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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 19, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616981

ABSTRACT

T cells play a vital role in combatting SARS-CoV-2 and forming long-term memory responses. Whereas extensive structural information is available on neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, such information on SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) bound to their peptide-MHC targets is lacking. Here we determine the structures of a public and a private TCR from COVID-19 convalescent patients in complex with HLA-A2 and two SARS-CoV-2 spike protein epitopes (YLQ and RLQ). The structures reveal the basis for selection of particular TRAV and TRBV germline genes by the public but not the private TCR, and for the ability of the TCRs to recognize natural variants of RLQ but not YLQ. Neither TCR recognizes homologous epitopes from human seasonal coronaviruses. By elucidating the mechanism for TCR recognition of an immunodominant yet variable epitope (YLQ) and a conserved but less commonly targeted epitope (RLQ), this study can inform prospective efforts to design vaccines to elicit pan-coronavirus immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , HLA-A2 Antigen/chemistry , HLA-A2 Antigen/metabolism , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/metabolism , Jurkat Cells , K562 Cells , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Peptides/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
2.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470934

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)) has caused relatively high mortality rates in humans throughout the world since its first detection in late December 2019, leading to the most devastating pandemic of the current century. Consequently, SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic interventions have received high priority from public health authorities. Despite increased COVID-19 infections, a vaccine or therapy to cover all the population is not yet available. Herein, immunoinformatics and custommune tools were used to identify B and T-cells epitopes from the available SARS-CoV-2 sequences spike (S) protein. In the in silico predictions, six B cell epitopes QTGKIADYNYK, TEIYQASTPCNGVEG, LQSYGFQPT, IRGDEVRQIAPGQTGKIADYNYKLPD, FSQILPDPSKPSKRS and PFAMQMAYRFNG were cross-reacted with MHC-I and MHC-II T-cells binding epitopes and selected for vaccination in experimental animals for evaluation as candidate vaccine(s) due to their high antigenic matching and conserved score. The selected six peptides were used individually or in combinations to immunize female Balb/c mice. The immunized mice raised reactive antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in two different short peptides located in receptor binding domain and S2 region. In combination groups, an additive effect was demonstrated in-comparison with single peptide immunized mice. This study provides novel epitope-based peptide vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunization , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 725240, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463472

ABSTRACT

Ongoing evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus strains is posing new COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment challenges. To help efforts to meet these challenges we examined data acquired from proteomic analyses of human SARS-CoV-2-infected cell lines and samples from COVID-19 patients. Initially, 129 unique peptides were identified, which were rigorously evaluated for repeats, disorders, polymorphisms, antigenicity, immunogenicity, toxicity, allergens, sequence similarity to human proteins, and contributions from other potential cross-reacting pathogenic species or the human saliva microbiome. We also screened SARS-CoV-2-infected NBHE and A549 cell lines for presence of antigenic peptides, and identified paratope peptides from crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-antibody complexes. We then selected four antigen peptides for docking with known viral unbound T-cell receptor (TCR), class I and II peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC), and identified paratope sequences. We also tested the paratope binding affinity of SARS-CoV T- and B-cell peptides that had been previously experimentally validated. The resultant antigenic peptides have high potential for generating SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, and the paratope peptides can be directly used to develop a COVID-19 diagnostics assay. The presented genomics and proteomics-based in-silico approaches have apparent utility for identifying new diagnostic peptides that could be used to fight SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Peptides/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , A549 Cells , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Proteomics , Receptors, Antigen/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 17): 484, 2020 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We previously introduced PCPS (Proteasome Cleavage Prediction Server), a web-based tool to predict proteasome cleavage sites using n-grams. Here, we evaluated the ability of PCPS immunoproteasome cleavage model to discriminate CD8+ T cell epitopes. RESULTS: We first assembled an epitope dataset consisting of 844 unique virus-specific CD8+ T cell epitopes and their source proteins. We then analyzed cleavage predictions by PCPS immunoproteasome cleavage model on this dataset and compared them with those provided by a related method implemented by NetChop web server. PCPS was clearly superior to NetChop in term of sensitivity (0.89 vs. 0.79) but somewhat inferior with regard to specificity (0.55 vs. 0.60). Judging by the Mathew's Correlation Coefficient, PCPS predictions were overall superior to those provided by NetChop (0.46 vs. 0.39). We next analyzed the power of C-terminal cleavage predictions provided by the same PCPS model to discriminate CD8+ T cell epitopes, finding that they could be discriminated from random peptides with an accuracy of 0.74. Following these results, we tuned the PCPS web server to predict CD8+ T cell epitopes and predicted the entire SARS-CoV-2 epitope space. CONCLUSIONS: We report an improved version of PCPS named iPCPS for predicting proteasome cleavage sites and peptides with CD8+ T cell epitope features. iPCPS is available for free public use at https://imed.med.ucm.es/Tools/pcps/ .


Subject(s)
Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Humans , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Software , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
5.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(8): 1847-1860, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387308

ABSTRACT

CD4+ T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses via binding of antigens to their receptors through specific peptide/MHC-II complexes. To study these responses, it is essential to identify protein-derived MHC-II peptide ligands that constitute epitopes for T cell recognition. However, generating cells expressing single MHC-II alleles and isolating these proteins for use in peptide elution or binding studies is time consuming. Here, we express human MHC alleles (HLA-DR4 and HLA-DQ6) as native, noncovalent αß dimers on yeast cells for direct flow cytometry-based screening of peptide ligands from selected antigens. We demonstrate rapid, accurate identification of DQ6 ligands from pre-pro-hypocretin, a narcolepsy-related immunogenic target. We also identify 20 DR4-binding SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides homologous to SARS-CoV-1 epitopes, and one spike peptide overlapping with the reported SARS-CoV-2 epitope recognized by CD4+ T cells from unexposed individuals carrying DR4 subtypes. Our method is optimized for immediate application upon the emergence of novel pathogens.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , HLA-DQ Antigens/metabolism , HLA-DR4 Antigen/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Two-Hybrid System Techniques , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Flow Cytometry , HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics , HLA-DQ Antigens/immunology , HLA-DR4 Antigen/genetics , HLA-DR4 Antigen/immunology , Ligands , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(6): 100312, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275763

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the epitopes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) targeted by T cells in recovered (convalescent) individuals is important for understanding T cell immunity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This information can aid development and assessment of COVID-19 vaccines and inform novel diagnostic technologies. Here, we provide a unified description and meta-analysis of SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes compiled from 18 studies of cohorts of individuals recovered from COVID-19 (852 individuals in total). Our analysis demonstrates the broad diversity of T cell epitopes that have been recorded for SARS-CoV-2. A large majority are seemingly unaffected by current variants of concern. We identify a set of 20 immunoprevalent epitopes that induced T cell responses in multiple cohorts and in a large fraction of tested individuals. The landscape of SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes we describe can help guide immunological studies, including those related to vaccines and diagnostics. A web-based platform has been developed to help complement these efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA Antigens/genetics , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 598778, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133909

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) caused by viruses are increasing in frequency, causing a high disease burden and mortality world-wide. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need to innovate and accelerate the development of effective vaccination strategies against EIDs. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules play a central role in the immune system by determining the peptide repertoire displayed to the T-cell compartment. Genetic polymorphisms of the HLA system thus confer a strong variability in vaccine-induced immune responses and may complicate the selection of vaccine candidates, because the distribution and frequencies of HLA alleles are highly variable among different ethnic groups. Herein, we build on the emerging paradigm of rational epitope-based vaccine design, by describing an immunoinformatics tool (Predivac-3.0) for proteome-wide T-cell epitope discovery that accounts for ethnic-level variations in immune responsiveness. Predivac-3.0 implements both CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitope predictions based on HLA allele frequencies retrieved from the Allele Frequency Net Database. The tool was thoroughly assessed, proving comparable performances (AUC ~0.9) against four state-of-the-art pan-specific immunoinformatics methods capable of population-level analysis (NetMHCPan-4.0, Pickpocket, PSSMHCPan and SMM), as well as a strong accuracy on proteome-wide T-cell epitope predictions for HIV-specific immune responses in the Japanese population. The utility of the method was investigated for the COVID-19 pandemic, by performing in silico T-cell epitope mapping of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein according to the ethnic context of the countries where the ChAdOx1 vaccine is currently initiating phase III clinical trials. Potentially immunodominant CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes and population coverages were predicted for each population (the Epitope Discovery mode), along with optimized sets of broadly recognized (promiscuous) T-cell epitopes maximizing coverage in the target populations (the Epitope Optimization mode). Population-specific epitope-rich regions (T-cell epitope clusters) were further predicted in protein antigens based on combined criteria of epitope density and population coverage. Overall, we conclude that Predivac-3.0 holds potential to contribute in the understanding of ethnic-level variations of vaccine-induced immune responsiveness and to guide the development of epitope-based next-generation vaccines against emerging pathogens, whose geographic distributions and populations in need of vaccinations are often well-defined for regional epidemics.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , HLA Antigens/genetics , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Medical Informatics Applications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Software , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 171: 29-47, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064698

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence suggests that T cells may play a critical role in combating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Hence, COVID-19 vaccines that can elicit a robust T cell response may be particularly important. The design, development and experimental evaluation of such vaccines is aided by an understanding of the landscape of T cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2, which is largely unknown. Due to the challenges of identifying epitopes experimentally, many studies have proposed the use of in silico methods. Here, we present a review of the in silico methods that have been used for the prediction of SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes. These methods employ a diverse set of technical approaches, often rooted in machine learning. A performance comparison is provided based on the ability to identify a specific set of immunogenic epitopes that have been determined experimentally to be targeted by T cells in convalescent COVID-19 patients, shedding light on the relative performance merits of the different approaches adopted by the in silico studies. The review also puts forward perspectives for future research directions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Computer Simulation/trends , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Immunity ; 53(6): 1245-1257.e5, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922005

ABSTRACT

Understanding the hallmarks of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is critical for fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed antibody and T cell reactivity in convalescent COVID-19 patients and healthy donors sampled both prior to and during the pandemic. Healthy donors examined during the pandemic exhibited increased numbers of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells, but no humoral response. Their probable exposure to the virus resulted in either asymptomatic infection without antibody secretion or activation of preexisting immunity. In convalescent patients, we observed a public and diverse T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 epitopes, revealing T cell receptor (TCR) motifs with germline-encoded features. Bulk CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to the spike protein were mediated by groups of homologous TCRs, some of them shared across multiple donors. Overall, our results demonstrate that the T cell response to SARS-CoV-2, including the identified set of TCRs, can serve as a useful biomarker for surveying antiviral immunity.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Asymptomatic Infections , Cells, Cultured , Convalescence , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
10.
Vaccine ; 38(49): 7697-7701, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920526

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, has been spreading throughout the world. To date, there are still no approved human vaccines for this disease. To develop an effective vaccine, the establishment of animal models for evaluating post-vaccination immune responses is necessary. In this study, we have identified a CTL epitope in the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein that could be used to measure the cellular immune response against this protein. Potential predicted CTL epitopes of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein were investigated by immunizing BALB/c mice with a recombinant of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S protein. Then, CD8+ T cells specific for S-RBD were detected by stimulating with potential epitope peptides and then measuring the interferon-gamma production. Truncation of this peptide revealed that S-RBD-specific CD8+ T cells recognized a H2-Dd-restricted S526-533 peptide. In conclusion, this animal model is suitable for evaluating the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Female , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Peptides/immunology , Peptides/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(22): 9920-9930, 2020 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919398

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome from novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has put an immense pressure worldwide where vaccination is believed to be an efficient way for developing hard immunity. Herein, we employ immunoinformatic tools to identify B-cell, T-cell epitopes associated with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which is important for genome release. The results showed that the highly immunogenic epitopes located at the stalk part are mostly conserved compared to the receptor binding domain (RDB). Further, two vaccine candidates were computationally modeled from the linear B-cell, T-cell epitopes. Molecular docking reveals the crucial interactions of the vaccines with immune-receptors, and their stability is assessed by MD simulation studies. The chimeric vaccines showed remarkable binding affinity toward the immune cell receptors computed by the MM/PBSA method. van der Waals and electrostatic interactions are found to be the dominant factors for the stability of the complexes. The molecular-level interaction obtained from this study may provide deeper insight into the process of vaccine development against the pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/metabolism
12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104587, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-837819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus (CoV) spike (S) protein is critical for receptor binding, membrane fusion and internalization of the virus into the human cells. We have tried to search the epitopic component of the S-protein that might be served as crucial targets for the vaccine development and also tried to understand the molecular mechanism of epitopes and TLR4/MD-2 complex for adaptive immunity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Here we identified the antigenicity and the epitopic divergence of S-protein via immunoinformatics approach. The study was performed to identify the epitopes, composition of amino acids and its distribution in epitopic regions, composition of amino acid between the identified epitopes, secondary structure architecture of epitopes, physicochemical and biochemical parameters and molecular interaction between the identified epitope and TLR4/MD-2 complex. The SARS-CoV-2 can be possibly recognised by TLR4 of host immune cells that are responsible for the adaptive immune response. RESULTS: We identified four SARS-CoV-2 S-protein 9mer antigenic epitopes and observed that they bind with the TLR4/MD-2 complex by varied stable molecular bonding interactions. Molecular interaction between these characterized epitopes with TLR4/MD-2 complex might be indicated the binding affinity and downstream signalling of adaptive immune response. Different physicochemical and biochemical parameters such as O-glycosylation and N-glycosylation, Hydrophobicity, GRAVY were identified within epitopic regions of S-protein. These parameters help to understand the protein-protein interaction between epitopes and TLR4/MD-2 complex. The study also revealed different epitopic binding pockets of TLR4/MD-2 complex. CONCLUSIONS: The identified epitopes impart suitable prospects for the development of novel peptide-based epitopic vaccine for the control of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Lymphocyte Antigen 96/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
Virus Res ; 288: 198082, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624387

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people with a large number of deaths across the globe. The existing therapies are limited in dealing with SARS-CoV-2 due to the sudden appearance of the virus. Therefore, vaccines and antiviral medicines are in desperate need. We took immune-informatics approaches to identify B- and T-cell epitopes for surface glycoprotein (S), membrane glycoprotein (M) and nucleocapsid protein (N) of SARS-CoV-2, followed by estimating their antigenicity and interactions with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Allergenicity, toxicity, physiochemical properties analysis and stability were examined to confirm the specificity and selectivity of the epitope candidates. We identified a total of five B cell epitopes in RBD of S protein, seven MHC class-I, and 18 MHC class-II binding T-cell epitopes from S, M and N protein which showed non-allergenic, non-toxic and highly antigenic features and non-mutated in 55,179 SARS-CoV-2 virus strains until June 25, 2020. The epitopes identified here can be a potentially good candidate repertoire for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus M Proteins , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Models, Molecular , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104382, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381941

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has caused a large number of deaths, with thousands of confirmed cases worldwide. The present study followed computational approaches to identify B- and T-cell epitopes for the spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 by its interactions with the human leukocyte antigen alleles. We identified 24 peptide stretches on the SARS-CoV-2 S protein that are well conserved among the reported strains. The S protein structure further validated the presence of predicted peptides on the surface, of which 20 are surface exposed and predicted to have reasonable epitope binding efficiency. The work could be useful for understanding the immunodominant regions in the surface protein of SARS-CoV-2 and could potentially help in designing some peptide-based diagnostics. Also, identified T-cell epitopes might be considered for incorporation in vaccine designs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Genome, Viral/immunology , HLA Antigens/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Gene Expression , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , Immunodominant Epitopes/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
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