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1.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 43(5): 628-636, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266992

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have demonstrated a novel function of red blood cells (RBCs) beyond their classical role as gas transporters, that is, RBCs undergo functional alterations in cardiovascular and metabolic disease, and RBC dysfunction is associated with hypertension and the development of cardiovascular injury in type 2 diabetes, heart failure, preeclampsia, familial hypercholesterolemia/dyslipidemia, and COVID-19. The underlying mechanisms include decreased nitric oxide bioavailability, increased arginase activity, and reactive oxygen species formation. Of interest, RBCs contain diverse and abundant micro (mi)RNAs. miRNA expression pattern in RBCs reflects the expression in the whole blood, serum, and plasma. miRNA levels in RBCs have been found to be altered in various cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which contributes to the development of cardiovascular complications. Evidence has shown that RBC-derived miRNAs interact with the cardiovascular system via extracellular vesicles and argonaute RISC catalytic component 2 as carriers. Alteration of RBC-to-vascular communication via miRNAs may serve as potential disease mechanism for vascular complications. The present review summarizes RBCs and their released miRNAs as potential mediators of cardiovascular injury. We further focus on the possible mechanisms by which RBC-derived miRNAs regulate cardiovascular function. A better understanding of the function of RBC-derived miRNAs will increase insights into the disease mechanism and potential targets for the treatment of cardiovascular complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , MicroRNAs , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Heart , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230678

ABSTRACT

The established blood donation and transfusion system has contributed a lot to human health and welfare, but for this system to function properly, it requires a sufficient number of healthy donors, which is not always possible. Pakistan was a country hit hardest by COVID-19 which additionally reduced the blood donation rates. In order to address such challenges, the present study focused on the development of RBC substitutes that can be transfused to all blood types. This paper reports the development and characterization of RBC substitutes by combining the strategies of conjugated and encapsulated hemoglobin where magnetite nanoparticles would act as the carrier of hemoglobin, and liposomes would separate internal and external environments. The interactions of hemoglobin variants with bare magnetite nanoparticles were studied through molecular docking studies. Moreover, nanoparticles were synthesized, and hemoglobin was purified from blood. These components were then used to make conjugates, and it was observed that only the hemoglobin HbA1 variant was making protein corona. These conjugates were then encapsulated in liposomes to make negatively charged RBC substitutes with a size range of 1-2 µm. Results suggest that these RBC substitutes work potentially in a similar way as natural RBCs work and can be used in the time of emergency.


Subject(s)
Blood Substitutes , COVID-19 , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Humans , Liposomes , Oxygen/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism
3.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 29(6): 306-309, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973335

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To discuss recent advances supporting the role of red blood cells (RBCs) in the host immune response. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last century, research has demonstrated that red blood cells exhibit functions beyond oxygen transport, including immune function. Recent work indicates that the nucleic acid sensing receptor, toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), is expressed on the RBC surface and implicated in innate immune activation and red cell clearance during inflammatory states. In addition to this DNA-sensing role of RBCs, there is growing evidence that RBCs may influence immune function by inducing vascular dysfunction. RBC proteomics and metabolomics have provided additional insight into RBC immune function, with several studies indicating changes to RBC membrane structure and metabolism in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. These structural RBC changes may even provide insight into the pathophysiology of the 'long-coronavirus disease 2019' phenomenon. Finally, evidence suggests that RBCs may influence host immune responses via complement regulation. Taken together, these recent findings indicate RBCs possess immune function. Further studies will be required to elucidate better how RBC immune function contributes to the heterogeneous host response during inflammatory states. SUMMARY: The appreciation for nongas exchanging, red blood cell immune functions is rapidly growing. A better understanding of these RBC functions may provide insight into the heterogeneity observed in the host immune response to infection and inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 9/metabolism
4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(10): 2284-2292, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Erythrocyte aggregation is a phenomenon that is commonly found in several pathological disease states: stroke, myocardial infarction, thermal burn injury, and COVID-19. Erythrocyte aggregation is characterized by rouleaux, closely packed stacks of cells, forming three-dimensional structures. Healthy blood flow monodisperses the red blood cells (RBCs) throughout the vasculature; however, in select pathological conditions, involving hyperthermia and hypoxemia, rouleaux formation remains and results in occlusion of microvessels with decreased perfusion. OBJECTIVES: Our objective is to address the kinetics of rouleaux formation with sudden cessation of flow in variable temperature and oxygen conditions. METHODS: RBCs used in this in vitro system were obtained from healthy human donors. Using a vertical stop-flow system aligned with a microscope, images were acquired and analyzed for increased variation in grayscale to indicate increased aggregation. The onset of aggregation after sudden cessation of flow was determined at proscribed temperatures (37-49°C) and oxygen (0%, 10%), and in the presence and absence of 4, 4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS). Both autologous and homologous plasma were tested. RESULTS: RBCs in autologous plasma aggregate faster and with a higher magnitude with both hyperthermia and hypoxemia. Preventing deoxyhemoglobin from binding to band 3 with DIDS (dissociates the cytoskeleton from the membrane) fully blocks aggregation. Further, RBC aggregation magnitude is greater in autologous plasma. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the C-terminal domain of band 3 plays a pivotal role in RBC aggregation. Further, aggregation is enhanced by hyperthermia and hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperthermia, Induced , 4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid/metabolism , Erythrocyte Aggregation/physiology , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia , Oxygen/metabolism
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934114

ABSTRACT

The sole currently approved malaria vaccine targets the circumsporozoite protein-the protein that densely coats the surface of sporozoites, the parasite stage deposited in the skin of the mammalian host by infected mosquitoes. However, this vaccine only confers moderate protection against clinical diseases in children, impelling a continuous search for novel candidates. In this work, we studied the importance of the membrane-associated erythrocyte binding-like protein (MAEBL) for infection by Plasmodium sporozoites. Using transgenic parasites and live imaging in mice, we show that the absence of MAEBL reduces Plasmodium berghei hemolymph sporozoite infectivity to mice. Moreover, we found that maebl knockout (maebl-) sporozoites display reduced adhesion, including to cultured hepatocytes, which could contribute to the defects in multiple biological processes, such as in gliding motility, hepatocyte wounding, and invasion. The maebl- defective phenotypes in mosquito salivary gland and liver infection were reverted by genetic complementation. Using a parasite line expressing a C-terminal myc-tagged MAEBL, we found that MAEBL levels peak in midgut and hemolymph parasites but drop after sporozoite entry into the salivary glands, where the labeling was found to be heterogeneous among sporozoites. MAEBL was found associated, not only with micronemes, but also with the surface of mature sporozoites. Overall, our data provide further insight into the role of MAEBL in sporozoite infectivity and may contribute to the design of future immune interventions.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium berghei , Protozoan Proteins , Receptors, Cell Surface , Animals , Culicidae , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Plasmodium berghei/genetics , Plasmodium berghei/pathogenicity , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Sporozoites/metabolism
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934096

ABSTRACT

In physiology and pathophysiology the molecules involved in blood cell-blood cell and blood cell-endothelium interactions have been identified. Platelet aggregation and adhesion to the walls belonging to vessels involve glycoproteins (GP), GP llb and GP llla and the GP Ib-IX-V complex. Red blood cells (RBCs) in normal situations have little interaction with the endothelium. Abnormal adhesion of RBCs was first observed in sickle cell anemia involving vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, α4ß1, Lu/BCAM, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-4. More recently RBC adhesion was found to be increased in retinal-vein occlusion (RVO) and in polycythemia vera (PV). The molecules which participate in this process are phosphatidylserine and annexin V in RVO, and phosphorylated Lu/BCAM and α5 laminin chain in PV. The additional adhesion in diabetes mellitus occurs due to the glycated RBC band 3 and the advanced glycation end-product receptors. The multiligand receptor binds advanced glycation end products (AGEs) or S100 calgranulins, or ß-amyloid peptide. This receptor for advanced glycation end products is known as RAGE. The binding to RAGE-activated endothelial cells leads to an inflammatory reaction and a prothrombotic state via NADPH activation and altered gene expression. RAGE blockade is a potential target for drugs preventing the deleterious consequences of RAGE activation.


Subject(s)
Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Polycythemia Vera/metabolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion/metabolism , Cell Adhesion , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Erythrocytes/pathology , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Humans , Polycythemia Vera/pathology , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion/pathology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/pathology
7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(10): 3022-3030, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788871

ABSTRACT

Infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) might affect red blood cells (RBC); possibly altering oxygen supply. However, investigations of cell morphology and RBC rheological parameters during a mild disease course are lacking and thus, the aim of the study. Fifty individuals with mild COVID-19 disease process were tested after the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection (37males/13 females), and the data were compared to n = 42 healthy controls (30 males/12 females). Analysis of venous blood samples, taken at rest, revealed a higher percentage of permanently elongated RBC and membrane extensions in COVID-19 patients. Haematological parameters and haemoglobin concentration, MCH and MCV in particular, were highly altered in COVID-19. RBC deformability and deformability under an osmotic gradient were significantly reduced in COVID-19 patients. Higher RBC-NOS activation was not capable to at least in part counteract these reductions. Impaired RBC deformability might also be related to morphological changes and/or increased oxidative state. RBC aggregation index remained unaffected. However, higher shear rates were necessary to balance the aggregation-disaggregation in COVID-19 patients which might be, among others, related to morphological changes. The data suggest prolonged modifications of the RBC system even during a mild COVID-19 disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Erythrocyte Deformability/physiology , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Rheology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736943

ABSTRACT

Rouleaux (stacked clumps) of red blood cells (RBCs) observed in the blood of COVID-19 patients in three studies call attention to the properties of several enveloped virus strains dating back to seminal findings of the 1940s. For COVID-19, key such properties are: (1) SARS-CoV-2 binds to RBCs in vitro and also in the blood of COVID-19 patients; (2) although ACE2 is its target for viral fusion and replication, SARS-CoV-2 initially attaches to sialic acid (SA) terminal moieties on host cell membranes via glycans on its spike protein; (3) certain enveloped viruses express hemagglutinin esterase (HE), an enzyme that releases these glycan-mediated bindings to host cells, which is expressed among betacoronaviruses in the common cold strains but not the virulent strains, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS. The arrangement and chemical composition of the glycans at the 22 N-glycosylation sites of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and those at the sialoglycoprotein coating of RBCs allow exploration of specifics as to how virally induced RBC clumping may form. The in vitro and clinical testing of these possibilities can be sharpened by the incorporation of an existing anti-COVID-19 therapeutic that has been found in silico to competitively bind to multiple glycans on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sialoglycoproteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Basigin/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Glycosylation , Hemagglutination , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , Humans , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
9.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 18(5): 1809-1821, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection causes acute respiratory distress, which may progress to multiorgan failure and death. Severe COVID-19 disease is accompanied by reduced erythrocyte turnover, low hemoglobin levels along with increased total bilirubin and ferritin serum concentrations. Moreover, expansion of erythroid progenitors in peripheral blood together with hypoxia, anemia, and coagulopathies highly correlates with severity and mortality. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 directly infects erythroid precursor cells, impairs hemoglobin homeostasis and aggravates COVID-19 disease. METHODS: Erythroid precursor cells derived from peripheral CD34+ blood stem cells of healthy donors were infected in vitro with SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant and differentiated into red blood cells (RBCs). Hemoglobin and iron metabolism in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and controls were analyzed in plasma-depleted whole blood samples. Raman trapping spectroscopy rapidly identified diseased cells. RESULTS: RBC precursors express ACE2 receptor and CD147 at day 5 of differentiation, which makes them susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. qPCR analysis of differentiated RBCs revealed increased HAMP mRNA expression levels, encoding for hepcidin, which inhibits iron uptake. COVID-19 patients showed impaired hemoglobin biosynthesis, enhanced formation of zinc-protoporphyrine IX, heme-CO2, and CO-hemoglobin as well as degradation of Fe-heme. Moreover, significant iron dysmetablolism with high serum ferritin and low serum iron and transferrin levels occurred, explaining disturbances of oxygen-binding capacity in severely ill COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data identify RBC precursors as a direct target of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest that SARS-CoV-2 induced dysregulation in hemoglobin- and iron-metabolism contributes to the severe systemic course of COVID-19. This opens the door for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Ferritins , Heme/metabolism , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Iron/metabolism
10.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 152, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701655

ABSTRACT

The complement system constitutes the innate defense against pathogens. Its dysregulation leads to diseases and is a critical determinant in many viral infections, e.g., COVID-19. Factor H (FH) is the main regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation and could be a therapy to restore homeostasis. However, recombinant FH is not available. Engineered FH versions may be alternative therapeutics. Here, we designed a synthetic protein, MFHR13, as a multitarget complement regulator. It combines the dimerization and C5-regulatory domains of human FH-related protein 1 (FHR1) with the C3-regulatory and cell surface recognition domains of human FH, including SCR 13. In summary, the fusion protein MFHR13 comprises SCRs FHR11-2:FH1-4:FH13:FH19-20. It protects sheep erythrocytes from complement attack exhibiting 26 and 4-fold the regulatory activity of eculizumab and human FH, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MFHR13 and FHR1 bind to all proteins forming the membrane attack complex, which contributes to the mechanistic understanding of FHR1. We consider MFHR13 a promising candidate as therapeutic for complement-associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/metabolism , Complement Activation , Complement Factor H/metabolism , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Bryopsida/genetics , Bryopsida/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sheep
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701642

ABSTRACT

Several diseases (such as diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders) affect the morpho-functional aspects of red blood cells, sometimes altering their normal metabolism. In this review, the hematological changes are evaluated, with particular focus on the morphology and metabolic aspects of erythrocytes. Changes in the functionality of such cells may, in fact, help provide important information about disease severity and progression. The viral infection causes significant damage to the blood cells that are altered in size, rigidity, and distribution width. Lower levels of hemoglobin and anemia have been reported in several studies, and an alteration in the concentration of antioxidant enzymes has been shown to promote a dangerous state of oxidative stress in red blood cells. Patients with severe COVID-19 showed an increase in hematological changes, indicating a progressive worsening as COVID-19 severity progressed. Therefore, monitored hematological alterations in patients with COVID-19 may play an important role in the management of the disease and prevent the risk of a severe course of the disease. Finally, monitored changes in erythrocytes and blood, in general, may be one of the causes of the condition known as Long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diet therapy , Erythrocytes/virology , Anemia/virology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/pathology , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Hemolysis , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
12.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674826

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) first detected in Wuhan, China, has created a public health emergency all over the world. The pandemic has caused more than 340 million confirmed cases and 5.57 million deaths as of 23 January 2022. Although carbohydrates have been found to play a role in coronavirus binding and infection, the role of cell surface glycans in SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis is still not understood. Herein, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit binds specifically to blood group A and B antigens, and that the spike protein S2 subunit has a binding preference for Lea antigens. Further examination of the binding preference for different types of red blood cells (RBCs) indicated that the spike protein S1 subunit preferentially binds with blood group A RBCs, whereas the spike protein S2 subunit prefers to interact with blood group Lea RBCs. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a known target of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, was identified to be a blood group A antigen-containing glycoprotein. Additionally, 6-sulfo N-acetyllactosamine was found to inhibit the binding of the spike protein S1 subunit with blood group A RBCs and reduce the interaction between the spike protein S1 subunit and ACE2.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carbohydrates/genetics , China , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , Polysaccharides , Protein Array Analysis , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization
13.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(3): 283-287, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611428

ABSTRACT

We studied laboratory parameters of patients with COVID-19 against the background of chronic pathologies (cardiovascular pathologies, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus, and cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statins). A decrease in pH and a shift in the electrolyte balance of blood plasma were revealed in all studied groups and were most pronounced in patients with cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statin. It was found that low pH promotes destruction of lipid components of the erythrocyte membranes in patients with chronic pathologies, which was seen from a decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase activity and significant hyponatrenemia. In patients with cardiovascular pathologies and allergy to statins, erythrocyte membranes were most sensitive to a decrease in pH, while erythrocyte membranes of obese patients showed the greatest resistance to low pH and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hypoxia/complications , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Drug Hypersensitivity/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/metabolism , Drug Hypersensitivity/virology , Erythrocyte Membrane/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Female , Fluid Shifts/physiology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Hyponatremia/virology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/virology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sodium/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 784989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603282

ABSTRACT

Effective treatment strategies for severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remain scarce. Hydrolysis of membrane-embedded, inert sphingomyelin by stress responsive sphingomyelinases is a hallmark of adaptive responses and cellular repair. As demonstrated in experimental and observational clinical studies, the transient and stress-triggered release of a sphingomyelinase, SMPD1, into circulation and subsequent ceramide generation provides a promising target for FDA-approved drugs. Here, we report the activation of sphingomyelinase-ceramide pathway in 23 intensive care patients with severe COVID-19. We observed an increase of circulating activity of sphingomyelinase with subsequent derangement of sphingolipids in serum lipoproteins and from red blood cells (RBC). Consistent with increased ceramide levels derived from the inert membrane constituent sphingomyelin, increased activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) accurately distinguished the patient cohort undergoing intensive care from healthy controls. Positive correlational analyses with biomarkers of severe clinical phenotype support the concept of an essential pathophysiological role of ASM in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as of a promising role for functional inhibition with anti-inflammatory agents in SARS-CoV-2 infection as also proposed in independent observational studies. We conclude that large-sized multicenter, interventional trials are now needed to evaluate the potential benefit of functional inhibition of this sphingomyelinase in critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Ceramides/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Ceramides/blood , Enzyme Activation , Erythrocyte Membrane/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/blood , Sphingomyelins/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
15.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(24): 2781-2791, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599254

ABSTRACT

Low plasma levels of the signaling lipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are associated with disrupted endothelial cell (EC) barriers, lymphopenia and reduced responsivity to hypoxia. Total S1P levels were also reduced in 23 critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the two main S1P carriers, serum albumin (SA) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were dramatically low. Surprisingly, we observed a carrier-changing shift from SA to HDL, which probably prevented an even further drop in S1P levels. Furthermore, intracellular S1P levels in red blood cells (RBCs) were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls due to up-regulation of S1P producing sphingosine kinase 1 and down-regulation of S1P degrading lyase expression. Cell culture experiments supported increased sphingosine kinase activity and unchanged S1P release from RBC stores of COVID-19 patients. These observations suggest adaptive mechanisms for maintenance of the vasculature and immunity as well as prevention of tissue hypoxia in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Lysophospholipids/blood , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Sphingosine/blood
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346499

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is a complex post-translational modification that conveys functional diversity to glycoconjugates. Cell surface glycosylation mediates several biological activities such as induction of the intracellular signaling pathway and pathogen recognition. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane N-glycans determine blood type and influence cell lifespan. Although several proteomic studies have been carried out, the glycosylation of RBC membrane proteins has not been systematically investigated. This work aims at exploring the human RBC N-glycome by high-sensitivity MALDI-MS techniques to outline a fingerprint of RBC N-glycans. To this purpose, the MALDI-TOF spectra of healthy subjects harboring different blood groups were acquired. Results showed the predominant occurrence of neutral and sialylated complex N-glycans with bisected N-acetylglucosamine and core- and/or antennary fucosylation. In the higher mass region, these species presented with multiple N-acetyllactosamine repeating units. Amongst the detected glycoforms, the presence of glycans bearing ABO(H) antigens allowed us to define a distinctive spectrum for each blood group. For the first time, advanced glycomic techniques have been applied to a comprehensive exploration of human RBC N-glycosylation, providing a new tool for the early detection of distinct glycome changes associated with disease conditions as well as for understanding the molecular recognition of pathogens.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Glycomics , Polysaccharides/analysis , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Glycosylation , Humans , Proteomics , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325435

ABSTRACT

To screen for additional vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages, fourteen P. falciparum proteins were selected based on expression in sporozoites or their role in establishment of hepatocyte infection. For preclinical evaluation of immunogenicity of these proteins in mice, chimeric P. berghei sporozoites were created that express the P. falciparum proteins in sporozoites as an additional copy gene under control of the uis4 gene promoter. All fourteen chimeric parasites produced sporozoites but sporozoites of eight lines failed to establish a liver infection, indicating a negative impact of these P. falciparum proteins on sporozoite infectivity. Immunogenicity of the other six proteins (SPELD, ETRAMP10.3, SIAP2, SPATR, HT, RPL3) was analyzed by immunization of inbred BALB/c and outbred CD-1 mice with viral-vectored (ChAd63 or ChAdOx1, MVA) vaccines, followed by challenge with chimeric sporozoites. Protective immunogenicity was determined by analyzing parasite liver load and prepatent period of blood stage infection after challenge. Of the six proteins only SPELD immunized mice showed partial protection. We discuss both the low protective immunogenicity of these proteins in the chimeric rodent malaria challenge model and the negative effect on P. berghei sporozoite infectivity of several P. falciparum proteins expressed in the chimeric sporozoites.


Subject(s)
Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/metabolism , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Female , Malaria Vaccines/therapeutic use , Malaria, Falciparum/genetics , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Ribosomal Protein L3 , Sporozoites/pathogenicity
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304662

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, on red blood cell parameters in the context of iron homeostasis in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and evaluate its effect on cell size in vitro. Everolimus has a significant impact on red blood cell parameters in patients with TSC. The most common alteration was microcytosis. The mean MCV value decreased by 9.2%, 12%, and 11.8% after 3, 6, and 12 months of everolimus treatment. The iron level declined during the first 3 months, and human soluble transferrin receptor concentration increased during 6 months of therapy. The size of K562 cells decreased when cultured in the presence of 5 µM everolimus by approximately 8%. The addition of hemin to the cell culture with 5 µM everolimus did not prevent any decrease in cell size. The stage of erythroid maturation did not affect the response to everolimus. Our results showed that the mTOR inhibitor everolimus caused red blood cell microcytosis in vivo and in vitro. This effect is not clearly related to a deficit of iron and erythroid maturation. This observation confirms that mTOR signaling plays a complex role in the control of cell size.


Subject(s)
Cell Size/drug effects , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Erythrocytes/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Adolescent , Biomarkers , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Line , Child , Child, Preschool , Erythrocyte Indices , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Everolimus/administration & dosage , Everolimus/adverse effects , Everolimus/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Iron/metabolism , K562 Cells , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects
19.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(2): L485-L489, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299247

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, can progress to multisystem organ failure and viral sepsis characterized by respiratory failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolic complications, and shock with high mortality. Autopsy and preclinical evidence implicate aberrant complement activation in endothelial injury and organ failure. Erythrocytes express complement receptors and are capable of binding immune complexes; therefore, we investigated complement activation in patients with COVID-19 using erythrocytes as a tool to diagnose complement activation. We discovered enhanced C3b and C4d deposition on erythrocytes in COVID-19 sepsis patients and non-COVID sepsis patients compared with healthy controls, supporting the role of complement in sepsis-associated organ injury. Our data suggest that erythrocytes may contribute to a precision medicine approach to sepsis and have diagnostic value in monitoring complement dysregulation in COVID-19-sepsis and non-COVID sepsis and identifying patients who may benefit from complement targeted therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Complement Activation/immunology , Complement C3b/immunology , Complement C4b/immunology , Erythrocytes/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Sepsis/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Complement C3b/metabolism , Complement C4b/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/immunology , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/virology
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3886-3897, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Platelets, blood coagulation along with fibrinolysis are greatly involved in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases induced by bacteria, parasites and virus. This phenomenon is not surprising since both the innate immunity and the hemostatic systems are two ancestral mechanisms which closely cooperate favoring host's defense against foreign invaders. However, the excessive response of these systems may be dangerous for the host itself. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched and retrieved the articles, using the following electronic database: MedLine and Embase. We limited our search to articles published in English, but no restrictions in terms of article type, publication year, and geography were adopted. RESULTS: The hemostatic phenotype of the infectious diseases is variable depending on the points of attack of the different involved pathogens. Infectious diseases which show a prothrombotic phenotype are bacterial sepsis, SARS-CoV-2 and malaria. However, among the bacterial sepsis, Yersinia Pestis is characterized by a profibrinolytic behavior. On the contrary, the hemorrhagic fevers, due to Dengue and Ebola virus, mainly exploit the activation of fibrinolysis secondary to a huge endothelial damage which can release a large amount of t-PA in the early phase of the diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis are greatly activated based on the strategy of the different infectious agents which exploit the excess of response of both systems to achieve the greatest possible virulence.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/pathology , Fibrinolysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Erythrocytes/cytology , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Humans , Monocytes/cytology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Viruses/pathogenicity
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