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Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736941


The fourth enzymatic reaction in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, is catalyzed by dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). Enzymes belonging to the DHODH Class II are membrane-bound proteins that use ubiquinones as their electron acceptors. We have designed this study to understand the interaction of an N-terminally truncated human DHODH (HsΔ29DHODH) and the DHODH from Escherichia coli (EcDHODH) with ubiquinone (Q10) in supported lipid membranes using neutron reflectometry (NR). NR has allowed us to determine in situ, under solution conditions, how the enzymes bind to lipid membranes and to unambiguously resolve the location of Q10. Q10 is exclusively located at the center of all of the lipid bilayers investigated, and upon binding, both of the DHODHs penetrate into the hydrophobic region of the outer lipid leaflet towards the Q10. We therefore show that the interaction between the soluble enzymes and the membrane-embedded Q10 is mediated by enzyme penetration. We can also show that EcDHODH binds more efficiently to the surface of simple bilayers consisting of 1-palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and tetraoleoyl cardiolipin than HsΔ29DHODH, but does not penetrate into the lipids to the same degree. Our results also highlight the importance of Q10, as well as lipid composition, on enzyme binding.

/chemistry , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Ubiquinone/metabolism , Cardiolipins/metabolism , Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Models, Molecular , Phosphatidylcholines/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains
Structure ; 29(2): 186-195.e6, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939287


Recent advances in single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have enabled the structural determination of numerous protein assemblies at high resolution, yielding unprecedented insights into their function. However, despite its extraordinary capabilities, cryo-EM remains time-consuming and resource-intensive. It is therefore beneficial to have a means for rapidly assessing and optimizing the quality of samples prior to lengthy cryo-EM analyses. To do this, we have developed a native mass spectrometry (nMS) platform that provides rapid feedback on sample quality and highly streamlined biochemical screening. Because nMS enables accurate mass analysis of protein complexes, it is well suited to routine evaluation of the composition, integrity, and homogeneity of samples prior to their plunge-freezing on EM grids. We demonstrate the utility of our nMS-based platform for facilitating cryo-EM studies using structural characterizations of exemplar bacterial transcription complexes as well as the replication-transcription assembly from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Single Molecule Imaging/methods , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA Helicases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Transcription Factors/chemistry , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism