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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241768

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) has increased significantly in recent years. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a fundamental change in the lifestyles, ways of learning and working patterns of the general population, which in turn, might lead to health consequences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the conditions of e-learning and the impact of the learning modality on the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms among university students in Poland. This cross-sectional study included 914 students who completed an anonymous questionnaire. The questions covered two time periods (before and during the COVID-19 pandemic) and were aimed at obtaining information about lifestyle (including physical activity using the modified International Physical Activity Questionnaire, 2007 (IPAQ), perceived stress and sleep patterns), the ergonomics of computer workstations (by Rapid Office Strain Assessment, 2012 (ROSA) method), the incidence and severity of musculoskeletal symptoms (by the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, 2018 (NMQ)) and headaches. The main differences between the two periods were statistically significant according to the Wilcoxon test in terms of physical activity, computer use time, and severity of headaches. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a significant increase in MSD (68.2% vs. 74.6%) and their intensity (2.83 ± 2.36 vs. 3.50 ± 2.79 points) among the student population (p < 0.001). In the group of students with MSD, there was a high musculoskeletal load, due to the lack of ergonomic remote learning workstations. In future, a thorough study should be carried out, and there is an urgent need to raise students' awareness of arranging learning workstations according to ergonomic principles in order to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Occupational Diseases , Humans , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Universities , Pandemics , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Students , Headache/epidemiology , Ergonomics , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228893

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity for office workers to experience work from home (WFH). The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence rate of musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) and the work conditions of homeworkers during WFH as well as to evaluate the association and predicted risk of ergonomic factors and MSD. A total of 232 homeworkers completed questionnaires. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to analyze the association and prediction of work arrangements and home workstation setups and musculoskeletal outcomes. The result showed that 61.2% of homeworkers reported MSD while WFH. Because of the small living spaces in Hong Kong, 51% and 24.6% of homeworkers worked in living/dining areas and bedrooms, respectively, potentially affecting their work and personal life. Additionally, homeworkers adopted a flexible work style, but prolonged computer use while WFH. Homeworkers who used a chair without a backrest or a sofa could predict a significantly higher risk of MSD. The use of a laptop monitor posed about a 2 to 3 times higher risk of suffering from neck, upper back, and lower back discomfort than the use of a desktop monitor. These results provide valuable information to help regulators, employers, homeworkers, and designers create better WFH guidelines, work arrangements, and home settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Pain , Humans , Musculoskeletal Pain/epidemiology , Pandemics , Teleworking , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ergonomics
3.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 745, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In order to reduce the risk of infection with Sars-Cov-2, work practices have been shifted to the home office in many industries. The first surveys concerning this shift indicate an increase in musculoskeletal complaints of many employees. The aim of this study was to compare the ergonomic risk in the upper extremities and trunk of working in a home office with that of working in an ergonomically optimized workplace. METHODS: For this purpose, 20 subjects (13w/7m) aged 18-31 years each performed a 20-minute workplace simulation (10 min writing a text, 10 min editing a questionnaire) in the following set up: on a dining table with dining chair and laptop (home office) and on an ergonomically adjusted workstation (ergonomically optimized workplace). The subjects were investigated using a combined application of a motion capture kinematic analysis and the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) in order to identify differences in the ergonomic risk. RESULTS: Significantly reduced risk values for both shoulders (left: p < 0.001; right: p = 0.02) were found for the ergonomically optimized workstations. In contrast, the left wrist (p = 0.025) showed a significantly reduced ergonomic risk value for the home office workstation. CONCLUSION: This study is the first study to compare the ergonomic risk between an ergonomically optimized workplace and a home office workstation. The results indicate minor differences in the upper extremities in favor of the ergonomically optimized workstation. Since work-related musculoskeletal complaints of the upper extremities are common among office workers, the use of an ergonomically optimized workstation for home use is recommended based on the results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Occupational Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ergonomics/methods , Humans , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 935405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142316

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with computer vision syndrome in medical students at a private university in Paraguay. Methods: A survey study was conducted in 2021 in a sample of 228 medical students from the Universidad del Pacífico, Paraguay. The dependent variable was CVS, measured with the Computer Visual Syndrome Questionnaire (CVS-Q). Its association with covariates (hours of daily use of notebook, smartphone, tablet and PC, taking breaks when using equipment, use of preventive visual measures, use of glasses, etc.) was examined. Results: The mean age was 22.3 years and 71.5% were women. CVS was present in 82.5% of participants. Higher prevalence of CVS was associated with wearing a framed lens (PR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.20). In contrast, taking a break when using electronic equipment at least every 20 min and every 1 h reduced 7% (PR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99) and 6% (PR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99) the prevalence of CVS, respectively. Conclusion: Eight out of 10 students experienced CVS during the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of framed lenses increased the presence of CVS, while taking breaks when using electronic equipment at least every 20 min and every 1 h reduced CVS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Diseases , Students, Medical , Adult , Computers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ergonomics , Female , Humans , Male , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Paraguay/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Syndrome , Universities , Young Adult
5.
Work ; 73(s1): S169-S176, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought about change in the work environment, increasing remote and hybrid mode of work, presenting a compelling need to study visual ergonomics in this new work environment. OBJECTIVE: To assess computer vision symptoms and visual ergonomics in remote and hybrid work settings during the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on eye to screen relationship. METHODS: The computer-vision symptom scale (CVSS17) questionnaire and questions about human factors and ergonomics were included in the survey conducted in September 2021. Sixty-six working professionals (mean age 37 years±5), working from home (n = 44) or in hybrid mode (n = 22) were included in the study. Cramer's V was used for the correlation coefficient between two categorical variables for assessing eye health in changing work environments. RESULTS: Compared to our previous study, the correlation between computer vision syndrome (CVS) symptoms is markedly higher. The population working in hybrid mode experienced eye heaviness with strain to see well (V = 0.6872, p = 0.002) and dryness in the eyes (V = 0.5912, p = 0.0179). The population working from home who are bothered by surrounding lights also report dryness in the eyes (V = 0.3846, p = 0.0005). Screen use hours are higher in work from home situations (43% work more than 9 hrs) than those in hybrid mode of work (4% work more than 9 hrs). CONCLUSION: A definite increase in CVS in most of the population working remotely or in hybrid environments is established through this study. User-friendly strategies for raising awareness of applied visual ergonomics can prevent rampant onset of CVS in the working population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ergonomics , Workplace , Computers , Syndrome
6.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(11): 964-969, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We surveyed how home-working conditions, specifically furniture and computer use, affected self-reported musculoskeletal problems and work performance. METHODS: Questionnaires from 4112 homeworkers were analyzed. The relationship between subjective musculoskeletal problems or work performance and working conditions were determined by logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: More than half the homeworkers used a work desk, work chair, and laptop computer. However, approximately 20% of homeworkers used a low table, floor chair/floor cushion, or other furniture that was different from the office setup. Using a table of disproportionate size and height, sofa, floor cushion, and floor chair were associated with neck/shoulder pain or low back pain. Disproportionate table and chair, floor cushion, and tablet computer were associated with poor work performance. CONCLUSIONS: Disproportionate desk and chair, floor cushion/chair, and computer with small screen may affect musculoskeletal problems and home-working performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Occupational Diseases , Work Performance , Humans , Interior Design and Furnishings , COVID-19/epidemiology , Teleworking , Pandemics , Computers , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/complications , Ergonomics , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/complications
7.
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006019

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a structural equation model to determine the job satisfaction and occupational health impacts concerning organizational and physical ergonomics, using (as a study) objective unionized workers from the University of Sonora, South Campus, as an educational enterprise, during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The above is a key element of an organizational sustainability framework. In fact, there exists a knowledge gap about the relationship between diverse ergonomic factors, job satisfaction, and occupational health, in the educational institution's context. The method used was a stratified sample of workers to which a job satisfaction-occupational health questionnaire was applied, consisting of 31 items with three-dimensional variables. As a result, the overall Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was determined, 0.9028, which is considered adequate to guarantee reliability (i.e., very high magnitude). Therefore, after the structural equation model, only 12 items presented a strong correlation, with a good model fit of 0.036 based on the root mean square error of approximation, 1.09 degrees of freedom for the chi-square, 0.9 for the goodness of fit index, and a confidence level of 95%. Organizational and physical factors have positive impacts on job satisfaction with factor loads of 0.37 and 0.53, respectively, and p-values of 0.016 and 0.000, respectively. The constructs related to occupational health that are considered less important by the workers were also determined, which would imply a mitigation strategy. The results contribute to the body of knowledge concerning the ergonomic dimensions mentioned and support organizational sustainability improvements in educational institutions and other sectors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ergonomics , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892871

ABSTRACT

Children spend over 70% of their school day sitting, most of the time in the classroom. Even when meeting physical activity guidelines but sitting for long uninterrupted periods, children are at risk of poorer health outcomes. With an approach to create an active learning environment through the implementation of sit-stand tables, this exploratory mixed-methods study aims to evaluate a holistic concept for reducing sedentary time in schools by implementing sit-stand tables as well as to examine the feasibility and didactic usability in classroom settings. Children from eight German schools aged 7 to 10 in primary schools and 11 to 13 in secondary schools (n = 211), allocated into control and intervention groups, were included in the study, as well as teachers (n = 13). An accelerometer was used as a quantitative measure to assess sitting and standing times and sport motoric tests were taken. Qualitative interviews were performed with teachers regarding feasibility and acceptance of the sit-stand tables. Independent t-test analysis adjusted for age, sex and school type found that sitting times of children in the intervention group could be reduced (by 30.54 min per school day of 6 h, p < 0.001) within all school and age levels. Overall, implementing sit-stand tables in classrooms serves as a feasible and effective opportunity to reduce sedentary behaviour and create an active learning environment.


Subject(s)
Ergonomics , Sedentary Behavior , Child , Humans , Interior Design and Furnishings , Schools , Sitting Position
10.
Work ; 72(3): 839-852, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In times of the COVID-19 pandemic, employees around the world may be practicing part-time telework at home. Little is known about the working conditions at home and its impact on the employee's occupational health. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review examines the working conditions at employees' homes, the work-related disorders associated with working from home, organizations' perceptions of ergonomics at home and how they support their teleworkers. METHODS: A search of electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Google Scholar, Open Grey, Pedro, PsychInfo, PubPsych, Scopus and Web of Science) was performed. Twelve studies were included in this review. RESULTS: The findings highlight the lack of ergonomic working conditions for home-based teleworkers. Furthermore, the results underline organizations' lack of awareness regarding home-based policies, ergonomics programs and the health-related consequences associated with the absence of ergonomic support. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that home-based teleworkers have increased health risks. This assumption is substantiated by the fact that most of the included studies reported teleworkers who have experienced musculoskeletal issues. These results underline the necessity for implementing ergonomic design recommendations, especially for working at home. Further research is needed to understand the impact of ergonomics programs and workplace design for working at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ergonomics/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Workplace
11.
Appl Ergon ; 102: 103749, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814107

ABSTRACT

Technological advancements have increased occupational flexibility for employees and employers alike. However, while effective telework requires planning, the COVID-19 pandemic required many employees to quickly shift to working from home without ensuring that the requirements for telework were in place. This study evaluated the transition to telework on university faculty and staff and investigated the effect of one's telework setup and ergonomics training on work-related discomfort in the at-home environment. Fifty-one percent of respondents reported increases in their existing discomfort while 24% reported new discomfort since working from home. These results suggest a need for ergonomic interventions including ergonomic training and individual ergonomic assessments for those who work from home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Teleworking , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ergonomics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Appl Ergon ; 102: 103733, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783175

ABSTRACT

Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE), with the goal to support humans through system design, can contribute to responses to emergencies and crises, like the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we describe three cases presented at the 21st Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association to demonstrate how HFE has been applied during the COVID-19 pandemic, namely to (1) develop a mobile diagnostic testing system, (2) understand the changes within physiotherapy services, and (3) guide the transition of a perioperative pain program to telemedicine. We reflect on methodological choices and lessons learned from each case and discuss opportunities to expand the impact of HFE in responses to future emergencies. The HFE discipline should develop faster, less resource intensive but still rigorous, methods, increase available HFE expertise by growing the field, and proactively enhance individual and public perception of the importance of HFE in crisis response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ergonomics , Emergencies , Ergonomics/methods , Humans , Pandemics
13.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(1)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759372

ABSTRACT

Inpatient falls are frequently reported incidents in hospitals around the world. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated the risk. With the rising importance of human factors and ergonomics (HF&E), a fall prevention programme was introduced by applying HF&E principles to reduce inpatient falls from a systems engineering perspective. The programme was conducted in an acute public hospital with around 750 inpatient beds in Hong Kong. A hospital falls review team (the team) was formed in June 2020 to plan and implement the programme. The 'Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control' (DMAIC) method was adopted. Improvement actions following each fall review were implemented. Fall rates in the 'pre-COVID-19' period (January-December 2019), 'COVID-19' period (January-June 2020) and 'programme' period (July 2020-August 2021) were used for evaluation of the programme effectiveness. A total of 120, 85 and 142 inpatient falls in the 'pre-COVID-19', 'COVID-19' and 'programme' periods were reviewed, respectively. Thirteen areas with fall risks were identified by the team where improvement actions applying HF&E principles were implemented accordingly. The average fall rates were 0.476, 0.773 and 0.547 per 1000 patient bed days in these periods, respectively. The average fall rates were found to be significantly increased from the pre-COVID-19 to COVID-19 periods (mean difference=0.297 (95% CI 0.068 to 0.526), p=0.009), which demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic might have affected the hospitals fall rates, while a significant decrease was noted between the COVID-19 and programme periods (mean difference=-0.226 (95% CI -0.449 to -0.003), p=0.047), which proved that the programme in apply HF&E principles to prevent falls was effective. Since HF&E principles are universal, the programme can be generalised to other healthcare institutes, which the participation of staff trained in HF&E in the quality improvement team is vital to its success.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , COVID-19 , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ergonomics , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics/prevention & control
14.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 51(5): 680-685, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721775

ABSTRACT

Implementation of optimal ergonomic setups of workstations and reading rooms can help to improve the overall quality of life for most radiologists by preventing repetitive stress injuries and potentially improving efficiency. It is important for radiologists to know what optimal ergonomic setups are and what works for the individual person in order to implement the best possible ergonomic setups as they may differ from person to person. These issues have become more important recently as many radiologists have been working from home and will continue to do so, at least partially, during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we aim to increase awareness of sound ergonomic principles and discuss possible options for individual optimization along with practical tips for implementation of optimal ergonomic setups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Radiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ergonomics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Radiologists
15.
Work ; 71(2): 299-308, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Computer-intensive office work associations with health challenges may intensify following COVID-19 pandemic-related changes to home-based office work. OBJECTIVE: To determine working conditions, perception and physical elements affecting health after pivoting to full time home-work. METHODS: An online questionnaire addressed physical, productivity, motivation, and work-practice factors. Photos of the worker in their home-work environment showed side and front-back perspectives. RESULTS: Sixteen questionnaires were received, and 12 respondents supplied photos. Home and office workplace differences varied. Ten felt productivity was affected, most often positively. Four noted increased pain or fatigue intensity, particularly in the eyes, neck / head, lower back, and shoulders. Working posture was not optimal; six didn't use traditional chair-sitting for up to half the day. Forward and backward trunk inclination accounted for at least 10% of the workday for 12 respondents; lateral inclination affected ten and eight had unsupported legs. Fifteen used an adjustable chair, but photos revealed ergonomic recommendations were not consistently followed. Fourteen participants communicated regularly by telephone, eight only for moderate duration and ten using adapted telephone equipment. Half of the ROSA scores were high. CONCLUSIONS: Workers forced into telework during the pandemic experience positive and negative impacts. Postures vary more than in offices, potentially increasing health risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Ergonomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Teleworking
16.
Work ; 71(2): 319-326, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many individuals continued to work from home even after nearly 9 months since the COVID-19 pandemic started in spring of 2020. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a follow-up survey of the faculty and staff of a large Midwest university to determine whether there had been any changes to their home work environment and health outcomes since a prior survey conducted at the start of the pandemic in spring of 2020. METHODS: An electronic survey was sent out to all employees, staff, and administration (approximately 10,350 individuals) and was completed by 1,135 individuals. RESULTS: It was found that not much had changed after nearly 9 months of working at home. Faculty and staff continued to primarily use laptops without an external keyboard, monitor or mouse. Few participants reported using chairs with adjustable armrests. These conditions continued to result in high levels of body discomfort (49% neck and head, 45% low back, and 62% upper back and shoulders having moderate to severe pain). CONCLUSION: If workers are going to continue to work from home, companies will need to accommodate them with more than a laptop, and should include an external keyboard, monitor, and mouse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Diseases , Ergonomics , Humans , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Work ; 71(2): 423-431, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a rapid adaptation of online education, requiring university students to complete their schoolwork remotely. There is a gap in the evidence-based literature regarding these novel home workstations and the potential to help students understand ergonomics and adjust their workstations. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine if a remote ergonomics intervention would encourage students to make improvements to their workstation and increase their knowledge of ergonomics. METHODS: Participants completed an ergonomics quiz, workstation evaluation, activity time log, and photographs of their workstation. There were three randomly assigned groups, the control group of 26 participants and the first and second intervention groups with 25 participants each. The first and second intervention groups received information sheets regarding proper workstations. The second intervention group was also required to participate in an ergonomics workshop. Six weeks after receiving the interventions, the control group and two intervention groups completed the materials once again. Eight participants from the control group, 12 from the information intervention group, and 14 from the participatory intervention group completed the study. RESULTS: One-way ANOVA tests between the three groups suggest there was no significant difference in ergonomic knowledge or changes made to workstations. However, the remote participatory ergonomics group increased their level of knowledge about ergonomics. CONCLUSIONS: An ergonomics intervention did not impact one group to change their workstation more than others in six weeks. Future studies on this topic should be conducted over a longer amount of time and with more participants to allow for more opportunities for behavior and workstation changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Ergonomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Workplace
19.
Work ; 71(2): 335-343, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a large increase in the use of the home office environment. Compared to traditional commercial offices, home offices typically have more variable lighting conditions that can affect the worker's performance and well-being. OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss various lighting sources and their ergonomic impacts on the population of office employees now working from home. Specifically addressing the impacts of electronic light from screens, daylight, and task lighting's impact on health and well-being in the frame of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Over 75 ergonomic and lighting literature publications covering various work environments were reviewed, with a focus on the health effects of screen light, daylight, and task light. RESULTS: Resulting from the literature review, design recommendations regarding the safety and health of home office lighting conditions are discussed. CONCLUSION: As COVID-19 continues to encourage remote working, individuals will be exposed to daylight and screen light in different ways compared to a traditional office environment. The impact of these different lighting conditions should be further studied to understand best design and well-being practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Workplace , Ergonomics , Humans , Lighting , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Work ; 71(2): 309-318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent mandate for university faculty and staff to work-from-home (WFH) during the COVID-19 pandemic has forced employees to work with sub-optimal ergonomic workstations that may change their musculoskeletal discomfort and pain. As women report more work-related musculoskeletal discomfort (WMSD), this effect may be exacerbated in women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe university employee at-home office workstations, and explore if at-home workstation design mediates the effect of gender on musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: University employees completed a survey that focused on the WFH environment, at home workstation design and musculoskeletal pain. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyze the responses. RESULTS: 61% of respondents reported an increase in musculoskeletal pain, with the neck, shoulders and lower back being reported most frequently. Women reported significantly greater musculoskeletal pain, but this relationship was significantly mediated by poor ergonomic design of the home workstation. Improper seat-height and monitor distance were statistically associated with total-body WMSD. CONCLUSIONS: WFH has worsened employee musculoskeletal health and the ergonomic gap between women and men in the workspace has persisted in the WFH environment, with seat height and monitor distance being identified as significant predictors of discomfort/pain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Musculoskeletal Pain , Occupational Diseases , Ergonomics , Female , Humans , Male , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/etiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/prevention & control , Musculoskeletal Pain/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Pain/etiology , Musculoskeletal Pain/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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