Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 110
Filter
1.
Vox Sang ; 117(11): 1332-1344, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Under the ISBT, the Working Party (WP) for Red Cell Immunogenetics and Blood Group Terminology is charged with ratifying blood group systems, antigens and alleles. This report presents the outcomes from four WP business meetings, one located in Basel in 2019 and three held as virtual meetings during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As in previous meetings, matters pertaining to blood group antigen nomenclature were discussed. New blood group systems and antigens were approved and named according to the serologic, genetic, biochemical and cell biological evidence presented. RESULTS: Seven new blood group systems, KANNO (defined numerically as ISBT 037), SID (038), CTL2 (039), PEL (040), MAM (041), EMM (042) and ABCC1 (043) were ratified. Two (039 and 043) were de novo discoveries, and the remainder comprised reported antigens where the causal genes were previously unknown. A further 15 blood group antigens were added to the existing blood group systems: MNS (002), RH (004), LU (005), DI (010), SC (013), GE (020), KN (022), JMH (026) and RHAG (030). CONCLUSION: The ISBT now recognizes 378 antigens, of which 345 are clustered within 43 blood group systems while 33 still have an unknown genetic basis. The ongoing discovery of new blood group systems and antigens underscores the diverse and complex biology of the red cell membrane. The WP continues to update the blood group antigen tables and the allele nomenclature tables. These can be found on the ISBT website (http://www.isbtweb.org/working-parties/red-cell-immunogenetics-and-blood-group-terminology/).


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Erythrocytes , Humans , Blood Group Antigens/genetics , Blood Transfusion , Immunogenetics , Pandemics , Erythrocytes/immunology
2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(28): e2105396, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047424

ABSTRACT

In many malaria-endemic regions, current detection tools are inadequate in diagnostic accuracy and accessibility. To meet the need for direct, phenotypic, and automated malaria parasite detection in field settings, a portable platform to process, image, and analyze whole blood to detect Plasmodium falciparum parasites, is developed. The liberated parasites from lysed red blood cells suspended in a magnetic field are accurately detected using this cellphone-interfaced, battery-operated imaging platform. A validation study is conducted at Ugandan clinics, processing 45 malaria-negative and 36 malaria-positive clinical samples without external infrastructure. Texture and morphology features are extracted from the sample images, and a random forest classifier is trained to assess infection status, achieving 100% sensitivity and 91% specificity against gold-standard measurements (microscopy and polymerase chain reaction), and limit of detection of 31 parasites per µL. This rapid and user-friendly platform enables portable parasite detection and can support malaria diagnostics, surveillance, and research in resource-constrained environments.


Subject(s)
Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Parasites , Animals , Erythrocytes , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum
3.
Transfusion ; 62(8): 1630-1635, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Training is essential to develop and maintain skills required to be a competent serologist, yet samples required to achieve this are often difficult to obtain. We evaluated the feasibility of SARS-CoV-2 peptide modified RBCs (1144-kodecytes) to develop simulated antibody screening and identification panels of reagent RBCs suitable for practical training, recognition, and grading of serologic reactions. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: RBCs from a single donor were modified into kodecytes using Kode Technology function-spacer-lipid constructs bearing a short SARS-CoV-2 peptide. Kodecytes and unmodified cells were then arranged in patterns representative of RBC antibody profiles as simulated antibody screening and identification reagent cell panels (SASID), and then tested against immune donor plasma samples containing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Manual tube and two different gel card serologic platforms were evaluated by routine techniques. SASID exemplars were created for antibodies including D, Cw , f (ce), Jka (strong, weak, dosing), mixtures of D + E, Jka + K, Fya + E, high and low frequency antibodies and a warm IgG autoantibody. RESULTS: Kodecytes (positive reactions) and unmodified cells (negative) when arranged and tested in appropriate patterns in SASID panels were able to mimic IgG antibody reactions, and were capable of measuring both accuracy and precision in reaction grading. CONCLUSIONS: Kodecytes can be used to rapidly create in-house simulated yet realistic antibody screening and identification panels suitable for large scale training in the recognition and grading of serologic reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Erythrocytes , Humans , Peptides , Plasma
4.
Cell Prolif ; 55(8): e13218, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985751

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Large-scale generation of universal red blood cells (RBCs) from O-negative (O-ve) human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) holds the potential to alleviate worldwide shortages of blood and provide a safe and secure year-round supply. Mature RBCs and reticulocytes, the immature counterparts of RBCs generated during erythropoiesis, could also find important applications in research, for example in malaria parasite infection studies. However, one major challenge is the lack of a high-density culture platform for large-scale generation of RBCs in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We generated 10 O-ve hiPSC clones and evaluated their potential for mesoderm formation and erythroid differentiation. We then used a perfusion bioreactor system to perform studies with high-density cultures of erythroblasts in vitro. RESULTS: Based on their tri-lineage (and specifically mesoderm) differentiation potential, we isolated six hiPSC clones capable of producing functional erythroblasts. Using the best performing clone, we demonstrated the small-scale generation of high-density cultures of erythroblasts in a perfusion bioreactor system. After process optimization, we were able to achieve a peak cell density of 34.7 million cells/ml with 92.2% viability in the stirred bioreactor. The cells expressed high levels of erythroblast markers, showed oxygen carrying capacity, and were able to undergo enucleation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a scalable platform for the production of functional RBCs from hiPSCs. The perfusion culture platform we describe here could pave the way for large volume-controlled bioreactor culture for the industrial generation of high cell density erythroblasts and RBCs.


Subject(s)
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Bioreactors , Cell Differentiation , Clone Cells , Erythrocytes , Erythropoiesis , Humans , Perfusion
6.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 29(6): 306-309, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973335

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To discuss recent advances supporting the role of red blood cells (RBCs) in the host immune response. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last century, research has demonstrated that red blood cells exhibit functions beyond oxygen transport, including immune function. Recent work indicates that the nucleic acid sensing receptor, toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), is expressed on the RBC surface and implicated in innate immune activation and red cell clearance during inflammatory states. In addition to this DNA-sensing role of RBCs, there is growing evidence that RBCs may influence immune function by inducing vascular dysfunction. RBC proteomics and metabolomics have provided additional insight into RBC immune function, with several studies indicating changes to RBC membrane structure and metabolism in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. These structural RBC changes may even provide insight into the pathophysiology of the 'long-coronavirus disease 2019' phenomenon. Finally, evidence suggests that RBCs may influence host immune responses via complement regulation. Taken together, these recent findings indicate RBCs possess immune function. Further studies will be required to elucidate better how RBC immune function contributes to the heterogeneous host response during inflammatory states. SUMMARY: The appreciation for nongas exchanging, red blood cell immune functions is rapidly growing. A better understanding of these RBC functions may provide insight into the heterogeneity observed in the host immune response to infection and inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 9/metabolism
7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(10): 2284-2292, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Erythrocyte aggregation is a phenomenon that is commonly found in several pathological disease states: stroke, myocardial infarction, thermal burn injury, and COVID-19. Erythrocyte aggregation is characterized by rouleaux, closely packed stacks of cells, forming three-dimensional structures. Healthy blood flow monodisperses the red blood cells (RBCs) throughout the vasculature; however, in select pathological conditions, involving hyperthermia and hypoxemia, rouleaux formation remains and results in occlusion of microvessels with decreased perfusion. OBJECTIVES: Our objective is to address the kinetics of rouleaux formation with sudden cessation of flow in variable temperature and oxygen conditions. METHODS: RBCs used in this in vitro system were obtained from healthy human donors. Using a vertical stop-flow system aligned with a microscope, images were acquired and analyzed for increased variation in grayscale to indicate increased aggregation. The onset of aggregation after sudden cessation of flow was determined at proscribed temperatures (37-49°C) and oxygen (0%, 10%), and in the presence and absence of 4, 4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS). Both autologous and homologous plasma were tested. RESULTS: RBCs in autologous plasma aggregate faster and with a higher magnitude with both hyperthermia and hypoxemia. Preventing deoxyhemoglobin from binding to band 3 with DIDS (dissociates the cytoskeleton from the membrane) fully blocks aggregation. Further, RBC aggregation magnitude is greater in autologous plasma. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the C-terminal domain of band 3 plays a pivotal role in RBC aggregation. Further, aggregation is enhanced by hyperthermia and hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperthermia, Induced , 4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid/metabolism , Erythrocyte Aggregation/physiology , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia , Oxygen/metabolism
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934096

ABSTRACT

In physiology and pathophysiology the molecules involved in blood cell-blood cell and blood cell-endothelium interactions have been identified. Platelet aggregation and adhesion to the walls belonging to vessels involve glycoproteins (GP), GP llb and GP llla and the GP Ib-IX-V complex. Red blood cells (RBCs) in normal situations have little interaction with the endothelium. Abnormal adhesion of RBCs was first observed in sickle cell anemia involving vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, α4ß1, Lu/BCAM, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-4. More recently RBC adhesion was found to be increased in retinal-vein occlusion (RVO) and in polycythemia vera (PV). The molecules which participate in this process are phosphatidylserine and annexin V in RVO, and phosphorylated Lu/BCAM and α5 laminin chain in PV. The additional adhesion in diabetes mellitus occurs due to the glycated RBC band 3 and the advanced glycation end-product receptors. The multiligand receptor binds advanced glycation end products (AGEs) or S100 calgranulins, or ß-amyloid peptide. This receptor for advanced glycation end products is known as RAGE. The binding to RAGE-activated endothelial cells leads to an inflammatory reaction and a prothrombotic state via NADPH activation and altered gene expression. RAGE blockade is a potential target for drugs preventing the deleterious consequences of RAGE activation.


Subject(s)
Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Polycythemia Vera/metabolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion/metabolism , Cell Adhesion , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Erythrocytes/pathology , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Humans , Polycythemia Vera/pathology , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion/pathology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/pathology
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934114

ABSTRACT

The sole currently approved malaria vaccine targets the circumsporozoite protein-the protein that densely coats the surface of sporozoites, the parasite stage deposited in the skin of the mammalian host by infected mosquitoes. However, this vaccine only confers moderate protection against clinical diseases in children, impelling a continuous search for novel candidates. In this work, we studied the importance of the membrane-associated erythrocyte binding-like protein (MAEBL) for infection by Plasmodium sporozoites. Using transgenic parasites and live imaging in mice, we show that the absence of MAEBL reduces Plasmodium berghei hemolymph sporozoite infectivity to mice. Moreover, we found that maebl knockout (maebl-) sporozoites display reduced adhesion, including to cultured hepatocytes, which could contribute to the defects in multiple biological processes, such as in gliding motility, hepatocyte wounding, and invasion. The maebl- defective phenotypes in mosquito salivary gland and liver infection were reverted by genetic complementation. Using a parasite line expressing a C-terminal myc-tagged MAEBL, we found that MAEBL levels peak in midgut and hemolymph parasites but drop after sporozoite entry into the salivary glands, where the labeling was found to be heterogeneous among sporozoites. MAEBL was found associated, not only with micronemes, but also with the surface of mature sporozoites. Overall, our data provide further insight into the role of MAEBL in sporozoite infectivity and may contribute to the design of future immune interventions.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium berghei , Protozoan Proteins , Receptors, Cell Surface , Animals , Culicidae , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Plasmodium berghei/genetics , Plasmodium berghei/pathogenicity , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Sporozoites/metabolism
11.
Transfusion ; 62(8): 1559-1570, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, widespread blood shortages were anticipated. We sought to determine how hospital blood supply and blood utilization were affected by the first wave of COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Weekly red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) inventory, transfusion, and outdate data were collected from 13 institutions in the United States, Brazil, Canada, and Denmark from March 1st to December 31st of 2020 and 2019. Data from the sites were aligned based on each site's local first peak of COVID-19 cases, and data from 2020 (pandemic year) were compared with data from the corresponding period in 2019 (pre-pandemic baseline). RESULTS: RBC inventories were 3% lower in 2020 than in 2019 (680 vs. 704, p < .001) and 5% fewer RBCs were transfused per week compared to 2019 (477 vs. 501, p < .001). However, during the first COVID-19 peak, RBC and PLT inventories were higher than normal, as reflected by deviation from par, days on hand, and percent outdated. At this time, 16% fewer inpatient beds were occupied, and 43% fewer surgeries were performed compared to 2019 (p < .001). In contrast to 2019 when there was no correlation, there was, in 2020, significant negative correlations between RBC and PLT days on hand and both percentage occupancy of inpatient beds and percentage of surgeries performed. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, RBC and PLT inventories remained adequate. During the first wave of cases, significant decreases in patient care activities were associated with excess RBC and PLT supplies and increased product outdating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Erythrocytes , Hospitals , Humans , United States
12.
Transfusion ; 62(8): 1551-1558, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Decreased blood collection during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in long-term red blood cell (RBC) shortages in the United States. In an effort to conserve RBCs, the existing passive alert system for auditing inpatient transfusions was modified to activate at a lower hemoglobin threshold (6.5 g/dL instead of 7.0 g/dL for stable, nonbleeding inpatients) during a 9-month shortage at an academic medical center. Hemoglobin levels prior to RBC transfusions were compared for inpatients receiving RBC transfusions to determine whether RBC utilization changed during the intervention. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective study compared the number of single-unit RBC transfusions and hemoglobin levels prior to RBC transfusion among inpatients during the 9 months of the intervention (Period 2, 06/01/2021-2/28/2022) to the same period of the previous year (Period 1, 06/01/2020-2/28/2021). RESULTS: Overall full unit RBC transfusions to inpatients decreased by 15% from 5182 to 4421. Of all transfusions, 50.3% and 49.8% were single-unit RBC transfusions in Period 1 and Period 2, respectively. The incidence rate difference and incidence rate ratio of single RBC units transfused per 1000 patient days were significantly decreased (p = 0.0007). The average pre-transfusion hemoglobin level significantly decreased from 7.18 g/dL to 7.05 g/dL (p = 0.0002), largely due to significant decreases in hemoglobin transfusion triggers for adult inpatient ward transfusions. DISCUSSION: Modification of the passive alert system was associated with significantly decreased RBC utilization during a long-term RBC shortage. Modification of transfusion criteria recommended by passive alerts may be a feasible option to decrease RBC utilization at centers during long-term RBC shortages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Retrospective Studies
13.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44(6): 1013-1014, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909384
14.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(5): 475-480, 2022 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) in evaluating the severity of patients infected with novel coronavirus Delta variant. METHODS: A total of 28 patients infected with novel coronavirus Delta variant in designated hospital treated by the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University medical team from December 2021 to January 2022 were enrolled (23 cases of common type, 4 severe and 1 critical cases). The detailed clinical data of patients was collected. Then, Pearson's correlation analysis was used to identify the blood examination indexes which affected the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). According to the median standard deviation of red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD, 42.5 fL), 28 patients were divided into low RDW-SD group (≤ 42.5 fL, 16 cases) and high RDW-SD group (> 42.5 fL, 12 cases), and the immune related indexes of the two groups were compared. Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was drawn to evaluate the predictive value of RDW-SD on the severity of illness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: Correlation analysis showed that RDW-SD was the only index related to PaO2 and PaCO2 on the first day of admission, which was negative correlation with PaO2 (r = -0.379, P = 0.047) and positive correlation with PaCO2 (r = 0.509, P = 0.006). The results of effects of different clinical characteristics on RDW-SD level showed that there was no statistically significant difference in RDW-SD between groups with different clinical characteristics (including male/female, ≥ 65 years old/< 65 years old, having/without hypertension, having/without diabetes, smoking/not smoking, having/without hyperpyrexia, with/without fever for 3 days, with/without respiratory symptoms, with/without digestive symptoms). It was suggested that RDW-SD be relatively stable and not affected by the patient's baseline level. The percentage of B cells in low RDW-SD group was higher than that in high RDW-SD group (23.01±3.01 vs. 15.34±5.34, P < 0.05), immunoglobulin G (IgG) level in low RDW-SD group was lower than that in high RDW-SD group (g/L: 11.43±3.20 vs. 15.42±1.54, P < 0.05). The area under ROC curve (AUC) of RDW-SD in evaluating severe cases was 0.83 [95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.59-1.06], which was close to multilobularinltration, hypo-lymphocytosis, bacterial coinfection, smoking history, hyper-tension and age (MuL BSTA score; AUC = 0.82, 95%CI was 0.51-1.12) and better than British Thoracic Society's modified pneumonia score (CURB-65 score; AUC = 0.70, 95%CI was 0.50-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: RDW-SD has significant evaluative effect on the severity of COVID-19 patients with Delta variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Erythrocytes , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Acuity , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(8): 2609-2621, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) could reflect interleukin-6 (IL-6) systemic activity since anisocytosis represents the inhibition of erythropoiesis, leaded by the hyperinflammatory background. Our objective was to analyze RDW performance to predict outcome in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Retrospective observational study including 173 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS. Data was analyzed at hospital admission, inclusion in the TOCICOV Study (day 0), days 1, 3, 7 and 15 post-inclusion. RESULTS: Overall, 57% patients received tocilizumab. Overall mortality was 20.8%. RDW was higher in non-survivors compared to survivors at admission (13.53% vs. 14.35, P=0.0016), day 0 (13.60% vs. 14.42, P=0.026), day 3 (13.43% vs. 14.36, P<0.001) and day 7 (13.41% vs. 14.31, P=0.046), presenting better discrimination ability for mortality than other prognostic markers [area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) =0.668 for admission RDW, 0.680 for day 0 RDW, 0.695 for day 3 RDW and 0.666 for day 7 RDW]. RDW values did not vary significantly according to tocilizumab treatment. When adjusted by hemoglobin and tocilizumab treatment, only RDW at admission, day 0, day 3 and C reactive protein (CRP) at day 0 and day 1 were associated with mortality (P<0.05). Only in non-tocilizumab treated patients, IL-6 levels at day 0 were correlated with day 3 RDW (r=0.733, P=0.004) and with day 3 CRP (r=0.727, P=0.022). Both parameters showed significant statistical correlation (r=0.255 for day 1 RDW and CRP in the overall cohort and r=0.358 for day 3 RDW and CRP in patients not treated with tocilizumab, P<0.015). CONCLUSIONS: RDW predicts COVID-19-associated ARDS mortality and reflects the hyperinflammatory background and the effects of cytokines such as IL-6, irrespective of tocilizumab treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Erythrocyte Indices , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
16.
Biomolecules ; 12(6)2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883989

ABSTRACT

For the first time, the influence of COVID-19 on blood microrheology was studied. For this, the method of filtering erythrocytes through filters with pores of 3.5 µm was used. Filterability was shown to significantly decrease with the increasing severity of the patient's condition, as well as with a decrease in the ratio of hemoglobin oxygen saturation to the oxygen fraction in the inhaled air (SpO2/FiO2). The filterability of ≤ 0.65, or its fast decrease during treatment, were indicators of a poor prognosis. Filterability increased significantly with an increase in erythrocyte count, hematocrit and blood concentrations of hemoglobin, albumin, and total protein. The effect of these parameters on the erythrocyte filterability is directly opposite to their effect on blood macrorheology, where they all increase blood viscosity, worsening the erythrocyte deformability. The erythrocyte filterability decreased with increasing oxygen supply rate, especially in patients on mechanical ventilation, apparently not due to the oxygen supplied, but to the deterioration of the patients' condition. Filterability significantly correlates with the C-reactive protein, which indicates that inflammation affects the blood microrheology in the capillaries. Thus, the filterability of erythrocytes is a good tool for studying the severity of the patient's condition and his prognosis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Erythrocyte Deformability , COVID-19/blood , Erythrocytes , Hemoglobins , Humans , Oxygen , Rheology
17.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 173(1): 51-53, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872573

ABSTRACT

The study involved 271 patients (132 men and 139 women) with moderate COVID-19. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in erythrocytes was measured spectrophotometrically. In total group of patients (divided into age groups of 18-35, 36-45, 46-60, and 61-90 years), higher SOD activity was found in the 18-35 age group in comparison with the groups 46-60 years (p<0.01) and 61-90 years (p<0.05). Then, the groups were additionally divided by sex. In men, no differences in enzyme activity were found between the age groups. In women of early reproductive age, SOD activity was higher than in groups 36-45, 46-60, and 61-90 years. The sex differences consisted in higher SOD activity in women aged 18-35 years in comparison with men of this age. These data should be taken into account when choosing the tactics of therapy for patients with moderate COVID-19 course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Superoxide Dismutase , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Erythrocytes , Female , History, 17th Century , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
18.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 173(1): 46-50, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872572

ABSTRACT

Morphological and functional characteristics of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and erythropoietin level in the venous blood were evaluated by laser interference microscopy, Raman spectroscopy with a short-focus extreme aperture lens monochromator, and by ELISA, respectively, in 30 patients with verified moderate COVID-19 at the time of hospitalization and 30 healthy volunteers. The patients whose course of COVID-19 has worsened to critical by day 5 had already had lower (p<0.001) indicators at the time of hospitalization such as the area and thickness of erythrocytes, the hemoglobin distribution and packing density, hemoglobin conformation index (I1355/I1550)/(I1375/I1580) reflecting its oxygen affinity, and blood erythropoietin content. Our findings suggest that these characteristics of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and erythropoietin can serve as potential predictors of COVID-19 aggravation in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Erythropoietin , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Hemoglobins/chemistry , Humans
19.
Analyst ; 147(12): 2662-2670, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864777

ABSTRACT

Malaria was regarded as the most devastating infectious disease of the 21st century until the COVID-19 pandemic. Asexual blood staged parasites (ABS) play a unique role in ensuring the parasite's survival and pathogenesis. Hitherto, there have been no spectroscopic reports discriminating the life cycle stages of the ABS parasite under physiological conditions. The identification and quantification of the stages in the erythrocytic life cycle is important in monitoring the progression and recovery from the disease. In this study, we explored visible microspectrophotometry coupled to machine learning to discriminate functional ABS parasites at the single cell level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed an excellent discrimination between the different stages of the ABS parasites. Support Vector Machine Analysis provided a 100% prediction for both schizonts and trophozoites, while a 92% and 98% accuracy was achieved for predicting control and ring staged infected RBCs, respectively. This work shows proof of principle for discriminating the life cycle stages of parasites in functional erythrocytes using visible microscopy and thus eliminating the drying and fixative steps that are associated with other optical-based spectroscopic techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Parasites , Animals , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , Machine Learning , Microspectrophotometry , Pandemics , Plasmodium falciparum/physiology
20.
Int J Pharm ; 619: 121719, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838891

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have demonstrated that ivermectin (IVM) exhibits antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative virus of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the repurposing of IVM for the treatment of COVID-19 has presented challenges primarily due to the low IVM plasma concentration after oral administration, which was well below IC50. Here, a red blood cell (RBC)-hitchhiking strategy was used for the targeted delivery of IVM-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) to the lung. IVM-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs (IVM-PNPs) and chitosan-coating IVM-PNPs (IVM-CSPNPs) were prepared and adsorbed onto RBCs. Both RBC-hitchhiked IVM-PNPs and IVM-CSPNPs could significantly enhance IVM delivery to lungs, improve IVM accumulation in lung tissue, inhibit the inflammatory responses and finally significantly alleviate the progression of acute lung injury. Specifically, the redistribution and circulation effects were related to the properties of NPs. RBC-hitchhiked cationic IVM-CSPNPs showed a longer circulation time, slower accumulation and elimination rates, and higher anti-inflammatory activities than RBC-hitchhiked anionic IVM-PNPs. Therefore, RBC-hitchhiking provides an alternative strategy to improve IVM pharmacokinetics and bioavailability for repurposing of IVM to treat COVID-19. Furthermore, according to different redistribution effects of different NPs, RBC-hitchhiked NPs may achieve various accumulation rates and circulation times for different requirements of drug delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , COVID-19/drug therapy , Erythrocytes , Humans , Ivermectin , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL