %), generalized (n = 27, 4.4 %), seizures/status epilepticus (n = 34, 5.5 %). Frontal EEG patterns comprised of approximately a third of all findings. In studies that utilized continuous EEG, 96.8 % (n = 243) of the 251 patients were reported to have abnormalities compared to 85.0 % (n = 311) patients who did not undergo continuous EEG monitoring (χ2 = 22.8, p =< 0.001). SIGNIFICANCE: EEG abnormalities are common in COVID-19 related encephalopathy and correlates with disease severity, preexisting neurological conditions including epilepsy and prolonged EEG monitoring. Frontal findings are frequent and have been proposed as a biomarker for COVID-19 encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Electroencephalography/methods , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/physiopathology
13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 111: 107262, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633799

ABSTRACT

Access to quality healthcare remains a challenge that is complicated by mounting pressures to control costs, and now, as we witness, the unprecedented strain placed on our healthcare delivery systems due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Challenges in healthcare access have driven a need for innovative approaches ensuring connectivity to health providers. Telehealth services and virtual clinics offer accessible disease management pathways for patients living in health resource limited areas or, as in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, where there may be potential barriers to existing healthcare resources. Those suffering with serious chronic disorders often cannot be seen by a healthcare specialist due to their limited availability, or the lack of a specialist within a reasonable proximity. Epilepsy represents such a disorder where most of the world's population lacks the availability of necessary specialists. Virtual clinics allow for specialist care and an ability to perform necessary ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring by placing the technologies directly in patients' homes or at local clinics near the patients' homes. By moving the diagnostic process out of the hospital or epilepsy center, it becomes possible to overcome growing gaps in neurology services. Virtual clinics have the potential to expand access to high-quality, cost-effective care for the patient. The virtual clinic remotely connects those in need of medical support with specialists anywhere in the world, at any time of the day.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Epilepsy/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Monitoring, Ambulatory , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine
14.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107396, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to have a better understanding of the influence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in people with epilepsy (PWE) and to assess whether there have been changes in seizure control during the current COVID-19 outbreak, exploring the possible causes thereof. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective study based on prospective data collection of 100 successive patients who attended an epilepsy outpatient clinic either face-to-face or telephonically during the months of the COVID-19 outbreak and national state of emergency. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included, 52% women, mean age 42.4 years. During the COVID-19 period, 27% of the patients presented an increase of >50% of seizure frequency. An increase of stress/anxiety (odds ratios (OR): 5.78; p = 0.008) and a prior higher seizure frequency (OR: 12.4; p = 0.001) were associated with worsening of seizures. Other risk factors were exacerbation of depression, sleep deprivation, less physical activity, and history of epilepsy surgery. Three patients had status epilepticus (SE) and one a cluster of seizures. Likewise, 9% of patients improved their seizure control. Reduction in stress/anxiety (OR: 0.05; p = 0.03) and recent adjustment of antiepileptics (OR: 0.07; p = 0.01) acted as protecting factors. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of PWE suffered a significant worsening of their seizure control during the months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Emotional distress due to home confinement was the main factor for the change in seizure control. Promoting physical activity and adequate sleep may minimize the potential impact of the pandemic in PWE. Ensuring correct follow-up can prevent decompensation in those PWE at high risk.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Anxiety/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Depression/physiopathology , Depression/psychology , Disease Progression , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/psychology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/physiopathology , Sleep Deprivation/physiopathology , Spain , Status Epilepticus/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
15.
Neurol Sci ; 41(9): 2345-2351, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19 lockdown, non-urgent medical procedures were suspended. Grade of urgency of electroencephalography (EEG) may vary according to the clinical indication, setting, and status of infection of SARS-CoV-2 virus. "Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology" (SINC), "Italian League Against Epilepsy" (LICE), and the "Italian Association of Neurophysiology Technologists" (AITN) aimed to provide clinical and technical recommendation for EEG indications and recording standards in this pandemic era. METHODS: Presidents of SINC, LICE, and AITN endorsed three members per each society to formulate recommendations: classification of the degree of urgency of EEG clinical indications, management and behavior of physicians and neurophysiology technologists, hygiene and personal protection standards, and use of technical equipment. RESULTS: Scientific societies endorsed a paper conveying the recommendation for EEG execution in accordance with clinical urgency, setting (inpatients/outpatients), status of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection (positive, negative and uncertain), and phase of governmental restrictions (phase 1 and 2). Briefly, in phase 1, EEG was recommended only for those acute/subacute neurological symptoms where EEG is necessary for diagnosis, prognosis, or therapy. Outpatient examinations should be avoided in phase 1, while they should be recommended in urgent cases in phase 2 when they could prevent an emergency room access. Reduction of staff contacts must be encouraged through rescheduling job shifts. The use of disposable electrodes and dedicated EEG devices for COVID-19-positive patients are recommended. CONCLUSIONS: During the different phases of COVID-19 pandemic, the EEG should be reserved for patients really benefiting from its execution in terms of diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and avoidance of emergency room access.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Electroencephalography/standards , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Societies, Medical/standards , Advisory Committees/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Medical Laboratory Personnel/standards , Neurophysiology/methods , Neurophysiology/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107323, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642555

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess if patients with epilepsy (PWE) experienced an increase in seizure frequency and self-reported stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Saudi Arabia in April 2020. An electronic self-administered questionnaire was distributed to PWE via their treating neurologist. The variables included were demographic and baseline clinical characteristics (age, gender, living situation, occupational status, type of epilepsy, duration of epilepsy, number of antiepileptic medications (AEDs), presence of known psychiatric illness, and use of psychiatric medications), their seizure control in the month prior to the pandemic, perceived stress during this period of time, sleep changes, compliance changes, and change in seizure control during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients completed the questionnaire, with 29.5% reporting an increase in seizure frequency. Additionally, 59.4% reported an increase in self-reported stress and 71.2% experienced a significant change in their sleep during this period. Higher baseline seizure frequency, more AEDs, noncompliance, increase in self-reported stress, and sleep changes are the significant factors associated with increase in seizure frequency during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Identifying high-risk patients for seizure recurrence is important in order to provide them with adequate support to reduce such risk.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Epilepsy/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seizures/drug therapy , Self Report , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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