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PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240785, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874205


Masks are an effective tool in combatting the spread of COVID-19, but some people still resist wearing them and mask-wearing behavior has not been experimentally studied in the United States. To understand the demographics of mask wearers and resistors, and the impact of mandates on mask-wearing behavior, we observed shoppers (n = 9935) entering retail stores during periods of June, July, and August 2020. Approximately 41% of the June sample wore a mask. At that time, the odds of an individual wearing a mask increased significantly with age and was also 1.5x greater for females than males. Additionally, the odds of observing a mask on an urban or suburban shopper were ~4x that for rural areas. Mask mandates enacted in late July and August increased mask-wearing compliance to over 90% in all groups, but a small percentage of resistors remained. Thus, gender, age, and location factor into whether shoppers in the United States wear a mask or face covering voluntarily. Additionally, mask mandates are necessary to increase mask wearing among the public to a level required to mitigate the spread of COVID-19.

Equipment and Supplies Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Wisconsin
Eur J Med Res ; 25(1): 32, 2020 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713821


BACKGROUND: The German government has made it mandatory to wear respiratory masks covering mouth and nose (MNC) as an effective strategy to fight SARS-CoV-2 infections. In many countries, this directive has been extended on shopping malls or public transportation. The aim of this paper is to critically analyze the statutory regulation to wear protective masks during the COVID-19 crisis from a medical standpoint. METHODS: We performed an extensive query of the most recent publications addressing the prevention of viral infections including the use of face masks in the community as a method to prevent the spread of the infection. We addressed the issues of practicability, professional use, and acceptability based on the community and the environment where the user resided. RESULTS: Upon our critical review of the available literature, we found only weak evidence for wearing a face mask as an efficient hygienic tool to prevent the spread of a viral infection. However, the use of MNC seems to be linked to relevant protection during close contact scenarios by limiting pathogen-containing aerosol and liquid droplet dissemination. Importantly, we found evidence for significant respiratory compromise in patients with severe obstructive pulmonary disease, secondary to the development of hypercapnia. This could also happen in patients with lung infections, with or without SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: Epidemiologists currently emphasize that wearing MNC will effectively interrupt airborne infections in the community. The government and the politicians have followed these recommendations and used them to both advise and, in some cases, mandate the general population to wear MNC in public locations. Overall, the results seem to suggest that there are some clinically relevant scenarios where the use of MNC necessitates more defined recommendations. Our critical evaluation of the literature both highlights the protective effects of certain types of face masks in defined risk groups, and emphasizes their potential risks.

Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Respiratory Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Equipment and Supplies Utilization/legislation & jurisprudence , Equipment and Supplies Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Masks/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/legislation & jurisprudence , Respiratory Protective Devices/adverse effects