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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(9): 11068-11077, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713108

ABSTRACT

Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, it is evident that viral spread is mediated through several different transmission pathways. Reduction of these transmission pathways is urgently needed to control the spread of viruses between infected and susceptible individuals. Herein, we report the use of pathogen-repellent plastic wraps (RepelWrap) with engineered surface structures at multiple length scales (nanoscale to microscale) as a means of reducing the indirect contact transmission of viruses through fomites. To quantify viral repellency, we developed a touch-based viral quantification assay to mimic the interaction of a contaminated human touch with a surface through the modification of traditional viral quantification methods (viral plaque and TCID50 assays). These studies demonstrate that RepelWrap reduced contamination with an enveloped DNA virus as well as the human coronavirus 229E (HuCoV-229E) by more than 4 log 10 (>99.99%) compared to a standard commercially available polyethylene plastic wrap. In addition, RepelWrap maintained its repellent properties after repeated 300 touches and did not show an accumulation in viral titer after multiple contacts with contaminated surfaces, while increases were seen on other commonly used surfaces. These findings show the potential use of repellent surfaces in reducing viral contamination on surfaces, which could, in turn, reduce the surface-based spread and transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus 229E, Human/growth & development , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Infection Control/instrumentation , Plastics/chemistry , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Surface Properties
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686816

ABSTRACT

This Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, entitled "Antimicrobial Materials with Medical Applications", covers a selection of recent research and review articles in the field of antimicrobial materials, as well as their medical applications [...].


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Drug Development , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , Product Packaging
3.
Endoscopy ; 54(2): 148-155, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of exogenous infections from endoscopic procedures is often cited as almost negligible (1 infection in 1.8 million procedures); however, this risk is based on older literature and does not seem to match the number of infectious outbreaks due to contaminated duodenoscopes reported after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Using Dutch data, we aimed to estimate the minimum risk of duodenoscope-associated infection (DAI) and colonization (DAC) in patients undergoing ERCP. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified all DAI outbreaks in the Netherlands reported between 2008 and 2019. Included cases were confirmed by molecular matching of patient and duodenoscope cultures. Risk ratios were calculated based on the total number of ERCPs performed during the study period. RESULTS: Three outbreaks were reported and published between 2008 and 2018, including 21 confirmed DAI cases and 52 confirmed DAC cases. The estimated number of ERCPs performed during the same period was 181 209-227 006. The calculated minimum estimated DAI risk was approximately 0.01 % and the minimum estimated DAC risk was 0.023 %-0.029 %. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated risk of DAI in Dutch ERCP practice was at least 180 times higher than previously published risk estimates. The actual risk is likely to be (much) higher due to underreporting of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms and sensitive bacteria. Greater awareness by healthcare personnel involved in endoscopy and endoscope cleaning is required, as well as innovative technical solutions to contain and ultimately eliminate DAIs.


Subject(s)
Duodenoscopes , Equipment Contamination , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/adverse effects , Disease Outbreaks , Duodenoscopes/microbiology , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology
4.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 32(1): 91-92, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566315
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22868, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532097

ABSTRACT

Transfer of SARS-CoV-2 from solids to fingers is one step in infection via contaminated solids, and the possibility of infection from this route has driven calls for increased frequency of handwashing during the COVID-19 pandemic. To analyze this route of infection, we measured the percentage of SARS-CoV-2 that was transferred from a solid to an artificial finger. A droplet of SARS-CoV-2 suspension (1 µL) was placed on a solid, and then artificial skin was briefly pressed against the solid with a light force (3 N). Transfer from a variety of solids was detected, and transfer from the non-porous solids, glass, stainless steel, and Teflon, was substantial when the droplet was still wet. The viral titer for the finger was 13-16% or 0.8-0.9 log less than for the input droplet. Transfer still occurred after the droplet evaporated, but was smaller, 3-9%. We found a lower level of transfer from porous solids but did not find a significant effect of solid wettability for non-porous solids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin/virology , Viral Load
6.
J Hosp Infect ; 113: 104-114, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531580

ABSTRACT

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are the most common adverse outcomes due to delivery of medical care. HAIs increase morbidity and mortality, prolong hospital stay, and are associated with additional healthcare costs. Contaminated surfaces, particularly those that are touched frequently, act as reservoirs for pathogens and contribute towards pathogen transmission. Therefore, healthcare hygiene requires a comprehensive approach whereby different strategies may be implemented together, next to targeted, risk-based approaches, in order to reduce the risk of HAIs for patients. This approach includes hand hygiene in conjunction with environmental cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and clinical equipment. This review focuses on routine environmental cleaning and disinfection including areas with a moderate risk of contamination, such as general wards. As scientific evidence has not yet resulted in universally accepted guidelines nor led to universally accepted practical recommendations pertaining to surface cleaning and disinfection, this review provides expert guidance for healthcare workers in their daily practice. It also covers outbreak situations and suggests practical guidance for clinically relevant pathogens. Key elements of environmental cleaning and disinfection, including a fundamental clinical risk assessment, choice of appropriate disinfectants and cleaning equipment, definitions for standardized cleaning processes and the relevance of structured training, are reviewed in detail with a focus on practical topics and implementation.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Disinfectants , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Disinfection , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Humans , Hygiene
7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 403, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence about the impact of the pandemic of COVID-19 on the incidence rates of blood cultures contaminations and bloodstream infections in intensive care units (ICUs) remains scant. The objective of this study was to investigate the nationwide epidemiology of positive blood cultures drawn in ICUs during the first two pandemic waves of COVID-19 in Switzerland. METHODS: We analyzed data on positive blood cultures among ICU patients, prospectively collected through a nationwide surveillance system (ANRESIS), from March 30, 2020, to May 31, 2021, a 14-month timeframe that included a first wave of COVID-19, which affected the French and Italian-speaking regions, an interim period (summer 2020) and a second wave that affected the entire country. We used the number of ICU patient-days provided by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health as denominator to calculate incidence rates of blood culture contaminations and bloodstream infections (ICU-BSI). Incidence rate ratios comparing the interim period with the second wave were determined by segmented Poisson regression models. RESULTS: A total of 1099 blood culture contaminations and 1616 ICU-BSIs were identified in 52 ICUs during the study. Overall, more episodes of blood culture contaminations and ICU-BSI were observed during the pandemic waves, compared to the interim period. The proportions of blood culture contaminations and ICU-BSI were positively associated with the ICU occupancy rate, which was higher during the COVID-19 waves. During the more representative second wave (versus interim period), we observed an increased incidence of blood culture contaminations (IRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.16-2.12) and ICU-BSI (IRR 1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.39). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in blood culture contaminations and ICU-BSIs was observed during the second COVID-19 pandemic wave, especially in months when the ICU burden of COVID-19 patients was high.


Subject(s)
Blood Culture , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Sepsis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Switzerland/epidemiology
8.
N Biotechnol ; 66: 36-45, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521430

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a major need for non-destructive and environmentally friendly disinfection methods. This work presents the development and testing of a disinfection process based on gaseous ozone for SARS-CoV-2-contaminated porous and non-porous surfaces. A newly developed disinfection chamber was used, equipped with a CeraPlas™ cold plasma generator that produces ozone during plasma ignition. A reduction of more than log 6 of infectious virus could be demonstrated for virus-contaminated cotton and FFP3 face masks as well as glass slides after exposure to 800 ppm ozone for 10-60 min, depending on the material. In contrast to other disinfectants, ozone can be produced quickly and cost-effectively, and its environmentally friendly breakdown product oxygen does not leave harmful residues. Disinfection with ozone could help to overcome delivery difficulties of personal protective equipment by enabling safe reuse with further applications, thereby reducing waste generation, and may allow regular disinfection of personal items with non-porous surfaces.


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , Ozone , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Equipment Contamination , Masks/virology , Ozone/pharmacology , Porosity
9.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 8133076, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501834

ABSTRACT

The mouse is one of the wonderful inventions of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) technology. Currently, wireless mouse or a Bluetooth mouse still uses devices and is not free of devices completely since it uses a battery for power and a dongle to connect it to the PC. In the proposed AI virtual mouse system, this limitation can be overcome by employing webcam or a built-in camera for capturing of hand gestures and hand tip detection using computer vision. The algorithm used in the system makes use of the machine learning algorithm. Based on the hand gestures, the computer can be controlled virtually and can perform left click, right click, scrolling functions, and computer cursor function without the use of the physical mouse. The algorithm is based on deep learning for detecting the hands. Hence, the proposed system will avoid COVID-19 spread by eliminating the human intervention and dependency of devices to control the computer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Equipment Contamination , Algorithms , Computers , Gestures , Hand , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Retina ; 41(11): 2215-2220, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483570

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the bacterial growth in the surgical face masks used by patients who received intravitreal injections and study the effect of povidone-iodine on the periocular area (PA) of masks. METHODS: Forty patients who attended for intravitreal injections were divided in those with less (<4 hours) and more (>4 hours) than 4 hours of mask use. Each group was divided depending on the application or not of povidone-iodine in the PA of the mask. Bacterial load was studied on PA and mouth area samples. RESULTS: The bacterial load in the PA was higher in the >4 hours group compared with the <4 hours group (13.2 vs. 48.75 colony-forming units/µL; P = 0.03). The contamination in the PA significantly decreased after applying povidone-iodine in the >4 hours group (P = 0.01). The use or not of povidone-iodine was strongly correlated to a positive culture (OR = 9.0, P = 0.00. CI 1.63-49.44). CONCLUSION: Surgical face masks worn for more than 4 hours present higher contamination in the PA than those with less use. Bacterial load in the PA is reduced with povidone-iodine on masks used for more than 4 hours. This contamination should be considered in the asepsis protocol of intravitreal injections.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment Contamination , Masks/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Bacterial Load , Bacteriological Techniques , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
12.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 462-468, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451067

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread rapidly worldwide. The role of fomites in facilitating onward transmission is plausible. This study aimed to determine the presence of viable virus and its persistence on the surfaces of fomites in wards treating COVID-19 patients in Malaysia. This study was conducted in two stages. First, environmental sampling was performed on random days in the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. Then, in the second stage, samples were collected serially on alternate days for 7 days in two selected general wards. In Stage 1, a total of 104 samples were collected from the surfaces of highly touched and used areas by patients and healthcare workers. Only three samples were tested positive for SARS-COV-2. In Stage 2, three surface samples were detected positive, but no persistence of the virus was observed. However, none of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA was viable through tissue culture. Overall, the environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 was low in this hospital setting. Hospitals' strict infection control and the compliance of patients with wearing masks may have played a role in these findings, suggesting adherence to those measures to reduce occupational exposure of COVID-19 in hospital settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Fomites/virology , Infection Control/methods , Equipment Contamination , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Malaysia , Patients' Rooms/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(3): 631-666, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340080

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in health care settings are complex and should be evaluated systematically using epidemiologic and molecular tools. Outbreaks result from failures of infection prevention practices, inadequate staffing, and undertrained or overcommitted health care personnel. Contaminated hands, equipment, supplies, water, ventilation systems, and environment may also contribute. Neonatal intensive care, endoscopy, oncology, and transplant units are areas at particular risk. Procedures, such as bronchoscopy and endoscopy, are sources of infection when cleaning and disinfection processes are inadequate. New types of equipment can be introduced and lead to contamination or equipment and medications can be contaminated at the manufacturing source.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disinfection , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Infection Control , Health Facilities , Humans , Infant, Newborn
14.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(3): 575-607, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340079

ABSTRACT

All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical, semicritical, or noncritical. New issues and practices can affect the risk of infection associated with devices and surfaces. Endoscopes continue to represent a nosocomial hazard. The contaminated surface environment in hospital rooms is important in the transmission of health care-associated pathogens. Thoroughness of cleaning must be monitored and no-touch room decontamination technology should be. In general, emerging pathogens are susceptible to currently available disinfectants.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Disinfectants , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Sterilization/methods , Endoscopes , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital , Hospitals , Humans , Temperature
15.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1127): 20210607, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430509

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of aerosol spread of infection. We have conducted a study to detect bacterial contamination of room surfaces and room air during CT colonography and confirm the efficacy of room disinfection procedures carried out between examinations. METHODS: Systematic sampling of the CT examination couch and horizontal surfaces 1 m and 3 m from the couch was performed before and after patient examinations. A 1 m3 sample of room air was obtained during patient examinations. Samples were processed using routine laboratory methods. A case-control study design was used (30 CT colonography and 30 routine body CT scans). RESULTS: Evidence of airborne dissemination of bacteria was detected in >30% of CT colonography examinations and <10% of control examinations (p = 0.01). No pathogenic bacteria were detected in surface samples taken before patient examinations. CONCLUSION: The room disinfection policy in use in our CT department is effective in eliminating pathogenic bacteria from surfaces in the patient environment. CT colonography causes contamination of room air with enteric bacteria in a significant proportion of cases. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: CT colonography may possibly be an aerosol-generating procedure. Larger-scale investigation is needed to fully evaluate this potential infection risk.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/isolation & purification , Colonography, Computed Tomographic/methods , Disinfection/methods , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Feces/microbiology , Aerosols , Case-Control Studies , Humans , United Kingdom
16.
J Hosp Infect ; 114: 163-166, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385943

ABSTRACT

The survival of newer variants of SARS-CoV-2 on a representative surface has been compared to the established UK circulating isolate to determine whether enhanced environmental stability could play a part in their increased transmissibility. Stainless steel coupons were inoculated with liquid cultures of the three variants, with coupons recovered over seven days and processed for recoverable viable virus using plaque assay. After drying, there was no significant difference in inactivation rates between variants, indicating that there is no increased environmental persistence from the new variants.


Subject(s)
Equipment Contamination , SARS-CoV-2 , Stainless Steel , COVID-19 , Humans
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