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1.
Anesthesiology ; 135(6): 951-962, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546049

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses are transmitted via respiratory particles that are emitted when people breath, speak, cough, or sneeze. These particles span the size spectrum from visible droplets to airborne particles of hundreds of nanometers. Barrier face coverings ("cloth masks") and surgical masks are loose-fitting and provide limited protection from airborne particles since air passes around the edges of the mask as well as through the filtering material. Respirators, which fit tightly to the face, provide more effective respiratory protection. Although healthcare workers have relied primarily on disposable filtering facepiece respirators (such as N95) during the COVID-19 pandemic, reusable elastomeric respirators have significant potential advantages for the COVID-19 and future respiratory virus pandemics. However, currently available elastomeric respirators were not designed primarily for healthcare or pandemic use and require further development to improve their suitability for this application. The authors believe that the development, implementation, and stockpiling of improved elastomeric respirators should be an international public health priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Elastomers/standards , Equipment Design/standards , Health Personnel/standards , Occupational Exposure/standards , Ventilators, Mechanical/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Equipment Design/methods , Equipment Reuse/standards , Humans , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 34, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The insertion of inappropriately sized uncuffed endotracheal tubes (ETTs) with a tight seal or presence of air leakage may be necessary in children. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of the requirement of inappropriately sized uncuffed ETT insertion, air leakage after the ETT was replaced with one of a larger size, and factors associated with air leakage after ETT replacement. METHODS: Patients under 2 years of age who underwent oral surgery under general anesthesia with uncuffed ETTs between December 2013 and May 2015 were enrolled. The ETT size was selected at the discretion of the attending anesthesiologists. A leak test was performed after intubation. The ETT was replaced when considered necessary. Data regarding the leak pressure (PLeak) and inspiratory and expiratory tidal volumes were extracted from anesthesia records. We considered a PLeak of 10 < PLeak ≤ 30 cmH2O to be appropriate. The frequencies of the requirement of inappropriately sized ETTs, absence of leakage after ETT replacement, ETT size difference, and leak rate were calculated. A logistic regression was performed, with PLeak, leak rate, and size difference included as explanatory variables and presence of leakage after replacement as the outcome variable. RESULTS: Out of the 156 patients enrolled, 109 underwent ETT replacement, with the requirement of inappropriately sized ETTs being observed in 25 patients (23%). ETT replacement was performed in patients with PLeak ≤ 10 cmH2O; leakage was absent after replacement (PLeak < 30 cmH2O) in 52% of patients (25/48). In the multivariate logistic model, the leak rate before ETT replacement was significantly associated with the presence of leakage after replacement (p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Inappropriately sized ETTs were inserted in approximately 23% of the patients. The leak rate may be useful to guide ETT replacement.


Subject(s)
Equipment Design/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Equipment Design/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Retrospective Studies
4.
Respir Med ; 181: 106381, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157713

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge impact on public health and significantly changed our lifestyle. This is due to the fast airborne oro-nasal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from the infected individuals. The generation of liquid aerosolized particles occurs when the COVID-19 patients speak, sing, cough, sneeze, or simply breathe. We have developed a novel aerosol barrier mask (ABM) to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious pathogens. This Aerosol Barrier Mask is designed for preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission while transporting patients within hospital facilities. This mask can constrain aerosol and droplet particles and trap them in a biofilter, while the patient is normally breathing and administrated with medical oxygen. The system can be characterized as an oxygen delivery and mitigation mask which has no unfiltered exhaled air dispersion. The mask helps to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and potentially other infectious respiratory pathogens and protects everyone in general, especially healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Equipment Design/methods , Masks , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , Health Personnel , Humans
6.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(2): e00314, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097482

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, endoscopists have high risks of exposure to exhaled air from patients during gastroscopy. To minimize this risk, we transformed the oxygen mask into a fully closed negative-pressure gastroscope isolation mask. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of use of this mask during gastroscopy. METHODS: From February 28, 2020, to March 10, 2020, 320 patients undergoing gastroscopy were randomly assigned into the mask group (n = 160) or conventional group (n = 160). Patients in the mask group wore the isolation mask during gastroscopy, whereas patients in the conventional group did not wear the mask. The adenosine triphosphate fluorescence and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in patients' exhaled air were measured to reflect the degree of environmental pollution by exhaled air. Patients' vital signs, operation time, and adverse events during endoscopy were also evaluated. RESULTS: Four patients were excluded because of noncooperation or incomplete data. A total of 316 patients were included in the final analysis. The difference between the highest CO2 concentration around patients' mouth and CO2 concentration in the environment was significantly decreased in the mask group compared with the conventional group. There was no significant difference in the adenosine triphosphate fluorescence, vital signs, and operation time between the 2 groups. No severe adverse events related to the isolation mask, endoscopy failure, or new coronavirus infection during follow-up were recorded. DISCUSSION: This new isolation mask showed excellent feasibility of use and safety compared with routine gastroscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Gastroscopy/adverse effects , Masks/virology , Patient Isolators/virology , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Equipment Design/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Fluorescence , Gastroscopy/methods , Humans , Male , Masks/adverse effects , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Operative Time , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Safety , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(1): 51-57, 2021 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic. The virus spreads through respiratory droplets and close contact. Therefore, the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare professionals is essential. 3D printing technology could represent a valid option to ameliorate PPE shortages. METHODOLOGY: Custom-made face mask were designed on the basis of facial scan and then 3D-printed. The whole protocol is executed with freeware software and only required a 3D printer. Six healthcare workers wore the device weekly thus expressing a judgment regarding quality of work, respiratory and skin comfort. RESULTS: The estimated total cost of a single mask is approximately 5 USD. The virtual design of a complete mask lasted 68 minutes on average. Most healthcare workers rated comfort as very good. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the encouraging results obtained, we can confidently confirm that custom-made masks are novel and useful devices that may be used in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Design/methods , Masks/standards , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Equipment Design/instrumentation , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Masks/economics , Printing, Three-Dimensional/economics
8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(1): 66, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035286

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak, the auscultation of heart and lung sounds has played an important role in the comprehensive diagnosis and real-time monitoring of confirmed cases. With clinicians wearing protective clothing in isolation wards, a potato chip tube stethoscope, which is a secure and flexible substitute for a conventional stethoscope, has been used by Chinese medical workers in the first-line treatment of COVID-19. In this study, an optimal design for this simple cylindrical stethoscope is proposed based on the fundamental theory of acoustic waveguides. Analyses of the cutoff frequency, sound power transmission coefficient, and sound wave propagation in the uniform lossless tube provide theoretical guidance for selecting the geometric parameters for this simple cylindrical stethoscope. A basic investigation into the auscultatory performances of the original tube and the optimal tube with proposed dimensions was conducted both in a semi-anechoic chamber and in a quiet laboratory. Both experimental results and front-line doctors' clinical feedback endorse the proposed theoretical optimization.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Auscultation/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Equipment Design/standards , Stethoscopes/standards , Acoustics/instrumentation , Auscultation/instrumentation , Auscultation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Equipment Design/instrumentation , Equipment Design/methods , Humans , Respiratory Sounds/physiology , Respiratory Sounds/physiopathology
9.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(4): 782-785, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012440

ABSTRACT

Tight-fitting filtering facepiece (FFP3) face masks are essential respiratory protective equipment during aerosol-generating procedures in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) environment, and require a fit test to assess mask-face seal competency. Facial hair is considered to be an impediment for achieving a competent seal. We describe an under-mask beard cover called the Singh Thattha technique, which obtained a pass rate of 25/27 (92.6%) by qualitative and 5/5 (100%) by quantitative fit test in full-bearded individuals. Sturdier versions of FFP3 were more effective. For individuals for whom shaving is not possible, the Singh Thattha technique could offer an effective solution to safely don respirator masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Masks/supply & distribution , Respiratory Protective Devices/trends , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aerosols/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Design/methods , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Hair/physiology , Humans , Male , Masks/trends , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Patient Care
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244963, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999852

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the world in 2020 by spreading at unprecedented rates and causing tens of thousands of fatalities within a few months. The number of deaths dramatically increased in regions where the number of patients in need of hospital care exceeded the availability of care. Many COVID-19 patients experience Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), a condition that can be treated with mechanical ventilation. In response to the need for mechanical ventilators, designed and tested an emergency ventilator (EV) that can control a patient's peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) and breathing rate, while keeping a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). This article describes the rapid design, prototyping, and testing of the EV. The development process was enabled by rapid design iterations using additive manufacturing (AM). In the initial design phase, iterations between design, AM, and testing enabled a working prototype within one week. The designs of the 16 different components of the ventilator were locked by additively manufacturing and testing a total of 283 parts having parametrically varied dimensions. In the second stage, AM was used to produce 75 functional prototypes to support engineering evaluation and animal testing. The devices were tested over more than two million cycles. We also developed an electronic monitoring system and with automatic alarm to provide for safe operation, along with training materials and user guides. The final designs are available online under a free license. The designs have been transferred to more than 70 organizations in 15 countries. This project demonstrates the potential for ultra-fast product design, engineering, and testing of medical devices needed for COVID-19 emergency response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Equipment Design/methods , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Ventilators, Mechanical/adverse effects , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology , Respiratory Rate/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(8)2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999200

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a severe international shortage of the nasopharyngeal swabs that are required for collection of optimal specimens, creating a critical bottleneck blocking clinical laboratories' ability to perform high-sensitivity virological testing for SARS-CoV-2. To address this crisis, we designed and executed an innovative, cooperative, rapid-response translational-research program that brought together health care workers, manufacturers, and scientists to emergently develop and clinically validate new swabs for immediate mass production by 3D printing. We performed a multistep preclinical evaluation of 160 swab designs and 48 materials from 24 companies, laboratories, and individuals, and we shared results and other feedback via a public data repository (http://github.com/rarnaout/Covidswab/). We validated four prototypes through an institutional review board (IRB)-approved clinical trial that involved 276 outpatient volunteers who presented to our hospital's drive-through testing center with symptoms suspicious for COVID-19. Each participant was swabbed with a reference swab (the control) and a prototype, and SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) results were compared. All prototypes displayed excellent concordance with the control (κ = 0.85 to 0.89). Cycle threshold (CT ) values were not significantly different between each prototype and the control, supporting the new swabs' noninferiority (Mann-Whitney U [MWU] test, P > 0.05). Study staff preferred one of the prototypes over the others and preferred the control swab overall. The total time elapsed between identification of the problem and validation of the first prototype was 22 days. Contact information for ordering can be found at http://printedswabs.org Our experience holds lessons for the rapid development, validation, and deployment of new technology for this pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Equipment Design/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/methods , Young Adult
12.
S Afr Med J ; 0(0): 13162, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the global shortage of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFP2 in Europe) during the COVID-19 pandemic, KN95 masks (Chinese equivalent of the N95 and FFP2) were imported and distributed in South Africa (SA). However, there are hardly any published independent safety data on KN95 masks. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the seal, fit and filtration efficiency of several brands of KN95 masks marketed for widespread use in SA healthcare facilities, using standardised testing protocols. METHODS: The verifiability of manufacturer and technical details was first ascertained, followed by evaluation of the number of layers comprising the mask material. The testing protocol involved a directly observed positive and negative pressure user seal check, which if passed was followed by qualitative fit testing (sodium saccharin) in healthy laboratory or healthcare workers. Quantitative fit testing (3M) was used to validate the qualitative fit testing method. The filtration efficacy and integrity of the mask filter material were evaluated using a particle counter-based testing rig utilising aerosolised saline (expressed as filtration efficacy of 0.3 µm particles). Halyard FLUIDSHIELD 3 N95 and 3M 1860 N95 masks were used as controls. RESULTS: Twelve KN95 mask brands (total of 36 masks) were evaluated in 7 participants. The mask type and manufacturing details were printed on only 2/12 brands (17%) as per National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and European Union regulatory requirements. There was considerable variability in the number of KN95 mask layers (between 3 and 6 layers in the 12 brands evaluated). The seal check pass rate was significantly lower in KN95 compared with N95 masks (1/36 (3%) v. 12/12 (100%); p<0.0001). Modification of the KN95 ear-loop tension using head straps or staples, or improving the facial seal using Micropore 3M tape, enhanced seal test performance in 15/36 KN95 masks evaluated (42%). However, none of these 15 passed downstream qualitative fit testing compared with the control N95 masks (0/15 v. 12/12; p<0.0001). Only 4/8 (50%) of the KN95 brands tested passed the minimum filtration requirements for an N95 mask (suboptimal KN95 filtration efficacy varied from 12% to 78%, compared with 56% for a surgical mask and >99% for the N95 masks at the 0.3 µm particle size). CONCLUSIONS: The KN95 masks tested failed the stipulated safety thresholds associated with protection of healthcare workers against airborne pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2. These preliminary data have implications for the regulation of masks and their distribution to healthcare workers and facilities in SA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Materials Testing/methods , N95 Respirators/standards , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Design/methods , Equipment Design/standards , Equipment Failure Analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Safety Management/organization & administration , South Africa/epidemiology
13.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 197: 105762, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 prevention and control constantly affects lives worldwide. In this paper, household medical products were analyzed using fuzzy logic. Considering the household anti-epidemic status, economic and environmental benefits, the adaptable design method of anti-epidemic products in the vestibule was proposed. The measure of adaptable design method still have shortcomings. Therefore, an improved method that is based on fuzzy logic programming is required. METHOD: Firstly, common medical product types used in vestibules and household anti-epidemic products were identified and summarized into product sets. Then matching degree matrix was obtained by functional configuration decomposition and matching calculations. Secondly, experts were invited to evaluate the paired comparative probability matrices and linguistic variables, and the evaluation data were converted by trapezoidal membership functions, fuzzy numbers and the defuzzification method to obtain the usage probability values (PR) for product functions. Finally, the matching degree value (P) and the product function (PF) were calculated by adaptability measure formula, and product function, the adaptability factor and the adaptability (A) were obtained. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results show that the degree of adaptability of each product function in the product set from PF1 to PF10can be evaluated. Based on the principles of sorting of values from high to low, the top five PF (n = 10) for P value is PF10, PF5, PF6, PF8 and PF1; The top five PF for P value is PF2, PF1, PF3, PF7 and PF8; The top five PF for A value is PF2(0.242), PF1(0.232), PF5(0.225), PF8(0.222) and PF3(0.221). These values allow us to summarize and draw visual charts according to the above data sorting mode. The higher the value of the product function, the more it can be prioritized for design development with functional cost savings, simplification or clustering. CONCLUSION: This study proposes an adaptable design method based on fuzzy logic programming. The data results in this study can guide the development and programming of the vestibule anti-epidemic products. The higher adaptability value of a product function indicates that it is more capable of being simplified, clustered, and adapting to changes in the product set.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Equipment Design/methods , Fuzzy Logic , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Equipment Design/statistics & numerical data , Household Articles , Household Products , Housing , Humans , Probability , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(10): 2045-2048, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ventilator sharing is one option to emergently increase ventilator capacity during a crisis but has been criticized for its inability to adjust for individual patient needs. Newer ventilator sharing designs use valves and restrictors to control pressures for each patient. A key component of these designs is an inline Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) Valve but these are not readily available. Creating an inline PEEP valve by converting a standard bag-valve-mask PEEP valve is possible with the addition of a 3D printed collar. METHODS: This was a feasibility study assessing the performance and safety of a method for converting a standard PEEP valve into an inline PEEP valve. A collar was designed and printed that covers the exhaust ports of the valve and returns exhaled gases to the ventilator. RESULTS: The collar piece was simple to print and easily assembled with the standard PEEP valve. In bench testing it successfully created differential pressures in 2 simulated expiratory limbs without leaking to the atmosphere at pressures greater than 60 cm of H2O. CONCLUSION: Our novel inline PEEP valve design shows promise as an option for building a safer ventilator sharing system.


Subject(s)
Equipment Design/methods , Positive-Pressure Respiration/instrumentation , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Ventilators, Mechanical/supply & distribution
15.
A A Pract ; 14(8): e01264, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639026

ABSTRACT

Approximately 30% of health care workers (HCWs) fail the respirator fit test. Evidence suggests that addressing face leaks in the 3M respirator enhances its fit and improves its efficacy. Between March 31 and April 9, 2020, HCWs who failed fit tests for 3M 1860 and 1860S respirators were invited to retest with an adhesive modification of the 3M respirator. Sixty-eight percent of HCWs who failed the fit test with their first-choice respirator passed with a modified adhesive respirator. To increase the efficacy and safety of 3M respirators, ineffective face seals need substantial improvement in design.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Equipment Design/methods , Health Personnel , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , Adhesives , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Appl Opt ; 59(25): 7585-7595, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751067

ABSTRACT

We present evidence-based design principles for three different UV-C based decontamination systems for N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) within the context of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak of 2019-2020. The approaches used here were created with consideration for the needs of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and other under-resourced facilities. As such, a particular emphasis is placed on providing cost-effective solutions that can be implemented in short order using generally available components and subsystems. We discuss three optical designs for decontamination chambers, describe experiments verifying design parameters, validate the efficacy of the decontamination for two commonly used N95 FFRs (3M, #1860 and Gerson #1730), and run mechanical and filtration tests that support FFR reuse for at least five decontamination cycles.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , Decontamination/instrumentation , Equipment Design/methods , Masks , Ultraviolet Rays , Air Filters/microbiology , Air Filters/virology , Equipment Reuse , Humidity , Ozone/chemical synthesis , Ozone/toxicity , Temperature , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects
17.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 67(8): 417-424, 2020 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is a shortage of supplies for the protection of professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. 3D printing offers the possibility to compensate for the production of some of the equipment needed. The objective is to describe the role of 3D printing in a health service during the COVID-19 pandemic, with an emphasis on the process to develop a final product ready to be implemented in the clinical environment. METHODS: A working group was formed between the healthcare administration, clinicians and other public and private institutions in Cantabria, Spain coordinated by the Valdecilla Virtual Hospital. The process included receiving the printing proposals, learning about the printing resources in the region, selecting the devices, creating a team for each project, prototyping, evaluation and redesign, manufacturing, assembly and distribution. RESULTS: The following supplies are produced: 1) devices that help protect providers: face protection screens (2,400 units), personalized accessories for photophores (20 units) and ear-protection forks for face-masks (1,200 units); 2) products related to the ventilation of infected patients: connectors for non-invasive ventilation systems; and 3) oral and nasopharyngeal swabs (7,500 units) for the identification of coronavirus carriers with the aim of designing action protocols in clinical areas. CONCLUSIONS: 3D printing is a valid resource for the production of protective material for professionals whose supply is reduced during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Ventilators, Mechanical , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care , Equipment Design/methods , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 421, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745675

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The advent of new technologies has made it possible to explore alternative ventilator manufacturing to meet the worldwide shortfall for mechanical ventilators especially in pandemics. We describe a method using rapid prototyping technologies to create an electro-mechanical ventilator in a cost effective, timely manner and provide results of testing using an in vitro-in vivo testing model. RESULTS: Rapid prototyping technologies (3D printing and 2D cutting) were used to create a modular ventilator. The artificial manual breathing unit (AMBU) bag connected to wall oxygen source using a flow meter was used as air reservoir. Controlled variables include respiratory rate, tidal volume and inspiratory: expiratory (I:E) ratio. In vitro testing and In vivo testing in the pig model demonstrated comparable mechanical efficiency of the test ventilator to that of standard ventilator but showed the material limits of 3D printed gears. Improved gear design resulted in better ventilator durability whilst reducing manufacturing time (< 2-h). The entire cost of manufacture of ventilator was estimated at 300 Australian dollars. A cost-effective novel rapid prototyped ventilator for use in patients with respiratory failure was developed in < 2-h and was effective in anesthetized, healthy pig model.


Subject(s)
Equipment Design/methods , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Ventilators, Mechanical/supply & distribution , Anesthesia, General/methods , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Expiratory Reserve Volume/physiology , Female , Humans , Inspiratory Reserve Volume/physiology , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Printing, Three-Dimensional/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/economics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Swine , Tidal Volume/physiology , Ventilators, Mechanical/economics
20.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(Supplement_1): 4-10, 2021 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This paper describes a rapid response project from the Chartered Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors (CIEHF) to support the design, development, usability testing and operation of new ventilators as part of the UK response during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A five-step approach was taken to (1) assess the COVID-19 situation and decide to formulate a response; (2) mobilise and coordinate Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) specialists; (3) ideate, with HFE specialists collaborating to identify, analyse the issues and opportunities, and develop strategies, plans and processes; (4) generate outputs and solutions; and (5) respond to the COVID-19 situation via targeted support and guidance. RESULTS: The response for the rapidly manufactured ventilator systems (RMVS) has been used to influence both strategy and practice to address concerns about changing safety standards and the detailed design procedure with RMVS manufacturers. CONCLUSION: The documents are part of a wider collection of HFE advice which is available on the CIEHF COVID-19 website (https://covid19.ergonomics.org.uk/).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ergonomics/methods , Ventilators, Mechanical/standards , Equipment Design/methods , Equipment Design/standards , Ergonomics/standards , Humans , Patient Safety/standards , United Kingdom
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