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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785736

ABSTRACT

Lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) is an amphipathic lysophospholipid that mediates a broad spectrum of inflammatory responses through a poorly characterized mechanism. Because LysoPS levels can rise in a variety of pathological conditions, we sought to investigate LysoPS's potential role in airway epithelial cells that actively participate in lung homeostasis. Here, we report a previously unappreciated function of LysoPS in production of a mucin component, MUC5AC, in the airway epithelial cells. LysoPS stimulated lung epithelial cells to produce MUC5AC via signaling pathways involving TACE, EGFR, and ERK. Specifically, LysoPS- dependent biphasic activation of ERK resulted in TGF-α secretion and strong EGFR phosphorylation leading to MUC5AC production. Collectively, LysoPS induces the expression of MUC5AC via a feedback loop composed of proligand synthesis and its proteolysis by TACE and following autocrine EGFR activation. To our surprise, we were not able to find a role of GPCRs and TLR2, known LyoPS receptors in LysoPS-induced MUC5AC production in airway epithelial cells, suggesting a potential receptor-independent action of LysoPS during inflammation. This study provides new insight into the potential function and mechanism of LysoPS as an emerging lipid mediator in airway inflammation.


Subject(s)
ErbB Receptors , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/pharmacology , Mucin 5AC/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism
2.
Bioorg Chem ; 117: 105466, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499653

ABSTRACT

Series of piperidone-salicylate conjugates were synthesized through the reaction of 3E,5E-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidones with the appropriate acid chloride of acetylsalicylate in the presence of triethylamine. All the synthesized conjugates reveal antiproliferative properties against A431 (squamous skin) cancer cell line with potency higher than that of 5-fluorouracil. Many of the synthesized agents also exhibit promising antiproliferative properties against HCT116 (colon) cancer cell line, of which 5o and 5c are the most effective with 12.9, 9.8 folds potency compared with Sunitinib. Promising activity is also shown against MCF7 (breast) cancer cell line with 1.19, 1.12 folds relative to 5-fluorouracil. PI-flow cytometry of compound 5c supports the arrest of cell cycle at G1-phase. However, compound 5o and Sunitinib arrest the cell cycle at S-phase. The synthesized conjugates can be considered as multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors due to the promising properties against VEGFR-2 and EGFR in MCF7 and HCT116. CDOCKER studies support the EGFR inhibitory properties. Compounds 5p and 5i possessing thienylidene heterocycle are anti-SARS-CoV-2 with high therapeutic indices. Many of the synthesized agents show enhanced COX-1/2 properties than aspirin with better selectivity index towards COX-2 relative to COX-1. The possible applicability of the potent candidates discovered as antitumor and anti-SARS-CoV-2 is supported by the safe profile against normal (non-cancer, RPE1 and VERO-E6) cells.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Aspirin/chemistry , Curcumin/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 1/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 1/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Drug Design , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism
3.
Cell Res ; 31(12): 1230-1243, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475291

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the ongoing global pandemic that poses substantial challenges to public health worldwide. A subset of COVID-19 patients experience systemic inflammatory response, known as cytokine storm, which may lead to death. Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is an important mediator of inflammation and cell death. Here, we examined the interaction of RIPK1-mediated innate immunity with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found evidence of RIPK1 activation in human COVID-19 lung pathological samples, and cultured human lung organoids and ACE2 transgenic mice infected by SARS-CoV-2. Inhibition of RIPK1 using multiple small-molecule inhibitors reduced the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung organoids. Furthermore, therapeutic dosing of the RIPK1 inhibitor Nec-1s reduced mortality and lung viral load, and blocked the CNS manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 in ACE2 transgenic mice. Mechanistically, we found that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2, NSP12, a highly conserved central component of coronaviral replication and transcription machinery, promoted the activation of RIPK1. Furthermore, NSP12 323L variant, encoded by the SARS-CoV-2 C14408T variant first detected in Lombardy, Italy, that carries a Pro323Leu amino acid substitution in NSP12, showed increased ability to activate RIPK1. Inhibition of RIPK1 downregulated the transcriptional induction of proinflammatory cytokines and host factors including ACE2 and EGFR that promote viral entry into cells. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may have an unexpected and unusual ability to hijack the RIPK1-mediated host defense response to promote its own propagation and that inhibition of RIPK1 may provide a therapeutic option for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Indoles/pharmacology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Mutation , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Survival Rate , Transcriptome/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Internalization
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e934854, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441381

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the number of completed clinical trials, particularly in oncology. Between 80-85% of all lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and of these, between 2-3% have an EGFR exon 20 insertion, which is associated with increased cell proliferation, metastasis, and a lack of response to chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Until this year, there were no available targeted therapies for advanced NSCLC with this genetic subtype. However, in May 2021, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval for amivantamab-vmjw (Rybrevant®), a bispecific monoclonal antibody, targeting activating and resistant EGFR and MET mutations and amplifications. This FDA approval was for adult patients with locally advanced metastatic NSCLC, with disease progression on or following platinum-based chemotherapy. The FDA also approved the Guardant360® companion diagnostic, a next-generation sequencing platform for circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), which is a liquid biopsy assay. In 2019, Project Orbis was launched by the FDA Oncology Center of Excellence as a global collaborative review program to facilitate rapid global access for patients to innovative cancer therapies. This Editorial aims to highlight how global regulatory initiatives from the FDA have delivered accelerated approval of the first bispecific therapeutic monoclonal antibody, amivantamab-vmjw (Rybrevant®), and a companion diagnostic for patients with advanced NSCLC with an EGFR exon 20 insertion.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Drug Approval , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/genetics , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/metabolism , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
5.
Inorg Chem ; 59(23): 17109-17122, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387106

ABSTRACT

Metal complexes have numerous applications in the current era, particularly in the field of pharmaceutical chemistry and catalysis. A novel synthetic approach for the same is always a beneficial addition to the literature. Henceforth, for the first time, we report the formation of three new Pd(II) complexes through the Michael addition pathway. Three chromone-based thiosemicarbazone ligands (SVSL1-SVSL3) and Pd(II) complexes (1-3) were synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectroscopic tools. The Michael addition pathway for the formation of complexes was confirmed by spectroscopic studies. Distorted square planar structure of complex 2 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1-3 were subjected to DNA- and BSA-binding studies. The complex with cyclohexyl substituent on the terminal N of thiosemicarbazone (3) showed the highest binding efficacy toward these biomolecules, which was further understood through molecular docking studies. The anticancer potential of these complexes was studied preliminarily by using MTT assay in cancer and normal cell lines along with the benchmark drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, and gemcitabine). It was found that complex 3 was highly toxic toward MDA-MB-231 and AsPC-1 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.5 and 0.9 µM, respectively, and was more efficient than the standard drugs. The programmed cell death mechanism of the complexes in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells was confirmed. Furthermore, the complexes induced apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathway. Conveniently, all the complexes showed less toxicity (≥50 µM) against MCF-10a normal cell line. Molecular docking studies were performed with VEGFR2, EGFR, and SARS-CoV-2 main protease to illustrate the binding efficiency of the complexes with these receptors. To our surprise, binding potential of the complexes with SARS-CoV-2 main protease was higher than that with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Mitochondria/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromones/chemical synthesis , Chromones/metabolism , Chromones/pharmacology , Coordination Complexes/chemical synthesis , Coordination Complexes/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Intercalating Agents/chemical synthesis , Intercalating Agents/metabolism , Intercalating Agents/pharmacology , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Palladium/chemistry , Protein Binding , Thiosemicarbazones/chemical synthesis , Thiosemicarbazones/metabolism , Thiosemicarbazones/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11234, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246399

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecular basis of fibrosis, the lethal complication of COVID-19, is urgent. By the analysis of RNA-sequencing data of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells combined with data mining we identified genes involved in COVID-19 progression. To characterize their implication in the fibrosis development we established a correlation matrix based on the transcriptomic data of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. With this method, we have identified a cluster of genes responsible for SARS-CoV-2-fibrosis including its entry receptor ACE2 and epidermal growth factor EGF. Then, we developed Vi-Fi scoring-a novel drug repurposing approach and simultaneously quantified antiviral and antifibrotic activities of the drugs based on their transcriptomic signatures. We revealed the strong dual antifibrotic and antiviral activity of EGFR/ErbB inhibitors. Before the in vitro validation, we have clustered 277 cell lines and revealed distinct COVID-19 transcriptomic signatures of the cells with similar phenotypes that defines their suitability for COVID-19 research. By ERK activity monitoring in living lung cells, we show that the drugs with predicted antifibrotic activity downregulate ERK in the host lung cells. Overall, our study provides novel insights on SARS-CoV-2 dependence on EGFR/ERK signaling and demonstrates the utility of EGFR/ErbB inhibitors for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Progression , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Fibrosis/complications , Fibrosis/genetics , Fibrosis/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Multigene Family , RNA-Seq
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219848

ABSTRACT

Cancer and viruses have a long history that has evolved over many decades. Much information about the interplay between viruses and cell proliferation and metabolism has come from the history of clinical cases of patients infected with virus-induced cancer. In addition, information from viruses used to treat some types of cancer is valuable. Now, since the global coronavirus pandemic erupted almost a year ago, the scientific community has invested countless time and resources to slow down the infection rate and diminish the number of casualties produced by this highly infectious pathogen. A large percentage of cancer cases diagnosed are strongly related to dysregulations of the tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) family and its downstream signaling pathways. As such, many therapeutic agents have been developed to strategically target these structures in order to hinder certain mechanisms pertaining to the phenotypic characteristics of cancer cells such as division, invasion or metastatic potential. Interestingly, several authors have pointed out that a correlation between coronaviruses such as the SARS-CoV-1 and -2 or MERS viruses and dysregulations of signaling pathways activated by TKRs can be established. This information may help to accelerate the repurposing of clinically developed anti-TKR cancer drugs in COVID-19 management. Because the need for treatment is critical, drug repurposing may be an advantageous choice in the search for new and efficient therapeutic compounds. This approach would be advantageous from a financial point of view as well, given that the resources used for research and development would no longer be required and can be potentially redirected towards other key projects. This review aims to provide an overview of how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with different TKRs and their respective downstream signaling pathway and how several therapeutic agents targeted against these receptors can interfere with the viral infection. Additionally, this review aims to identify if SARS-CoV-2 can be repurposed to be a potential viral vector against different cancer types.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Drug Repositioning , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction/genetics
8.
Cell Death Differ ; 27(12): 3209-3225, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841179

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and characterized by diverse clinical symptoms. Type I interferon (IFN-I) production is impaired and severe cases lead to ARDS and widespread coagulopathy. We propose that COVID-19 pathophysiology is initiated by SARS-CoV-2 gene products, the NSP1 and ORF6 proteins, leading to a catastrophic cascade of failures. These viral components induce signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) dysfunction and compensatory hyperactivation of STAT3. In SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, a positive feedback loop established between STAT3 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) may lead to an escalating cycle of activation in common with the interdependent signaling networks affected in COVID-19. Specifically, PAI-1 upregulation leads to coagulopathy characterized by intravascular thrombi. Overproduced PAI-1 binds to TLR4 on macrophages, inducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The recruitment and subsequent activation of innate immune cells within an infected lung drives the destruction of lung architecture, which leads to the infection of regional endothelial cells and produces a hypoxic environment that further stimulates PAI-1 production. Acute lung injury also activates EGFR and leads to the phosphorylation of STAT3. COVID-19 patients' autopsies frequently exhibit diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and increased hyaluronan (HA) production which also leads to higher levels of PAI-1. COVID-19 risk factors are consistent with this scenario, as PAI-1 levels are increased in hypertension, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and old age. We discuss the possibility of using various approved drugs, or drugs currently in clinical development, to treat COVID-19. This perspective suggests to enhance STAT1 activity and/or inhibit STAT3 functions for COVID-19 treatment. This might derail the escalating STAT3/PAI-1 cycle central to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(16): 8606-8620, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745632

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 immune syndrome is a multi-systemic disorder induced by the COVID-19 infection. Pathobiological transitions and clinical stages of the COVID-19 syndrome following the attack of SARS-CoV-2 on the human body have not been fully explored. The aim of this review is to outline the three critical prominent phase regarding the clinicogenomics course of the COVID-19 immune syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the clinical setting, the COVID-19 process presents as "asymptomatic/pre-symptomatic phase", "respiratory phase with mild/moderate/severe symptoms" and "multi-systemic clinical syndrome with impaired/disproportionate and/or defective immunity". The corresponding three genomic phases include the "ACE2, ANPEP transcripts in the initial phase", "EGFR and IGF2R transcripts in the propagating phase" and the "immune system related critical gene involvements of the complicating phase". RESULTS: The separation of the phases is important since the genomic features of each phase are different from each other and these different mechanisms lead to distinct clinical multi-systemic features. Comprehensive genomic profiling with next generation sequencing may play an important role in defining and clarifying these three unique separate phases for COVID-19. From our point of view, it is important to understand these unique phases of the syndrome in order to approach a COVID-19 patient bedside. CONCLUSIONS: This three-phase approach may be useful for future studies which will focus on the clinical management and development of the vaccines and/or specific drugs targeting the COVID-19 processes. ANPEP gene pathway may have a potential for the vaccine development. Regarding the specific disease treatments, MAS agonists, TXA127, Angiotensin (1-7) and soluble ACE2 could have therapeutic potential for the COVID-19 course. Moreover, future CRISPR technology can be utilized for the genomic editing and future management of the clinical course of the syndrome.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Immune System/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/genetics , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Receptor, IGF Type 2/genetics , Receptor, IGF Type 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110009, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611692

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) represents a global threat to the public healthcare. The viral spike (S) glycoprotein is the key molecule for viral entry through interaction with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor molecules present on the cell membranes. Moreover, it has been established that COVID-19 interacts and infects brain cells in humans via ACE2. Therefore in the light of these known facts we hypothesized that viral S protein molecule may bind to the other overexpressed receptor molecules in glioma cells and may play some role in glioma tumorogenesis. Thus we leverage docking analysis (HEX and Z-DOCK) between viral S protein and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor receptors (HGFR/c-MET) to investigate the oncogenic potential of COVID-19. Our findings suggested higher affinity of Viral S protein towards EGFR and VEGFR. Although, the data presented is preliminary and need to be validated further via molecular dynamics studies, however it paves platform to instigate further investigations on this aspect considering the aftermath of COVID-19 pandemic in oncogenic perspective.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Glioma/etiology , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/metabolism , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Brain/virology , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , ErbB Receptors/chemistry , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Glioma/genetics , Glioma/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/chemistry , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Up-Regulation
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1864(10): 129672, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality of lung diseases although the underlying mechanisms have not been fully uncovered. Airway inflammation is a critical event in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. This study aimed to examine the role of oxidative stress and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in PM2.5-induced pro-inflammatory response in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 0, 20, 50, 100 and 150 µg/ml of PM2.5. Secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and IL-1ß was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of the EGFR was examined with immunoblotting. RESULTS: PM2.5 exposure increased the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1ß in a concentration-dependent fashion. Moreover, exposure to PM2.5 elevated intracellular levels of ROS, and phosphorylation of the EGFR (Y1068). Pretreatment of BEAS-2B cells with either an antioxidant or a specific EGFR inhibitor significantly reduced PM2.5-induced IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1ß secretion, implying that both oxidative stress and EGFR activation were involved in PM2.5-induced pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, pre-treatment of BEAS-2B cells with an antioxidant significantly blunted PM2.5-induced EGFR activation, suggesting that oxidative stress was required for PM2.5-induced EGFR activation. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 exposure induces pro-inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells through oxidative stress-mediated EGFR activation.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/metabolism , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/cytology , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism
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