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1.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 11(10): e12269, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084354

ABSTRACT

Small Extracellular Vesicles (sEVs) are 50-200 nm in diameter vesicles delimited by a lipid bilayer, formed within the endosomal network or derived from the plasma membrane. They are secreted in various biological fluids, including airway nasal mucus. The goal of this work was to understand the role of sEVs present in the mucus (mu-sEVs) produced by human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We show that uninfected HNECs produce mu-sEVs containing SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 and activated protease TMPRSS2. mu-sEVs cleave prefusion viral Spike proteins at the S1/S2 boundary, resulting in higher proportions of prefusion S proteins exposing their receptor binding domain in an 'open' conformation, thereby facilitating receptor binding at the cell surface. We show that the role of nasal mu-sEVs is to complete prefusion Spike priming performed by intracellular furin during viral egress from infected cells. This effect is mediated by vesicular TMPRSS2 activity, rendering SARS-CoV-2 virions prone to entry into target cells using the 'early', TMPRSS2-dependent pathway instead of the 'late', cathepsin-dependent route. These results indicate that prefusion Spike priming by mu-sEVs in the nasal cavity plays a role in viral tropism. They also show that nasal mucus does not protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection, but instead facilitates it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Furin , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Proviruses/metabolism , Lipid Bilayers , Virus Internalization , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Cathepsins
2.
J Cell Biol ; 221(7)2022 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082890

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causal pathogen of the ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Loss of smell and taste are symptoms of COVID-19, and may be related to cilia dysfunction. Here, we found that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 increases the overall E3 ligase activity of the CUL2ZYG11B complex by interacting with ZYG11B. Enhanced CUL2ZYG11B activity by ORF10 causes increased ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation of an intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex B protein, IFT46, thereby impairing both cilia biogenesis and maintenance. Further, we show that exposure of the respiratory tract of hACE2 mice to SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 alone results in cilia-dysfunction-related phenotypes, and the ORF10 expression in primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) also caused a rapid loss of the ciliary layer. Our study demonstrates how SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 hijacks CUL2ZYG11B to eliminate IFT46 and leads to cilia dysfunction, thereby offering a powerful etiopathological explanation for how SARS-CoV-2 causes multiple cilia-dysfunction-related symptoms specific to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cilia , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cilia/metabolism , Cilia/pathology , Cytoskeletal Proteins , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Smell , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 297, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effective transmission mode of Neospora caninum, with infection leading to reproductive failure in ruminants, is vertical transmission. The uterus is an important reproductive organ that forms the maternal-fetal interface. Neospora caninum can successfully invade and proliferate in the uterus, but the molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial-pathogen interactions remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that host long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in cellular molecular regulatory networks, with reports that these RNA molecules are closely related to the pathogenesis of apicomplexan parasites. However, the expression profiles of host lncRNAs during N. caninum infection has not been reported. METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was used to investigate the expression profiles of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and lncRNAs in caprine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) infected with N. caninum for 24 h (TZ_24h) and 48 h (TZ_48 h), and the potential functions of differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs were predicted by using Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of their mRNA targets. RESULTS: RNA-seq analysis identified 1280.15 M clean reads in 12 RNA samples, including six samples infected with N. caninum for 24 h (TZ1_24h-TZ3_24h) and 48 h (TZ1_48h-TZ3_48h), and six corresponding control samples (C1_24h-C3_24h and C1_48h-C3_48h). Within the categories TZ_24h-vs-C_24h, TZ_48h-vs-C_48h and TZ_48h-vs-TZ_24h, there were 934 (665 upregulated and 269 downregulated), 1238 (785 upregulated and 453 downregulated) and 489 (252 upregulated and 237 downregulated) DEmRNAs, respectively. GO enrichment and KEGG analysis revealed that these DEmRNAs were mainly involved in the regulation of host immune response (e.g. TNF signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway), signaling molecules and interaction (e.g. cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules and ECM-receptor interaction). A total of 88 (59 upregulated and 29 downregulated), 129 (80 upregulated and 49 downregulated) and 32 (20 upregulated and 12 downregulated) DElncRNAs were found within the categories TZ_24h-vs-C_24h, TZ_48h-vs-C_48h and TZ_48h-vs-TZ_24h, respectively. Functional prediction indicated that these DElncRNAs would be involved in signal transduction (e.g. MAPK signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway), neural transmission (e.g. GABAergic synapse, serotonergic synapse, cholinergic synapse), metabolism processes (e.g. glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-lacto and neolacto series, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-heparan sulfate/heparin) and signaling molecules and interaction (e.g. cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules and ECM-receptor interaction). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first investigation of global gene expression profiles of lncRNAs during N. caninum infection. The results provide valuable information for further studies of the roles of lncRNAs during N. caninum infection.


Subject(s)
Coccidiosis , Neospora , RNA, Long Noncoding , Animals , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Goats , Humans , Neospora/genetics , Neospora/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006041

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 replicates in host cell cytoplasm. People with cystic fibrosis, considered at risk of developing severe symptoms of COVID-19, instead, tend to show mild symptoms. We, thus, analyzed at the ultrastructural level the morphological effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on wild-type (WT) and F508del (ΔF) CFTR-expressing CFBE41o- cells at early and late time points post infection. We also investigated ACE2 expression through immune-electron microscopy. At early times of infection, WT cells exhibited double-membrane vesicles, representing typical replicative structures, with granular and vesicular content, while at late time points, they contained vesicles with viral particles. ∆F cells exhibited double-membrane vesicles with an irregular shape and degenerative changes and at late time of infection, showed vesicles containing viruses lacking a regular structure and a well-organized distribution. ACE2 was expressed at the plasma membrane and present in the cytoplasm only at early times in WT, while it persisted even at late times of infection in ΔF cells. The autophagosome content also differed between the cells: in WT cells, it comprised vesicles associated with virus-containing structures, while in ΔF cells, it comprised ingested material for lysosomal digestion. Our data suggest that CFTR-modified cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 have impaired organization of normo-conformed replicative structures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4484, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991585

ABSTRACT

Despite two years of intense global research activity, host genetic factors that predispose to a poorer prognosis of COVID-19 infection remain poorly understood. Here, we prioritise eight robust (e.g., ELF5) or suggestive but unreported (e.g., RAB2A) candidate protein mediators of COVID-19 outcomes by integrating results from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative with population-based plasma proteomics using statistical colocalisation. The transcription factor ELF5 (ELF5) shows robust and directionally consistent associations across different outcome definitions, including a >4-fold higher risk (odds ratio: 4.88; 95%-CI: 2.47-9.63; p-value < 5.0 × 10-6) for severe COVID-19 per 1 s.d. higher genetically predicted plasma ELF5. We show that ELF5 is specifically expressed in epithelial cells of the respiratory system, such as secretory and alveolar type 2 cells, using single-cell RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry. These cells are also likely targets of SARS-CoV-2 by colocalisation with key host factors, including ACE2 and TMPRSS2. In summary, large-scale human genetic studies together with gene expression at single-cell resolution highlight ELF5 as a risk gene for severe COVID-19, supporting a role of epithelial cells of the respiratory system in the adverse host response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA-Binding Proteins , Transcription Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors/genetics
7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(15): 8700-8718, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973223

ABSTRACT

FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) is a heterodimeric protein complex composed of SUPT16H and SSRP1, and a histone chaperone participating in chromatin remodeling during gene transcription. FACT complex is profoundly regulated, and contributes to both gene activation and suppression. Here we reported that SUPT16H, a subunit of FACT, is acetylated in both epithelial and natural killer (NK) cells. The histone acetyltransferase TIP60 contributes to the acetylation of SUPT16H middle domain (MD) at lysine 674 (K674). Such acetylation of SUPT16H is recognized by bromodomain protein BRD4, which promotes protein stability of SUPT16H in both epithelial and NK cells. We further demonstrated that SUPT16H-BRD4 associates with histone modification enzymes (HDAC1, EZH2), and further regulates their activation status and/or promoter association as well as affects the relevant histone marks (H3ac, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3). BRD4 is known to profoundly regulate interferon (IFN) signaling, while such function of SUPT16H has never been explored. Surprisingly, our results revealed that SUPT16H genetic knockdown via RNAi or pharmacological inhibition by using its inhibitor, curaxin 137 (CBL0137), results in the induction of IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Through this mechanism, depletion or inhibition of SUPT16H is shown to efficiently inhibit infection of multiple viruses, including Zika, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, we demonstrated that depletion or inhibition of SUPT16H also causes the remarkable activation of IFN signaling in NK cells, which promotes the NK-mediated killing of virus-infected cells in a co-culture system using human primary NK cells. Overall, our studies unraveled the previously un-appreciated role of FACT complex in coordinating with BRD4 and regulating IFN signaling in both epithelial and NK cells, and also proposed the novel application of the FACT inhibitor CBL0137 to treat viral infections.


Subject(s)
Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/metabolism , COVID-19 , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Epithelial Cells/immunology , High Mobility Group Proteins/genetics , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptional Elongation Factors/genetics , Zika Virus/metabolism , Zika Virus Infection
8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(6): 16, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956961

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lysozyme, an antimicrobial enzyme found in tears that protects the eye against pathogens, on pseudotyped severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection through corneal epithelial cells. Methods: The expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) was measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The altered expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules induced by spike protein and lysozyme was analyzed by RT-PCR. Cell toxicity was tested by CCK8 assay. The cell entry of SAR-CoV-2 in HCECs and primary rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RbCECs) was detected by luciferase assay. Results: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were highly expressed in HCECs. The spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 stimulated a robust inflammatory response in HCECs, characterized by increased secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules, including IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, and MCP-1, and pretreatment with lysozyme in HCECs markedly decreased the production of proinflammatory molecules induced by spike proteins. In addition, the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α enhanced the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into HCECs, which can be mitigated by pretreatment with lysozyme. Conclusions: In this study, we analyzed the susceptibility of human corneal epithelial cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection and suggested the protective effects of lysozyme on SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Muramidase/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
9.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271303, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic has emerged as the leading public health challenge of our time (20th century). While vaccinations have finally blunted the death rate, concern has remained about more virulent forms highlighting the need for alternative approaches. Epidemiological studies indicate that physical activity has been shown to decrease the risk of infection of some respiratory viruses. Part of the salutary effects of exercise is believed to be through the elaboration of cytokines by contracting skeletal muscles (termed myokines). The objective of this study was to investigate whether exercise-induced myokines would mitigate the SARS-CoV-2 infectivity of the bronchial epithelium through modulating the SARS-CoV-2 Covid-19 receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 -ACE2) its priming enzyme, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). METHODS: We utilized a cell culture model of exercise to generate myokines by differentiating C2C12 cells into myotubules and inducing them to contract via low-frequency electric pulse stimulation. Condition media was concentrated via centrifugation and applied to human immortalized human bronchial epithelium cell line (6HBE14o) along with conditioned media from unstimulated myotubules as controls. Following exposure to myokines, the 16HBE14o cells were harvested and subjected to quantitative RT-PCR and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for assessment of mRNA and protein levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, respectively. Pilot proteomic data was performed with isotope barcoding and mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: Quantitative Real-Time PCR of 16HBE14o with 48 h treated unstimulated vs. stimulated myokine treatment revealed a reduction of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA by 32% (p<2.69x10-5) and 41% (p<4.57x10-5), respectively. The high sensitivity of ELISAs showed downregulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 protein expression in 16HBE14o cells by 53% (p<0.01) and 32% (p<0.03) respectively with 48 h treated. For rigor, this work was replicated in the human lung cancer cell line A549, which mirrored the downregulation. Proteomic analysis showed dramatic alteration in myokine profile between contracted and uncontracted C2C12 tubules. CONCLUSIONS: The current study explores a novel approach of a modified exercise cell culture system and uses ACE2 and TMPRSS2 as a surrogate marker of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. In conclusion, we demonstrated biological data supporting exercise's protective effect against Covid-19. These further strengthen myokines' beneficial role as potential therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2 and similar viruses albeit these preliminary cell culture studies will require future validation in animal models.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Animals , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Proteomics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0163922, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950021

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is commonly associated with mild respiratory tract infections in infants, being that the respiratory epithelial cells are the main target for infection and initial replication of this virus. Standard immortalized cells are highly permissive to HCoV-NL63, and they are routinely used for isolation and propagation of the virus from clinical specimens. However, these cell lines are not the natural cell target of the virus and lack sufficient complexity to mimic the natural infection process in vivo. This study comparatively evaluated the differences on the susceptibility to HCoV-NL63 infection and virus replication efficiency of submerged monolayer cultures of LLC-MK2 and primary human respiratory epithelial cells (HRECs) and organotypic airway cultures of respiratory cells (ALI-HRECs). Productive viral infection and growth kinetics were assessed by morphologic examination of cytopathic effects, immunofluorescence, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR, and flow cytometry. Results from this study showed higher susceptibility to HCoV-NL63 infection and replication in LLC-MK2 cells followed by ALI-HRECs, with very low susceptibility and no significant virus replication in HRECs. This susceptibility was associated with the expression levels of angiontensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor protein in LLC-MK2, ALI-HRECs, and HRECs, respectively. Remarkably, organotypic ALI-HREC cultures expressed significantly more ACE2 receptor protein and were more susceptible to HCoV-NL63 infection than monolayer cultures of HREC. The ACE2 receptor is, therefore, a critical factor for susceptibility to HCoV-NL63 infection and replication, as is the type of culture used during infection studies. IMPORTANCE HCoV-NL63 is widespread globally, accounting for a significant number of respiratory infections in children and adults. HCoV-NL63 gains entrance into respiratory epithelial cells via the ACE2 receptor, the same cell receptor used by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2. Thus, HCoV-NL63 has been suggested as safe surrogate for studying disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions against SARS-like CoVs, while working under BSL-2 conditions. The present study not only showed the critical role of ACE2 for effective HCoV-NL63 infection and replication, but also shed light on the need of more refined and complex in vitro organotypic models that recapitulate the proxy of air-liquid respiratory epithelia cell composition, structure, and functionality. These cultures have broaden virological studies toward improving our understanding of how coronaviruses cause disease and transmission not just within humans but also in animal populations.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Epithelial Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus NL63, Human/pathogenicity , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(12): 166496, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936082

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 have high prevalence of albuminuria which is used as a marker of progression of renal disease and is associated with severe COVID-19. We hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S protein) could modulate albumin handling in proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs) and, consequently contribute to the albuminuria observed in patients with COVID-19. In this context, the possible effect of S protein on albumin endocytosis in PTECs was investigated. Two PTEC lines were used: HEK-293A and LLC-PK1. Incubation of both cell types with S protein for 16 h inhibited albumin uptake at the same magnitude. This effect was associated with canonical megalin-mediated albumin endocytosis because: (1) DQ-albumin uptake, a marker of the lysosomal degradation pathway, was reduced at a similar level compared with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-albumin uptake; (2) dextran-FITC uptake, a marker of fluid-phase endocytosis, was not changed; (3) cell viability and proliferation were not changed. The inhibitory effect of S protein on albumin uptake was only observed when it was added at the luminal membrane, and it did not involve the ACE2/Ang II/AT1R axis. Although both cells uptake S protein, it does not seem to be required for modulation of albumin endocytosis. The mechanism underlying the inhibition of albumin uptake by S protein encompasses a decrease in megalin expression without changes in megalin trafficking and stability. These results reveal a possible mechanism to explain the albuminuria observed in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-2 , Albumins/metabolism , Albumins/pharmacology , Albuminuria/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cells, Cultured , Dextrans/pharmacology , Endocytosis/physiology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate/metabolism , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate/pharmacology , Humans , Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
BMC Mol Cell Biol ; 23(1): 29, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the host cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. ACE2 is expressed on human airway epithelial cells. Increased ACE2 expression may be associated with potentially high risk of COVID-19. However, the factors responsible for the regulation of ACE2 expression in human airway epithelial cells are unknown. Furthermore, hyperglycemia is a risk factor for poor disease prognosis. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the effects of D-glucose on ACE2 mRNA and protein expressions in Calu-3 bronchial submucosal cells. The cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing different D-glucose concentrations. After 48 and 72 h of high D-glucose (1000 mg/dL) treatment, ACE2 mRNA expressions were significantly increased. ACE2 protein expressions were significantly increased after 24 h of high D-glucose treatment. ACE2 mRNA expression was enhanced by a D-glucose concentration of 550 mg/dL or more after 72 h of treatment. In addition, we investigated the role of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in Calu-3 cells. ACE2 mRNA and protein expressions were suppressed by the GLUT1 inhibitor BAY-876 in high D-glucose-treated Calu-3 cells. GLUT-1 siRNA was also used and ACE2 mRNA expressions were suppressed in high D-glucose-treated Calu-3 cells with GLUT-1 knockdown. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report indicating that high D-glucose levels induced ACE2 expression via GLUT1 in bronchial submucosal cells in vitro. As hyperglycemia can be treated appropriately, these findings could help reduce the risk of worsening of coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucose Transporter Type 1/genetics , Glucose Transporter Type 1/metabolism , Humans , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9583, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921701

ABSTRACT

TACSTD2 encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 commonly overexpressed in carcinomas. While the Trop2 protein was discovered already in 1981 and first antibody-drug conjugate targeting Trop2 were recently approved for cancer therapy, the physiological role of Trop2 is still not fully understood. In this article, we show that TACSTD2/Trop2 expression is evolutionarily conserved in lungs of various vertebrates. By analysis of publicly available transcriptomic data we demonstrate that TACSTD2 level consistently increases in lungs infected with miscellaneous, but mainly viral pathogens. Single cell and subpopulation based transcriptomic data revealed that the major source of TACSTD2 transcript are lung epithelial cells and their progenitors and that TACSTD2 is induced directly in lung epithelial cells following infection. Increase in TACSTD2 expression may represent a mechanism to maintain/restore epithelial barrier function and contribute to regeneration process in infected/damaged lungs.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Animals , Antigens, Neoplasm/metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Up-Regulation
14.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(7): 1699-1713, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907809

ABSTRACT

Conjunctival epithelial cells, which express viral-entry receptors angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine type 2 (TMPRSS2), constitute the largest exposed epithelium of the ocular surface tissue and may represent a relevant viral-entry route. To address this question, we generated an organotypic air-liquid-interface model of conjunctival epithelium, composed of basal, suprabasal, and superficial epithelial cells, and fibroblasts, which could be maintained successfully up to day 75 of differentiation. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), with complementary imaging and virological assays, we observed that while all conjunctival cell types were permissive to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome expression, a productive infection did not ensue. The early innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in conjunctival cells was characterised by a robust autocrine and paracrine NF-κB activity, without activation of antiviral interferon signalling. Collectively, these data enrich our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection at the human ocular surface, with potential implications for the design of preventive strategies and conjunctival transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 2743046, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891948

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a novel infectious respiratory disease called COVID-19, which is threatening public health worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins connect to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor through the receptor binding domain and are then activated by the transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 (TMPRSS2). The ACE2 receptor is highly expressed in human nasal epithelial cells. Nasal ciliated cells are primary targets for SARS-CoV-2 replication. However, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the upper respiratory tract remains unknown, thus leading to the purpose of our study. We investigate the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on cytokines and mucin expression in human nasal epithelial cells. Methods: We investigated the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) on cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8) and MUC5AC/5B expression via real-time PCR, ELISA, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, and immunofluorescence staining in cultured human nasal epithelial cells. Results: The mRNA expression and protein production of cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8) and MUC5AC/5B were increased by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD. ACE2 receptor inhibitor suppressed the expression of cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8) and MUC5AC/5B induced by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 induced cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8) and MUC5AC/5B expression through the ACE 2 receptor in human nasal epithelial cells. Therefore, ACE2 receptor inhibitors can be an effective therapeutic option for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cytokines/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Mucin 5AC/genetics , Mucin 5AC/metabolism , Mucin-5B/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2123208119, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860508

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged into humans in 2012, causing highly lethal respiratory disease. The severity of disease may be, in part, because MERS-CoV is adept at antagonizing early innate immune pathways­interferon (IFN) production and signaling, protein kinase R (PKR), and oligoadenylate synthetase/ribonuclease L (OAS/RNase L)­activated in response to viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) generated during genome replication. This is in contrast to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which we recently reported to activate PKR and RNase L and, to some extent, IFN signaling. We previously found that MERS-CoV accessory proteins NS4a (dsRNA binding protein) and NS4b (phosphodiesterase) could weakly suppress these pathways, but ablation of each had minimal effect on virus replication. Here we investigated the antagonist effects of the conserved coronavirus endoribonuclease (EndoU), in combination with NS4a or NS4b. Inactivation of EndoU catalytic activity alone in a recombinant MERS-CoV caused little if any effect on activation of the innate immune pathways during infection. However, infection with recombinant viruses containing combined mutations with inactivation of EndoU and deletion of NS4a or inactivation of the NS4b phosphodiesterase promoted robust activation of dsRNA-induced innate immune pathways. This resulted in at least tenfold attenuation of replication in human lung­derived A549 and primary nasal cells. Furthermore, replication of these recombinant viruses could be rescued to the level of wild-type MERS-CoV by knockout of host immune mediators MAVS, PKR, or RNase L. Thus, EndoU and accessory proteins NS4a and NS4b together suppress dsRNA-induced innate immunity during MERS-CoV infection in order to optimize viral replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Nasal Mucosa , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uridylate-Specific Endoribonucleases
17.
Mol Cell ; 82(13): 2385-2400.e9, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851815

ABSTRACT

Inflammation observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients suggests that inflammasomes, proinflammatory intracellular complexes, regulate various steps of infection. Lung epithelial cells express inflammasome-forming sensors and constitute the primary entry door of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we describe that the NLRP1 inflammasome detects SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung epithelial cells. Specifically, human NLRP1 is cleaved at the Q333 site by multiple coronavirus 3CL proteases, which triggers inflammasome assembly and cell death and limits the production of infectious viral particles. Analysis of NLRP1-associated pathways unveils that 3CL proteases also inactivate the pyroptosis executioner Gasdermin D (GSDMD). Subsequently, caspase-3 and GSDME promote alternative cell pyroptosis. Finally, analysis of pyroptosis markers in plasma from COVID-19 patients with characterized severe pneumonia due to autoantibodies against, or inborn errors of, type I interferons (IFNs) highlights GSDME/caspase-3 as potential markers of disease severity. Overall, our findings identify NLRP1 as a sensor of SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung epithelia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Epithelial Cells , Inflammasomes , NLR Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , NLR Proteins/genetics , NLR Proteins/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/genetics , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins/genetics , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins/metabolism , Pyroptosis , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 448, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The etiopathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) stem partially from the abnormal activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here in the current investigation, the mRNA expression levels of toll-like receptors (TLRs) were evaluated in the nasopharyngeal epithelial cells from COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Epithelial cells were obtained using nasopharyngeal swab samples from 90 COVID-19 patients and 50 controls. COVID-19 cases were classified into those without symptoms, with symptoms but not hospitalized, and with symptoms and hospitalized. To determine the mRNA expression levels of TLRs, first RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized, and finally Real-time PCR was exerted. RESULTS: It was seen that the transcript levels of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 were overexpressed in the COVID-19 patients with clinical symptoms needing hospitalization as well as in those with clinical symptoms without needing for hospitalization compared to controls. Upregulation of TLRs was associated with clinical presentations of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Modulation of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 in the epithelial cells of COVID-19 cases may estimate the disease severity and requirement for hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Nasopharynx , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 8/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 9/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics
19.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818212

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have caused several global outbreaks with relatively high mortality rates, including Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS)-CoV, which emerged in 2012, and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV-1, which appeared in 2002. The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the need for immediate and greater understanding of the immune evasion mechanisms used by CoVs. Interferon (IFN)-α is the body's natural antiviral agent, but its Janus kinase/signal transducer and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathway is often antagonized by viruses, thereby preventing the upregulation of essential IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). Therapeutic IFN-α has disappointingly weak clinical responses in MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1 infected patients, indicating that these CoVs inhibit the IFN-α JAK/STAT pathway. Here we show that in lung alveolar A549 epithelial cells expression of MERS-CoV-nsp2 and SARS-CoV-1-nsp14, but not MERS-CoV-nsp5, increased basal levels of total and phosphorylated STAT1 & STAT2 protein, but reduced IFN-α-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1-3 and induction of MxA. While MERS-CoV-nsp2 and SARS-CoV-1-nsp14 similarly increased basal levels of STAT1 and STAT2 in bronchial BEAS-2B epithelial cells, unlike in A549 cells, they did not enhance basal pSTAT1 nor pSTAT2. However, both viral proteins reduced IFN-α-mediated induction of pSTAT1-3 and ISGs (MxA, ISG15 and PKR) in BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, even though IFN-α-mediated induction of pSTAT1-3 was not affected by MERS-CoV-nsp5 expression in BEAS-2B cells, downstream ISG induction was reduced, revealing that MERS-CoV-nsp5 may use an alternative mechanism to reduce antiviral ISG induction in this cell line. Indeed, we subsequently discovered that all three viral proteins inhibited STAT1 nuclear translocation in BEAS-2B cells, unveiling another layer of inhibition by which these viral proteins suppress responses to Type 1 IFNs. While these observations highlight cell line-specific differences in the immune evasion effects of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1 proteins, they also demonstrate the broad spectrum of immune evasion strategies these deadly coronaviruses use to stunt antiviral responses to Type IFN.


Subject(s)
Interferon-alpha , Janus Kinases , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , STAT Transcription Factors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Viral Proteins/metabolism
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 150: 113021, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute -respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) through interaction of the spike protein (SP) with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and its receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2). Repair mechanisms induced following virus infection can restore the protective barrier through wound healing. Then, cells from the epithelial basal layer repopulate the damaged area, followed by cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as changes in gene expression. METHODS: Using Beas-2B cells and SP, we investigated whether ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) contributes to restoration of the bronchial epithelial layer. ACE2 expression was measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. SP-ACE2 interaction was analyzed by flow cytometry and visualized through immunostaining. Cell migration was assessed using single cell path tracking and wound healing assay. RESULTS: Upon ACE2 overexpression in HeLa, HEK293T, and Beas-2B cells following the transfection of pCMV-ACE2 plasmid DNA, SP binding on each cell was increased in the ACE2 overexpression group compared to pCMV-transfected control cells. SP treatment delayed the migration of BEAS-2B cells compared to the control. SP also reduced cell migration, even under ACE2 overexpression; SP binding was greater in ACE2-overexpressed cells than control cells. UDCA interfered significantly with the binding of SP to ACE2 under our experimental conditions. UDCA also restored the inhibitory migration of Beas-2B cells induced by SP treatment. CONCLSION: Our data demonstrate that UDCA can contribute to the inhibition of abnormal airway epithelial cell migration. These results suggest that UDCA can enhance the repair mechanism, to prevent damage caused by SP-ACE2 interaction and enhance restoration of the epithelial basal layer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Movement , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/pharmacology
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