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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785739

ABSTRACT

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a frequently used plasticizer that may be linked to the development of endometriosis, a common gynecological disorder with a profound impact on quality of life. Despite its prevalence, vital access to treatment has often been hampered by a lack of understanding of its pathogenesis as well as reliable disease models. Recently, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been suggested to have a significant role in endometriosis pathophysiology. In this study, we found that DEHP treatment enhanced proliferation, migration, and inflammatory responses, along with EMT and stemness induction in human endometrial and endometriotic cells. The selective transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) receptor type 1/2 inhibitor LY2109761 reversed the DEHP-induced cell proliferation and migration enhancement as well as the increased expression of crucial molecules involved in inflammation, EMT, and stemness, indicating that DEHP-triggered phenomena occur via the TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway. Our study clearly defines the role of DEHP in the etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of endometriosis and establishes an efficient disease model for endometriosis using a biomimetic 3D cell culture technique. Altogether, our data provide novel etiological and mechanistic insights into the role of DEHP in endometriosis pathogenesis, opening avenues for developing novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for endometriosis.


Subject(s)
Diethylhexyl Phthalate , Endometriosis , Cell Proliferation , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/metabolism , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/toxicity , Endometriosis/pathology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Female , Humans , Phthalic Acids , Quality of Life , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factors/metabolism
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785736

ABSTRACT

Lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) is an amphipathic lysophospholipid that mediates a broad spectrum of inflammatory responses through a poorly characterized mechanism. Because LysoPS levels can rise in a variety of pathological conditions, we sought to investigate LysoPS's potential role in airway epithelial cells that actively participate in lung homeostasis. Here, we report a previously unappreciated function of LysoPS in production of a mucin component, MUC5AC, in the airway epithelial cells. LysoPS stimulated lung epithelial cells to produce MUC5AC via signaling pathways involving TACE, EGFR, and ERK. Specifically, LysoPS- dependent biphasic activation of ERK resulted in TGF-α secretion and strong EGFR phosphorylation leading to MUC5AC production. Collectively, LysoPS induces the expression of MUC5AC via a feedback loop composed of proligand synthesis and its proteolysis by TACE and following autocrine EGFR activation. To our surprise, we were not able to find a role of GPCRs and TLR2, known LyoPS receptors in LysoPS-induced MUC5AC production in airway epithelial cells, suggesting a potential receptor-independent action of LysoPS during inflammation. This study provides new insight into the potential function and mechanism of LysoPS as an emerging lipid mediator in airway inflammation.


Subject(s)
ErbB Receptors , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/pharmacology , Mucin 5AC/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism
3.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(4): 216, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783990
4.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 66(4): 391-401, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775050

ABSTRACT

Asthma is associated with chronic changes in the airway epithelium, a key target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Many epithelial changes, including goblet cell metaplasia, are driven by the type 2 cytokine IL-13, but the effects of IL-13 on SARS-CoV-2 infection are unknown. We found that IL-13 stimulation of differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) cultured at air-liquid interface reduced viral RNA recovered from SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and decreased double-stranded RNA, a marker of viral replication, to below the limit of detection in our assay. An intact mucus gel reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection of unstimulated cells, but neither a mucus gel nor SPDEF, which is required for goblet cell metaplasia, were required for the antiviral effects of IL-13. Bulk RNA sequencing revealed that IL-13 regulated 41 of 332 (12%) mRNAs encoding SARS-CoV-2-associated proteins that were detected in HBECs (>1.5-fold change; false discovery rate < 0.05). Although both IL-13 and IFN-α each inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection, their transcriptional effects differed markedly. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed cell type-specific differences in SARS-CoV-2-associated gene expression and IL-13 responses. Many IL-13-induced gene expression changes were seen in airway epithelium from individuals with type 2 asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. IL-13 effects on airway epithelial cells may protect individuals with type 2 asthma from COVID-19 and could lead to identification of novel strategies for reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Humans , Interleukin-13/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 126, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759776

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become in the spotlight regarding the serious early and late complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), systemic inflammation, multi-organ failure and death. Although many preventive and therapeutic approaches have been suggested for ameliorating complications of COVID-19, emerging new resistant viral variants has called the efficacy of current therapeutic approaches into question. Besides, recent reports on the late and chronic complications of COVID-19, including organ fibrosis, emphasize a need for a multi-aspect therapeutic method that could control various COVID-19 consequences. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), a group of placenta-derived amniotic membrane resident stem cells, possess considerable therapeutic features that bring them up as a proposed therapeutic option for COVID-19. These cells display immunomodulatory effects in different organs that could reduce the adverse consequences of immune system hyper-reaction against SARS-CoV-2. Besides, hAECs would participate in alveolar fluid clearance, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system regulation, and regeneration of damaged organs. hAECs could also prevent thrombotic events, which is a serious complication of COVID-19. This review focuses on the proposed early and late therapeutic mechanisms of hAECs and their exosomes to the injured organs. It also discusses the possible application of preconditioned and genetically modified hAECs as well as their promising role as a drug delivery system in COVID-19. Moreover, the recent advances in the pre-clinical and clinical application of hAECs and their exosomes as an optimistic therapeutic hope in COVID-19 have been reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Epithelial Cells , Female , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Placenta , Pregnancy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Nat Prod ; 85(3): 657-665, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740392

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic, causing millions of infections and deaths worldwide. Despite rapid deployment of effective vaccines, it is apparent that the global community lacks multipronged interventions to combat viral infection and disease. A major limitation is the paucity of antiviral drug options representing diverse molecular scaffolds and mechanisms of action. Here we report the antiviral activities of three distinct marine natural products─homofascaplysin A (1), (+)-aureol (2), and bromophycolide A (3)─evidenced by their ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication at concentrations that are nontoxic toward human airway epithelial cells. These compounds stand as promising candidates for further exploration toward the discovery of novel drug leads against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Epithelial Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Eur Respir Rev ; 30(161)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736334

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, representing a major unmet medical need. New chemical entities rarely make it into the clinic to treat respiratory diseases, which is partially due to a lack of adequate predictive disease models and the limited availability of human lung tissues to model respiratory disease. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) may help fill this gap by serving as a scalable human in vitro model. In addition, human in vitro models of rare genetic mutations can be generated using hPSCs. hPSC-derived epithelial cells and organoids have already shown great potential for the understanding of disease mechanisms, for finding new potential targets by using high-throughput screening platforms, and for personalised treatments. These potentials can also be applied to other hPSC-derived lung cell types in the future. In this review, we will discuss how hPSCs have brought, and may continue to bring, major changes to the field of respiratory diseases by understanding the molecular mechanisms of the pathology and by finding efficient therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Differentiation , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lung , Organoids
8.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0170521, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736024

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 caused the COVID-19 global pandemic leading to 5.3 million deaths worldwide as of December 2021. The human intestine was found to be a major viral target which could have a strong impact on virus spread and pathogenesis since it is one of the largest organs. While type I interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines acting against systemic virus spread, in the human intestine type III IFNs play a major role by restricting virus infection and dissemination without disturbing homeostasis. Recent studies showed that both type I and III IFNs can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it is not clear whether one IFN controls SARS-CoV-2 infection of the human intestine better or with a faster kinetics. In this study, we could show that type I and III IFNs both possess antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in human intestinal epithelial cells (hIECs); however, type III IFN is more potent. Shorter type III IFN pretreatment times and lower concentrations were required to efficiently reduce virus load compared to type I IFNs. Moreover, type III IFNs significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 even 4 h postinfection and induced a long-lasting antiviral effect in hIECs. Importantly, the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 to type III IFNs was virus specific since type III IFN did not control VSV infection as efficiently. Together, these results suggest that type III IFNs have a higher potential for IFN-based treatment of SARS-CoV-2 intestinal infection compared to type I IFNs. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 infection is not restricted to the respiratory tract and a large number of COVID-19 patients experience gastrointestinal distress. Interferons are key molecules produced by the cell to combat virus infection. Here, we evaluated how two types of interferons (type I and III) can combat SARS-CoV-2 infection of human gut cells. We found that type III interferons were crucial to control SARS-CoV-2 infection when added both before and after infection. Importantly, type III interferons were also able to produce a long-lasting effect, as cells were protected from SARS-CoV-2 infection up to 72 h posttreatment. This study suggested an alternative treatment possibility for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Interferon Type I/pharmacology , Interferons/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
9.
Sci Adv ; 8(8): eabi6110, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714330

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 and ongoing COVID-19 pandemic underscores the need for new treatments. Here we report that cannabidiol (CBD) inhibits infection of SARS-CoV-2 in cells and mice. CBD and its metabolite 7-OH-CBD, but not THC or other congeneric cannabinoids tested, potently block SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung epithelial cells. CBD acts after viral entry, inhibiting viral gene expression and reversing many effects of SARS-CoV-2 on host gene transcription. CBD inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in part by up-regulating the host IRE1α RNase endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and interferon signaling pathways. In matched groups of human patients from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative, CBD (100 mg/ml oral solution per medical records) had a significant negative association with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. This study highlights CBD as a potential preventative agent for early-stage SARS-CoV-2 infection and merits future clinical trials. We caution against use of non-medical formulations including edibles, inhalants or topicals as a preventative or treatment therapy at the present time.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cannabidiol/chemistry , Cannabidiol/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Mice , /metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715763

ABSTRACT

Epithelial cells are apico-basolateral polarized cells that line all tubular organs and are often targets for infectious agents. This review focuses on the release of human RNA virus particles from both sides of polarized human cells grown on transwells. Most viruses that infect the mucosa leave their host cells mainly via the apical side while basolateral release is linked to virus propagation within the host. Viruses do this by hijacking the cellular factors involved in polarization and trafficking. Thus, understanding epithelial polarization is essential for a clear understanding of virus pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , RNA Viruses/physiology , Virus Release , Cell Polarity , Humans , Virion/physiology , Virus Assembly , Virus Replication
11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2242-2254, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes significan t morbidity, mainly from pulmonary involvement, extrapulmonary symptoms are also major componen ts of the disease. Kidney disease, usually presenting as AKI, is particularly severe among patients with COVID-19. It is unknown, however, whether such injury results from direct kidney infection with COVID-19's causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or from indirect mechanisms. METHODS: Using ex vivo cell models, we sought to analyze SARS-CoV-2 interactions with kidney tubular cells and assess direct tubular injury. These models comprised primary human kidney epithelial cells (derived from nephrectomies) and grown as either proliferating monolayers or quiescent three-dimensional kidney spheroids. RESULTS: We demonstrated that viral entry molecules and high baseline levels of type 1 IFN-related molecules were present in monolayers and kidney spheroids. Although both models support viral infection and replication, they did not exhibit a cytopathic effect and cell death, outcomes that were strongly present in SARS-CoV-2-infected controls (African green monkey kidney clone E6 [Vero E6] cultures). A comparison of monolayer and spheroid cultures demonstrated higher infectivity and replication of SARS-CoV-2 in actively proliferating monolayers, although the spheroid cultures exhibited high er levels of ACE2. Monolayers exhibited elevation of some tubular injury molecules-including molecules related to fibrosis (COL1A1 and STAT6) and dedifferentiation (SNAI2)-and a loss of cell identity, evident by reduction in megalin (LRP2). The three-dimensional spheroids were less prone to such injury. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 can infect kidney cells without a cytopathic effect. AKI-induced cellular proliferation may potentially intensify infectivity and tubular damage by SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that early intervention in AKI is warranted to help minimize kidney infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spheroids, Cellular/virology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Kidney/immunology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, SCID , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spheroids, Cellular/pathology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
12.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 322(4): C591-C604, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701350

ABSTRACT

Primary airway epithelial cells (pAECs) cultivated at air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions are widely used as surrogates for human in vivo epithelia. To extend the proliferative capacity and to enable serially passaging of pAECs, conditional reprogramming (cr) has been employed in recent years. However, ALI epithelia derived from cr cells often display functional changes with increasing passages. This highlights the need for thorough validation of the ALI cultures for the respective application. In our study, we evaluated the use of serially passaged cr nasal epithelial cells (crNECs) as a model to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and effects on ion and water transport. NECs were obtained from healthy individuals and cultivated as ALI epithelia derived from passages 1, 2, 3, and 5. We compared epithelial differentiation, ion and water transport, and infection with SARS-CoV-2 between passages. Our results show that epithelia maintained major differentiation characteristics and physiological ion and water transport properties through all passages. However, the frequency of ciliated cells, short circuit currents reflecting epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and expression of aquaporin 3 and 5 decreased gradually over passages. crNECs also expressed SARS-CoV-2 receptors angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serin2 protease 2 (TMPRSS2) across all passages and allowed SARS-CoV-2 replication in all passages. In summary, we provide evidence that passaged crNECs provide an appropriate model to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and also epithelial transport function when considering some limitations that we defined herein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Differentiation , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 37, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some COVID-19 survivors present lung function abnormalities during follow-up, particularly reduced carbon monoxide lung diffusing capacity (DLCO). To investigate risk factors and underlying pathophysiology, we compared the clinical characteristics and levels of circulating pulmonary epithelial and endothelial markers in COVID-19 survivors with normal or reduced DLCO 6 months after discharge. METHODS: Prospective, observational study. Clinical characteristics during hospitalization, and spirometry, DLCO and plasma levels of epithelial (surfactant protein (SP) A (SP-A), SP-D, Club cell secretory protein-16 (CC16) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI)), and endothelial (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble E-selectin and Angiopoietin-2) 6 months after hospital discharge were determined in 215 COVID-19 survivors. RESULTS: DLCO was < 80% ref. in 125 (58%) of patients, who were older, more frequently smokers, had hypertension, suffered more severe COVID-19 during hospitalization and refer persistent dyspnoea 6 months after discharge. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age ≥ 60 years and severity score of the acute episode ≥ 6 were independent risk factors of reduced DLCO 6 months after discharge. Levels of epithelial (SP-A, SP-D and SLPI) and endothelial (sICAM-1 and angiopoietin-2) markers were higher in patients with reduced DLCO, particularly in those with DLCO ≤ 50% ref. Circulating SP-A levels were associated with the occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), organizing pneumonia and pulmonary embolisms during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced DLCO is common in COVID-19 survivors 6 months after hospital discharge, especially in those older than 60 years with very severe acute disease. In these individuals, elevated levels of epithelial and endothelial markers suggest persistent lung damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelial Cells , Epithelial Cells , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , Age Factors , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Risk Factors , Smokers , Spirometry , Survivors
14.
J Biol Chem ; 298(2): 101584, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699145

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), coronaviruses have begun to attract great attention across the world. Of the known human coronaviruses, however, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the most lethal. Coronavirus proteins can be divided into three groups: nonstructural proteins, structural proteins, and accessory proteins. While the number of each of these proteins varies greatly among different coronaviruses, accessory proteins are most closely related to the pathogenicity of the virus. We found for the first time that the ORF3 accessory protein of MERS-CoV, which closely resembles the ORF3a proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, has the ability to induce apoptosis in cells in a dose-dependent manner. Through bioinformatics analysis and validation, we revealed that ORF3 is an unstable protein and has a shorter half-life in cells compared to that of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a proteins. After screening, we identified a host E3 ligase, HUWE1, that specifically induces MERS-CoV ORF3 protein ubiquitination and degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This results in the diminished ability of ORF3 to induce apoptosis, which might partially explain the lower spread of MERS-CoV compared to other coronaviruses. In summary, this study reveals a pathological function of MERS-CoV ORF3 protein and identifies a potential host antiviral protein, HUWE1, with an ability to antagonize MERS-CoV pathogenesis by inducing ORF3 degradation, thus enriching our knowledge of the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and suggesting new targets and strategies for clinical development of drugs for MERS-CoV treatment.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Epithelial Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
15.
Cells ; 11(4)2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1688673

ABSTRACT

Transmembrane proteins of adherens and tight junctions are known targets for viruses and bacterial toxins. The coronavirus receptor ACE2 has been localized at the apical surface of epithelial cells, but it is not clear whether ACE2 is localized at apical Cell-Cell junctions and whether it associates with junctional proteins. Here we explored the expression and localization of ACE2 and its association with transmembrane and tight junction proteins in epithelial tissues and cultured cells by data mining, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. ACE2 mRNA is abundant in epithelial tissues, where its expression correlates with the expression of the tight junction proteins cingulin and occludin. In cultured epithelial cells ACE2 mRNA is upregulated upon differentiation and ACE2 protein is widely expressed and co-immunoprecipitates with the transmembrane proteins ADAM17 and CD9. We show by immunofluorescence microscopy that ACE2 colocalizes with ADAM17 and CD9 and the tight junction protein cingulin at apical junctions of intestinal (Caco-2), mammary (Eph4) and kidney (mCCD) epithelial cells. These observations identify ACE2, ADAM17 and CD9 as new epithelial junctional transmembrane proteins and suggest that the cytokine-enhanced endocytic internalization of junction-associated protein complexes comprising ACE2 may promote coronavirus entry.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Intercellular Junctions/metabolism , Intercellular Junctions/virology , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Adherens Junctions/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Cadherins/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Membrane Permeability , Coronavirus/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression/genetics , Tetraspanin 29/metabolism , Tight Junction Proteins/metabolism , Tight Junctions/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics
16.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687057

ABSTRACT

The types of interactions between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other respiratory viruses are not well-characterized due to the low number of co-infection cases described since the onset of the pandemic. We have evaluated the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 (D614G mutant) and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in the nasal human airway epithelium (HAE) infected simultaneously or sequentially (24 h apart) with virus combinations. The replication kinetics of each virus were determined by RT-qPCR at different post-infection times. Our results showed that during simultaneous infection, SARS-CoV-2 interferes with RSV-A2 but not with A(H1N1)pdm09 replication. The prior infection of nasal HAE with SARS-CoV-2 reduces the replication kinetics of both respiratory viruses. SARS-CoV-2 replication is decreased by a prior infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 but not with RSV-A2. The pretreatment of nasal HAE with BX795, a TANK-binding kinase 1 inhibitor, partially alleviates the reduced replication of SARS-CoV-2 or influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during sequential infection with both virus combinations. Thus, a prior infection of nasal HAE with SARS-CoV-2 interferes with the replication kinetics of A(H1N1)pdm09 and RSV-A2, whereas only A(H1N1)pdm09 reduces the subsequent infection with SARS-CoV-2. The mechanism involved in the viral interference between SARS-CoV-2 and A(H1N1)pdm09 is mediated by the production of interferon.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Nasopharynx/cytology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Interference , Virus Replication , Coinfection , Humans , Microbial Interactions , Nasopharynx/virology
17.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686620

ABSTRACT

Necroptosis, a form of programmed lytic cell death, has emerged as a driving factor in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). As ALI is often associated with a cytokine storm, we determined whether pro-inflammatory cytokines modulate the susceptibility of lung cells to necroptosis and which mediators dominate to control necroptosis. In this study, we pretreated/primed mouse primary lung epithelial and endothelial cells with various inflammatory mediators and assessed cell type-dependent responses to different necroptosis inducers and their underlying mechanisms. We found that interferon-γ (IFNγ) as low as 1 ng/mL preferentially promoted necroptosis and accelerated the release of damage-associated molecular patterns from primary alveolar and airway epithelial cells but not lung microvascular endothelial cells. Type-I IFNα was about fifty-fold less effective than IFNγ. Conversely, TNFα or agonists of Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 had a minor effect. The enhanced necroptosis in IFNγ-activated lung epithelial cells was dependent on IFNγ signaling and receptor-interacting protein kinase-3. We further showed that necroptosis effector mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) was predominantly induced by IFNγ, contributing to the enhanced necroptosis in lung epithelial cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that IFNγ is a potent enhancer of lung epithelial cell susceptibility to necroptosis.


Subject(s)
Interferon-gamma , Necroptosis , Animals , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Protein Kinases/metabolism
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 832672, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686456

ABSTRACT

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is considered the largest immunological organ, with a diverse gut microbiota, that contributes to combatting pathogens and maintaining human health. Under physiological conditions, the crosstalk between gut microbiota and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) plays a crucial role in GIT homeostasis. Gut microbiota and derived metabolites can compromise gut barrier integrity by activating some signaling pathways in IECs. Conversely, IECs can separate the gut microbiota from the host immune cells to avoid an excessive immune response and regulate the composition of the gut microbiota by providing an alternative energy source and releasing some molecules, such as hormones and mucus. Infections by various pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, can disturb the diversity of the gut microbiota and influence the structure and metabolism of IECs. However, the interaction between gut microbiota and IECs during infection is still not clear. In this review, we will focus on the existing evidence to elucidate the crosstalk between gut microbiota and IECs during infection and discuss some potential therapeutic methods, including probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and dietary fiber. Understanding the role of crosstalk during infection may help us to establish novel strategies for prevention and treatment in patients with infectious diseases, such as C. difficile infection, HIV, and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Epithelial Cells , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 64, 2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677536

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and epithelium lineage labeling have yielded identification of multiple abnormal epithelial progenitor populations during alveolar type 2 (ATII) cell differentiation into alveolar type 1 (ATI) cells during regenerative lung post-fibrotic injury. These abnormal cells include basaloid/basal-like cells, ATII transition cells, and persistent epithelial progenitors (PEPs). These cells occurred and accumulated during the regeneration of distal airway and alveoli in response to both chronic and acute pulmonary injury. Among the alveolar epithelial progenitors, PEPs express a distinct Krt8+ phenotype that is rarely found in intact alveoli. However, post-injury, the Krt8+ phenotype is seen in dysplastic epithelial cells. Fully understanding the characteristics and functions of these newly found, injury-induced abnormal behavioral epithelial progenitors and the signaling pathways regulating their phenotype could potentially point the way to unique therapeutic targets for fibrosing lung diseases. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding these epithelial progenitors as they relate to uncovering regenerative mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Lung Injury , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lung , Pulmonary Alveoli
20.
Sci Immunol ; 7(67): eabl9929, 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673341

ABSTRACT

The development of a tractable small animal model faithfully reproducing human coronavirus disease 2019 pathogenesis would arguably meet a pressing need in biomedical research. Thus far, most investigators have used transgenic mice expressing the human ACE2 in epithelial cells (K18-hACE2 transgenic mice) that are intranasally instilled with a liquid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) suspension under deep anesthesia. Unfortunately, this experimental approach results in disproportionate high central nervous system infection leading to fatal encephalitis, which is rarely observed in humans and severely limits this model's usefulness. Here, we describe the use of an inhalation tower system that allows exposure of unanesthetized mice to aerosolized virus under controlled conditions. Aerosol exposure of K18-hACE2 transgenic mice to SARS-CoV-2 resulted in robust viral replication in the respiratory tract, anosmia, and airway obstruction but did not lead to fatal viral neuroinvasion. When compared with intranasal inoculation, aerosol infection resulted in a more pronounced lung pathology including increased immune infiltration, fibrin deposition, and a transcriptional signature comparable to that observed in SARS-CoV-2­infected patients. This model may prove useful for studies of viral transmission, disease pathogenesis (including long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection), and therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Encephalitis, Viral/prevention & control , Keratin-18/genetics , Nasal Sprays , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Administration, Inhalation , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Encephalitis, Viral/mortality , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Humans , Keratin-18/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Transcriptome , Virus Replication
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