Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 83
Filter
1.
Biotechnol Lett ; 45(7): 779-797, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has proved to be a fatal disease of the year 2020, due to which thousands of people globally have lost their lives, and still, the infection cases are at a high rate. Experimental studies suggested that SARS-CoV-2 interacts with various microorganisms, and this coinfection is accountable for the augmentation of infection severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we have designed a multi-pathogen vaccine by involving the immunogenic proteins from S. pneumonia, H. influenza, and M. tuberculosis, as they are dominantly associated with SARS-CoV-2. A total of 8 antigenic protein sequences were selected to predict B-cell, HTL, and CTL epitopes restricted to the most prevalent HLA alleles. The selected epitopes were antigenic, non-allergenic, and non-toxic and were linked with adjuvant and linkers to make the vaccine protein more immunogenic, stable, and flexible. The tertiary structure, Ramachandran plot, and discontinuous B-cell epitopes were predicted. Docking and MD simulation study has shown efficient binding of the chimeric vaccine with the TLR4 receptor. CONCLUSION: The in silico immune simulation analysis has shown a high level of cytokines and IgG after a three-dose injection. Hence, this strategy could be a better way to decrease the disease's severity and could be used as a weapon to prevent this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Vaccines, Subunit , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Computational Biology/methods
2.
Vaccine ; 41(12): 2073-2083, 2023 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269805

ABSTRACT

Somatic mutation-derived neoantigens are associated with patient survival in breast and ovarian cancer. These neoantigens are targets for cancer, as shown by the implementation of neoepitope peptides as cancer vaccines. The success of cost-effective multi-epitope mRNA vaccines against SARS-Cov-2 in the pandemic established a model for reverse vaccinology. In this study, we aimed to develop an in silico pipeline designing an mRNA vaccine of the CA-125 neoantigen against breast and ovarian cancer, respectively. Using immuno-bioinformatics tools, we predicted cytotoxic CD8+ T cell epitopes based on somatic mutation-driven neoantigens of CA-125 in breast or ovarian cancer, constructed a self-adjuvant mRNA vaccine with CD40L and MHC-I -targeting domain to enhance cross-presentation of neoepitopes by dendritic cells. With an in silico ImmSim algorithm, we estimated the immune responses post-immunization, showing IFN-γ and CD8+ T cell response. The strategy described in this study may be scaled up and implemented to design precision multi-epitope mRNA vaccines by targeting multiple neoantigens.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines , Ovarian Neoplasms , mRNA Vaccines , Female , Humans , Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Ovarian Neoplasms/therapy , CA-125 Antigen
3.
Viral Immunol ; 36(3): 186-202, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280776

ABSTRACT

Emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have raised concerns about the efficacy of vaccines. The present study aimed to compare the potential of Delta and Omicron variant-specific mRNA vaccines in inducing immune responses. B cell and T cell epitopes and population coverage of spike (S) glycoprotein of the variants were predicted using the Immune Epitope Database. The molecular docking was carried out between the protein and different toll-like receptors, as well as the receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein and angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2) cellular receptor using ClusPro. The molecular simulation was done for each docked RBD-ACE2 using YASARA. The mRNA secondary structure was predicted through the RNAfold. The simulation of immune responses to the mRNA vaccine construct was performed using C-ImmSim. Apart from a few positions, no significant difference was observed in the prediction of S protein B cell and T cell epitopes of these two variants. The lower amounts of Median consensus percentile in the Delta variant in similar positions signify its stronger affinity to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II binding alleles. Docking of Delta S protein with TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 and also its RBD with ACE2 showed striking interactions with the lower binding energy than Omicron. In the immune simulation, elevated levels of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, helper T lymphocytes, and memory cells in both the active and resting states and the main regulators of the immune system suggested the capacity of mRNA constructs to elicit robust immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Considering slight differences in the binding affinity to MHC II binding alleles, activation of TLRs, mRNA secondary structure stability, and concentration of immunoglobulins and cytokines, the Delta variant is suggested for the mRNA vaccine construction. Further studies are being done to prove the efficiency of the design construct.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286270

ABSTRACT

T-cell immunity plays an important role in the control of SARS-CoV-2 and has a great cross-protective effect on the variants. The Omicron BA.1 variant contains more than 30 mutations in the spike and severely evades humoral immunity. To understand how Omicron BA.1 spike mutations affect cellular immunity, the T-cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and Omicron BA.1 spike in BALB/c (H-2d) and C57BL/6 mice (H-2b) were mapped through IFNγ ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining assays. The epitopes were identified and verified in splenocytes from mice vaccinated with the adenovirus type 5 vector encoding the homologous spike, and the positive peptides involved in spike mutations were tested against wide-type and Omicron BA.1 vaccines. A total of eleven T-cell epitopes of wild-type and Omicron BA.1 spike were identified in BALB/c mice, and nine were identified in C57BL/6 mice, only two of which were CD4+ T-cell epitopes and most of which were CD8+ T-cell epitopes. The A67V and Del 69-70 mutations in Omicron BA.1 spike abolished one epitope in wild-type spike, and the T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S and H655Y mutations resulted in three new epitopes in Omicron BA.1 spike, while the Y505H mutation did not affect the epitope. These data describe the difference of T-cell epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and Omicron BA.1 spike in H-2b and H-2d mice, providing a better understanding of the effects of Omicron BA.1 spike mutations on cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Mutation , Mice, Inbred BALB C
5.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248637

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused the COVID-19 pandemic, with over 673 million infections and 6.85 million deaths globally. Novel mRNA and viral-vectored vaccines were developed and licensed for global immunizations under emergency approval. They have demonstrated good safety and high protective efficacy against the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain. However, the emergence of highly infectious and transmissible variants of concern (VOCs) such as Omicron was associated with considerable reductions in the protective efficacy of the current vaccines. The development of next-generation vaccines that could confer broad protection against both the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain and VOCs is urgently needed. A bivalent mRNA vaccine encoding the Spike proteins of both the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain and the Omicron variant has been constructed and approved by the US FDA. However, mRNA vaccines are associated with instability and require an extremely low temperature (-80 °C) for storage and transportation. They also require complex synthesis and multiple chromatographic purifications. Peptide-based next-generation vaccines could be developed by relying on in silico predictions to identify peptides specifying highly conserved B, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes to elicit broad and long-lasting immune protection. These epitopes were validated in animal models and in early phase clinical trials to demonstrate immunogenicity and safety. Next-generation peptide vaccine formulations could be developed to incorporate only naked peptides, but they are costly to synthesize and production would generate extensive chemical waste. Continual production of recombinant peptides specifying immunogenic B and T cell epitopes could be achieved in hosts such as E. coli or yeast. However, recombinant protein/peptide vaccines require purification before administration. The DNA vaccine might serve as the most effective next-generation vaccine for low-income countries, since it does not require an extremely low temperature for storage or need extensive chromatographic purification. The construction of recombinant plasmids carrying genes specifying highly conserved B and T cell epitopes meant that vaccine candidates representing highly conserved antigenic regions could be rapidly developed. Poor immunogenicity of DNA vaccines could be overcome by the incorporation of chemical or molecular adjuvants and the development of nanoparticles for effective delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Escherichia coli , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Vaccines, Combined
6.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240516

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) lineages rapidly became dominant in various countries reflecting its enhanced transmissibility and ability to escape neutralizing antibodies. Although T cells induced by ancestral SARS-CoV-2-based vaccines also recognize Omicron variants, we showed in our previous study that there was a marked loss of T cell cross-reactivity to spike epitopes harboring Omicron BA.1 mutations. The emerging BA.4/BA.5 subvariants carry other spike mutations than the BA.1 variant. The present study aims to investigate the impact of BA.4/BA.5 spike mutations on T cell cross-reactivity at the epitope level. Here, we focused on universal T-helper epitopes predicted to be presented by multiple common HLA class II molecules for broad population coverage. Fifteen universal T-helper epitopes of ancestral spike, which contain mutations in the Omicron BA.4/BA.5 variants, were identified utilizing a bioinformatic tool. T cells isolated from 10 subjects, who were recently vaccinated with mRNA-based BNT162b2, were tested for functional cross-reactivity between epitopes of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 spike and the Omicron BA.4/BA.5 spike counterparts. Reduced T cell cross-reactivity in one or more vaccinees was observed against 87% of the tested 15 non-conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes. These results should be considered for vaccine boosting strategies to protect against Omicron BA.4/BA.5 and future SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , T-Lymphocytes , Mutation , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Viral
7.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 70(3): 1189-1205, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172675

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown rapid global spread and has resulted in a significant death toll worldwide. In this study, we aimed to design a multi-epitope vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 based on structural proteins S, M, N, and E. We identified B- and T-cell epitopes and then the antigenicity, toxicity, allergenicity, and similarity of predicted epitopes were analyzed. T-cell epitopes were docked with corresponding HLA alleles. Consequently, the selected T- and B-cell epitopes were included in the final construct. All selected epitopes were connected with different linkers and flagellin and pan-HLA DR binding epitopes (PADRE) as an adjuvant were used in the vaccine construct. Furthermore, molecular docking was used to evaluate the complex between the final vaccine construct and two alleles, HLA-A*02:01 and HLA-DRB1*01:01. Finally, codons were optimized for in silico cloning into pET28a(+) vector using SnapGene. The final vaccine construct comprised 11 CTL, HTL, and B-cell epitopes corresponding to 394 amino acid residues. In silico evaluation showed that the designed vaccine might potentially promote an immune response. Further in vivo preclinical and clinical testing is required to determine the safety and efficacy of the designed vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Computational Biology/methods
8.
Cell Rep ; 42(1): 111995, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177162

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) is driven by mutations that mediate escape from neutralizing antibodies. There is also evidence that mutations can cause loss of T cell epitopes. However, studies on viral escape from T cell immunity have been hampered by uncertain estimates of epitope prevalence. Here, we map and quantify CD8 T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2-specific minimal epitopes in blood drawn from April to June 2020 from 83 COVID-19 convalescents. Among 37 HLA ligands eluted from five prevalent alleles and an additional 86 predicted binders, we identify 29 epitopes with an immunoprevalence ranging from 3% to 100% among individuals expressing the relevant HLA allele. Mutations in VOC are reported in 10.3% of the epitopes, while 20.6% of the non-immunogenic peptides are mutated in VOC. The nine most prevalent epitopes are conserved in VOC. Thus, comprehensive mapping of epitope prevalence does not provide evidence that mutations in VOC are driven by escape of T cell immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Virus Res ; 324: 199024, 2023 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159920

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains in a global pandemic, and no eradicative therapy is currently available. Host T cells have been shown to play a crucial role in the antiviral immune protection and pathology in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients; thus, identifying sufficient T-cell epitopes from the SARS-CoV-2 proteome can contribute greatly to the development of T-cell epitope vaccines and the precise evaluation of host SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular immunity. This review presents a comprehensive map of T-cell epitopes functionally validated from SARS-CoV-2 antigens, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertypes to present these epitopes, and the strategies to screen and identify T-cell epitopes. To the best of our knowledge, a total of 1349 CD8+ T-cell epitopes and 790 CD4+ T-cell epitopes have been defined by functional experiments thus far, but most are presented by approximately twenty common HLA supertypes, such as HLA-A0201, A2402, B0702, DR15, DR7 and DR11 molecules, and 74-80% of the T-cell epitopes are derived from S protein and nonstructural protein. These data provide useful insight into the development of vaccines and specific T-cell detection systems. However, the currently defined T-cell epitope repertoire cannot cover the HLA polymorphism of major populations in an indicated geographic region. More research is needed to depict an overall landscape of T-cell epitopes, which covers the overall SARS-CoV-2 proteome and global patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Proteome , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , HLA Antigens/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 112: 109283, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to be a major global public health challenge, with the emergence of variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Current vaccines or monoclonal antibodies may not well be protect against infection with new SARS-CoV-2 variants. Unlike antibody-based treatment, T cell-based therapies such as TCR-T cells can target epitopes that are highly conserved across different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Reportedly, T cell-based immunity alone can restrict SARS-CoV-2 replication. METHODS: In this study, we identified two TCRs targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein in CD8 + T cells. Functional evaluation by transducing these TCRs into CD8 + or CD4 + T cells confirmed their specificity. RESULTS: Combinations of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by CD8 + and CD4 + T cells can help control COVID-19 in patients. Moreover, the targeted epitope is highly conserved in all emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the Omicron. It is also conserved in the seven coronaviruses that infect humans and more broadly in the subfamily Coronavirinae. CONCLUSIONS: The pan-genera coverage of mutant epitopes from the Coronavirinae subfamily by the two TCRs highlights the unique strengths of TCR-T cell therapies in controlling the ongoing pandemic and in preparing for the next coronavirus outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Epitopes , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Cytokines , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics
11.
Immunobiology ; 227(6): 152287, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epitope selection is the key to peptide vaccines development. Bioinformatics tools can efficiently improve the screening of antigenic epitopes and help to choose the right ones. OBJECTIVE: To predict, synthesize and testify peptide epitopes at spike protein, assess the effect of mutations on epitope humoral immunity, thus provide clues for the design and development of epitope peptide vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Bioinformatics servers and immunological tools were used to identify the helper T lymphocyte, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, and linear B lymphocyte epitopes on the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. Physicochemical properties of candidate epitopes were analyzed using IEDB, VaxiJen, and AllerTOP online software. Three candidate epitopes were synthesized and their antigenic responses were evaluated by binding antibody detection. RESULTS: A total of 20 antigenic, non-toxic and non-allergenic candidate epitopes were identified from 1502 epitopes, including 6 helper T-cell epitopes, 13 cytotoxic T-cell epitopes, and 1 linear B cell epitope. After immunization with antigen containing candidate epitopes S206-221, S403-425, and S1157-1170 in rabbits, the binding titers of serum antibody to the corresponding peptide, S protein, receptor-binding domain protein were (415044, 2582, 209.3), (852819, 45238, 457767) and (357897, 10528, 13.79), respectively. The binding titers to Omicron S protein were 642, 12,878 and 7750, respectively, showing that N211L, DEL212 and K417N mutations cause the reduction of the antibody binding activity. CONCLUSIONS: Bioinformatic methods are effective in peptide epitopes design. Certain mutations of the Omicron would lead to the loss of antibody affinity to Omicron S protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Humans , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Computational Biology/methods , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Immunity, Humoral , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit , Peptides
12.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother ; 41(5): 243-254, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097268

ABSTRACT

Increasing fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are a growing concern for global public health. Along with treatments, preventive measures are required. The emergence of reverse vaccinology has opened avenues for using genomic and proteomic data from pathogens in the design of vaccines. In this work, we present a comprehensive collection of various computational tools and databases with potential to aid in vaccine development. The ongoing pandemic has directed attention toward the increasing number of mucormycosis infections in COVID-19 patients. As a case study, we developed a computational pipeline for assisting vaccine development for mucormycosis. We obtained 6 proteins from 29,447 sequences from UniProtKB as potential vaccine candidates against mucormycosis, fulfilling multiple criteria. These criteria included potential characteristics, namely adhesin properties, surface or extracellular localization, antigenicity, no similarity to any human proteins, nonallergenicity, stability in vitro, and expression in fungal cells. These six proteins were predicted to have B cell and T cell epitopes, proinflammatory inducing peptides, and orthologs in several mucormycosis-causing species. These data could aid in vaccine development against mucormycosis for at-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Vaccinology , Proteomics , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Computers , Computational Biology
13.
Arch Med Res ; 53(7): 694-710, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mutations in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) facilitate the virus' escape from the neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccines. However, the protection from hospitalization and death is not significantly diminished. Both vaccine boosters and infection improve immune responses and provide protection, suggesting that conserved and/or cross-reactive epitopes could be involved. While several important T- and B-cell epitopes have been identified, mainly in the S protein, the M and N proteins and their potential cross-reactive epitopes with other coronaviruses remain largely unexplored. AIMS: To identify and map new potential B- and T-cell epitopes within the SARS-CoV-2 S, M and N proteins, as well as cross-reactive epitopes with human coronaviruses. METHODS: Different bioinformatics tools were used to: i) Identify new and compile previously-reported B-and T-cell epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 S, M and N proteins; ii) Determine the mutations in S protein from VOC that affect B- and T-cell epitopes, and; iii) Identify cross-reactive epitopes with coronaviruses relevant to human health. RESULTS: New, potential B- and T-cell epitopes from S, M and N proteins as well as cross-reactive epitopes with other coronaviruses were found and mapped within the proteins' structures. CONCLUSION: Numerous potential B- and T-cell epitopes were found in S, M and N proteins, some of which are conserved between coronaviruses. VOCs present mutations within important epitopes in the S protein; however, a significant number of other epitopes remain unchanged. The epitopes identified here may contribute to augmenting the protective response to SARS-CoV-2 and its variants induced by infection and/or vaccination, and may also be used for the rational design of novel broad-spectrum coronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Computational Biology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5586, 2022 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042319

ABSTRACT

Antibodies against the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can drive adaptive evolution in immunocompromised patients with chronic infection. Here we longitudinally analyze SARS-CoV-2 sequences in a B cell-depleted, lymphoma patient with chronic, ultimately fatal infection, and identify three mutations in the spike protein that dampen convalescent plasma-mediated neutralization of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, four mutations emerge in non-spike regions encoding three CD8 T cell epitopes, including one nucleoprotein epitope affected by two mutations. Recognition of each mutant peptide by CD8 T cells from convalescent donors is reduced compared to its ancestral peptide, with additive effects resulting from double mutations. Querying public SARS-CoV-2 sequences shows that these mutations have independently emerged as homoplasies in circulating lineages. Our data thus suggest that potential impacts of CD8 T cells on SARS-CoV-2 mutations, at least in those with humoral immunodeficiency, warrant further investigation to inform on vaccine design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphoma , Vaccines , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/therapy , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mutation , Nucleoproteins/genetics , Peptides/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 Serotherapy
15.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024293

ABSTRACT

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and devastating virus that infects cloven-hoofed livestock and various wildlife species. Vaccination is the best measure to prevent FMD. ADDomer, as a kind of non-infectious adenovirus-inspired nanoparticle, has the advantage of high thermal stability. In this study, two dominant B-cell antigen epitopes (residues 129~160 and 200~213) and a dominant T-cell antigen epitope (residues 16~44) of type O FMDV were inserted into the ADDomer variable loop (VL) and arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) loop. The 3D structure of the recombinant protein (ADDomer-RBT) was simulated by homology modeling. First, the recombinant proteins were expressed by the baculovirus expression system and detected by western blot and Q Exactive mass spectrometry. Then the formation of VLPs was observed under a transmission electron micrograph (TEM). Finally, we evaluated the immunogenicity of chimeric VLPs with a murine model. Bioinformatic software analysis preliminarily corroborated that the chosen epitopes were successfully exposed on the surface of ADDomer VLPs. The TEM assay demonstrated the structural integrity of the VLPs. After immunizing, it was found that FMDV-specific antibodies can be produced in mice to induce humoral and cellular immune responses. To sum up, the ADDomer platform can be used as an effective antigen carrier to deliver antigen epitopes. This study presents one of the candidate vaccines to prevent and control FMDV.


Subject(s)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Mice , Viral Vaccines/genetics
16.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 33(9): 649-675, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008373

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has made a worldwide health emergency. Despite the fact that current vaccines are readily available, several SARSCoV-2 variants affecting the existing vaccine are to be less effective due to the mutations in the structural proteins. Furthermore, the appearance of the new variants cannot be easily predicted in the future. Therefore, the attempts to construct new vaccines or to modify the current vaccines are still pivotal works for preventing the spread of the virus. In the present investigation, the computational analysis through immunoinformatics, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is employed to construct an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV2. The structural proteins of SARS-CoV2 are utilized to create a multiepitope-based vaccine (MEV). According to our findings presented by systematic procedures in the current investigation, the MEV construct may be able to trigger a strong immunological response against the virus. Therefore, the designed MEV could be a potential vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2, and also it is expected to be effective for other variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , RNA, Viral , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14017, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991672

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has gained mutations at an alarming rate in the past years. Developing mutations can increase the virus's pathogenicity and virulence; reduce the efficacy of vaccines, antibodies neutralization, and even challenge adaptive immunity. So, it is essential to identify conserved epitopes (with fewer mutations) in different variants with appropriate antigenicity to target the variants by an appropriate vaccine design. Yet as, 3369 SARS-CoV-2 genomes were collected from global initiative on sharing avian flu data. Then, mutations in the immunodominant regions (IDRs), immune epitope database (IEDB) epitopes, and also predicted epitopes were calculated. In the following, epitopes conservity score against the total number of events (mutations) and the number of mutated sites in each epitope was weighted by Shannon entropy and then calculated by the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Based on the TOPSIS conservity score and antigenicity score, the epitopes were plotted. The result demonstrates that almost all epitopes and IDRs with various lengths have gained different numbers of mutations in dissimilar sites. Herein, our two-step calculation for conservity recommends only 8 IDRs, 14 IEDB epitopes, and 10 predicted epitopes among all epitopes. The selected ones have higher conservity and higher immunogenicity. This method is an open-source multi-criteria decision-making platform, which provides a scientific approach to selecting epitopes with appropriate conservity and immunogenicity; against ever-changing viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
Virology ; 572: 28-43, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991334

ABSTRACT

The newly discovered SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant B.1.1.529 is a Variant of Concern (VOC) announced by the World Health Organization (WHO). It's becoming increasingly difficult to keep these variants from spreading over the planet. The fifth wave has begun in several countries because of Omicron variant, and it is posing a threat to human civilization. As a result, we need effective vaccination that can tackle Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants that are bound to emerge. Therefore, the current study is an initiative to design a peptide-based chimeric vaccine that may potentially battle SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. As a result, the most relevant epitopes present in the mutagenic areas of Omicron spike protein were identified using a set of computational tools and immunoinformatic techniques to uncover common MHC-1, MHC-II, and B cell epitopes that may have the ability to influence the host immune mechanism. A final of three epitopes from CD8+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell epitopes, and B-cell were shortlisted from spike protein, and that are highly antigenic, IFN-γ inducer, as well as overlapping for the construction of twelve vaccine models. As a result, the antigenic epitopes were coupled with a flexible and stable peptide linker, and the adjuvant was added at the N-terminal end to create a unique vaccine candidate. The structure of a 3D vaccine candidate was refined, and its quality was assessed by using web servers. However, the applied immunoinformatic study along with the molecular docking and simulation of 12 modeled vaccines constructs against six distinct HLAs, and TLRs (TLR2, and TLR4) complexes revealed that the V1 construct was non-allergenic, non-toxic, highly immunogenic, antigenic, and most stable. The vaccine candidate's stability was confirmed by molecular dynamics investigations. Finally, we studied the expression of the suggested vaccination using codon optimization and in-silico cloning. The current study proposed V1 Multi-Epitope Vaccine (MEV) as a significant vaccine candidate that may help the scientific community to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Computational Biology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics
19.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939026

ABSTRACT

Omicron BA.1 variant can readily infect people with vaccine-induced or naturally acquired SARS-CoV-2 immunity facilitated by escape from neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, T-cell reactivity against the Omicron BA.1 variant seems relatively well preserved. Here, we studied the preexisting T cells elicited by either vaccination with the mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine or by natural infection with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 for their cross-reactive potential to 20 selected CD4+ T-cell epitopes of spike-protein-harboring Omicron BA.1 mutations. Although the overall memory CD4+ T-cell responses primed by the ancestral spike protein was still preserved generally, we show here that there is also a clear loss of memory CD4+ T-cell cross-reactivity to immunodominant epitopes across the spike protein due to Omicron BA.1 mutations. Complete or partial loss of preexisting T-cell responsiveness was observed against 60% of 20 nonconserved CD4+ T-cell epitopes predicted to be presented by a broad set of common HLA class II alleles. Monitoring such mutations in circulating strains helps predict which virus variants may escape previously induced cellular immunity and could be of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 891524, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933678

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, mutations have led to the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, and some of these have become prominent or dominant variants of concern. This natural course of development can have an impact on how protective the previously naturally or vaccine induced immunity is. Therefore, it is crucial to understand whether and how variant specific mutations influence host immunity. To address this, we have investigated how mutations in the recent SARS-CoV-2 variants of interest and concern influence epitope sequence similarity, predicted binding affinity to HLA, and immunogenicity of previously reported SARS-CoV-2 CD8 T cell epitopes. Our data suggests that the vast majority of SARS-CoV-2 CD8 T cell recognized epitopes are not altered by variant specific mutations. Interestingly, for the CD8 T cell epitopes that are altered due to variant specific mutations, our analyses show there is a high degree of sequence similarity between mutated and reference SARS-CoV-2 CD8 T cell epitopes. However, mutated epitopes, primarily derived from the spike protein, in SARS-CoV-2 variants Delta, AY.4.2 and Mu display reduced predicted binding affinity to their restriction element. These findings indicate that the recent SARS-CoV-2 variants of interest and concern have limited ability to escape memory CD8 T cell responses raised by vaccination or prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 early in the pandemic. The overall low impact of the mutations on CD8 T cell cross-recognition is in accordance with the notion that mutations in SARS-CoV-2 are primarily the result of receptor binding affinity and antibody selection pressures exerted on the spike protein, unrelated to T cell immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL