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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(2): 270-278, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic surveillance is recommended for patients with Barrett's oesophagus because, although the progression risk is low, endoscopic intervention is highly effective for high-grade dysplasia and cancer. However, repeated endoscopy has associated harms and access has been limited during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate the role of a non-endoscopic device (Cytosponge) coupled with laboratory biomarkers and clinical factors to prioritise endoscopy for Barrett's oesophagus. METHODS: We first conducted a retrospective, multicentre, cross-sectional study in patients older than 18 years who were having endoscopic surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus (with intestinal metaplasia confirmed by TFF3 and a minimum Barrett's segment length of 1 cm [circumferential or tongues by the Prague C and M criteria]). All patients had received the Cytosponge and confirmatory endoscopy during the BEST2 (ISRCTN12730505) and BEST3 (ISRCTN68382401) clinical trials, from July 7, 2011, to April 1, 2019 (UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio 9461). Participants were divided into training (n=557) and validation (n=334) cohorts to identify optimal risk groups. The biomarkers evaluated were overexpression of p53, cellular atypia, and 17 clinical demographic variables. Endoscopic biopsy diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia or cancer was the primary endpoint. Clinical feasibility of a decision tree for Cytosponge triage was evaluated in a real-world prospective cohort from Aug 27, 2020 (DELTA; ISRCTN91655550; n=223), in response to COVID-19 and the need to provide an alternative to endoscopic surveillance. FINDINGS: The prevalence of high-grade dysplasia or cancer determined by the current gold standard of endoscopic biopsy was 17% (92 of 557 patients) in the training cohort and 10% (35 of 344) in the validation cohort. From the new biomarker analysis, three risk groups were identified: high risk, defined as atypia or p53 overexpression or both on Cytosponge; moderate risk, defined by the presence of a clinical risk factor (age, sex, and segment length); and low risk, defined as Cytosponge-negative and no clinical risk factors. The risk of high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal cancer in the high-risk group was 52% (68 of 132 patients) in the training cohort and 41% (31 of 75) in the validation cohort, compared with 2% (five of 210) and 1% (two of 185) in the low-risk group, respectively. In the real-world setting, Cytosponge results prospectively identified 39 (17%) of 223 patients as high risk (atypia or p53 overexpression, or both) requiring endoscopy, among whom the positive predictive value was 31% (12 of 39 patients) for high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal cancer and 44% (17 of 39) for any grade of dysplasia. INTERPRETATION: Cytosponge atypia, p53 overexpression, and clinical risk factors (age, sex, and segment length) could be used to prioritise patients for endoscopy. Further investigation could validate their use in clinical practice and lead to a substantial reduction in endoscopy procedures compared with current surveillance pathways. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Innovate UK.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Barrett Esophagus/pathology , COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Patient Selection , Watchful Waiting/methods , Adenocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Aged , Barrett Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Barrett Esophagus/metabolism , Barrett Esophagus/therapy , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Trees , Disease Progression , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Esophagoscopy , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Trefoil Factor-3/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
2.
J Am Coll Surg ; 235(2): 174-184, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, national guidelines recommended that elective surgery for esophageal cancer be deferred by 3 months when hospital resources are limited. The impact of this delay on patient outcomes is unknown. We sought to evaluate the survival of patients with stage I and II/III esophageal cancer who undergo early vs delayed treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Using the National Cancer Database from 2010 to 2017, multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling and propensity score-matched analysis were employed to compare survival of patients with stage I esophageal cancer who received early (0 to 4 weeks after diagnosis) vs delayed esophagectomy (12 to 16 weeks) and of patients with stage II/III esophageal cancer who-after receiving timely chemoradiation (0 to 4 weeks after diagnosis)-underwent early (9 to 17 weeks) vs delayed esophagectomy (21 to 29 weeks). RESULTS: For stage I esophageal cancer, 226 (41.7%) patients underwent early esophagectomy, and 316 (58.3%) patients underwent delayed esophagectomy. Propensity score matching created 2 groups of 134 patients with early or delayed esophagectomy, whose 5-year survival was comparable (hazard ratio [HR] 65.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 55.2% to 73.2%] vs HR 65.1% [95% CI 55.6% to 73.1%], p = 0.50). For stage II/III esophageal cancer, 1,236 (86.1%) patients underwent early esophagectomy, and 200 (13.9%) underwent delayed esophagectomy. Propensity score matching created 2 groups of 130 patients; the early esophagectomy group had improved 5-year survival compared with the delayed esophagectomy group (HR 41.6% [95% CI 32.1% to 50.8%] vs HR 22.9% [95% CI 14.9% to 31.8%], p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Early esophagectomy was associated with similar survival compared with delayed esophagectomy for patients with stage I esophageal cancer. For patients with stage II/III esophageal cancer, early esophagectomy was associated with improved survival relative to delayed esophagectomy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy , Humans , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
3.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(11): 9461-9469, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990646

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the association between dispositional optimism and all-cause mortality after esophageal cancer surgery and whether pathological tumor stage and the COVID-19 pandemic modified this association. METHODS: This nationwide, population-based prospective cohort study included 335 patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery in Sweden between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2019. Dispositional optimism was measured 1 year post-surgery using Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R). A higher LOT-R sum score represents higher dispositional optimism. Mortality information was obtained from the Swedish Register of the Total Population. All patients were followed up until death or until December 31, 2020, whichever occurred first. Cox regression with adjustments for confounders was used. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 20.8 months, during which 125 (37.3%) patients died. Among the included 335 patients, 219 (65.4%) patients had tumor pathologically staged Tis-II, and 300 (89.6%) patients entered the cohort before the COVID-19 pandemic. Both tumor stage and the COVID-19 pandemic were effect modifiers. For each unit increase in LOT-R sum score, the risk of all-cause mortality decreased by 11% (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.98) among patients with tumor staged Tis-II before the COVID-19 pandemic. This association was non-significant in patients with tumor staged III-IV (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.25). CONCLUSION: Assessing dispositional optimism may help predict postoperative survival, especially for patients with early and intermediate esophageal cancer. Increasing dispositional optimism might be a potential intervention target to improve survival after esophageal cancer surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms , Humans , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Optimism , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology
4.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(7): e227-e230, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320541

ABSTRACT

Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is a rare form of malignancy accounting for fewer than 2% of bladder tumours. It is most commonly a result of direct invasion from prostatic, rectal or gynaecological primaries and less commonly presents from distant haematological or lymphatic metastasis. We report a rare case of oesophageal carcinoma metastasising to the bladder. It involves a 71-year-old man with progressive dysphagia and diagnostic computerised tomography findings of thickening in the oesophagus, bladder and common bile duct. Subsequent endoscopic biopsies of the oesophageal and bladder abnormalities showed immunohistochemical features consistent with upper gastrointestinal malignancy. This report aims to add to current clinical evidence of this route of metastasis and also highlight some of the key markers used by pathologists in interpretation of specimens. It also emphasises the essential role of a multidisciplinary approach for the diagnosis of such rare conditions.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Hydronephrosis/diagnosis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Aged , Biopsy , Cystoscopy , Esophageal Neoplasms/complications , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Esophagus/pathology , Humans , Hydronephrosis/etiology , Male , Palliative Care , Terminal Care , Urinary Bladder/diagnostic imaging , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/secondary , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/therapy , Weight Loss
5.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 34(3): 1075-1080, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294523

ABSTRACT

Delay in time to esophagectomy for esophageal cancer has been shown to have worse peri-operative and long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that COVID-19 would cause a delay to surgery, with worse perioperative outcomes, compared to standard operations. All esophagectomies for esophageal cancer at a single institution from March-June 2020, COVID-19 group, and from 2019 were reviewed and peri-operative details were compared between groups. Ninety-six esophagectomies were performed in 2019 vs 37 during March-June 2020 (COVID-19 group). No differences between groups were found for preoperative comorbidities. Wait-time to surgery from final neoadjuvant treatment was similar, median 50 days in 2019 vs 53 days during COVID-19 p = 0.601. There was no increased upstaging, from clinical stage to pathologic stage, 9.4% in 2019 vs 7.5% in COVID-19 p = 0.841. Fewer overall complications occurred during COVID-19 vs 2019, 43.2% vs 64.6% p = 0.031, but complications were similar by specific grades. Readmission rates were not statistically different during COVID-19 than 2019, 16.2% vs 10.4% p = 0.38. No peri-operative mortalities or COVID-19 infections were seen in the COVID-19 group. Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer was not associated with worse outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic with minimal risk of infection when careful COVID-19 guidelines are followed. Prioritization is recommended to ensure no delays to surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Curr Oncol ; 28(2): 1348-1353, 2021 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154295

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a substantial impact on the provision of medical healthcare. Due to an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) transmission, elective surgical treatment has been suspended in many centers. The effects of COVID-19 in the early post-operative period after esophagectomy remains unknown. In this report, we present three cases of patients diagnosed with esophago-gastric junction cancer who were scheduled for elective esophagectomy with a curative intention during second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in a single high-volume tertiary center. Despite all available safety measures, one of the patients developed COVID-19 pneumonia on post-operative day two, leading to an impaired respiratory function and increased pleural fluid collection from the chest tube, resulting in a prolonged time of hospital stay. Finding a good balance between the COVID-19-related perioperative risks and consequences of delaying surgical treatment in patients diagnosed with esophago-gastric cancer is a challenge. In order to achieve the best possible outcome, care must be taken to ensure availability of necessary treatment options and to reduce the risk of SARS-Cov-2 transmission perioperatively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophagectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagogastric Junction/pathology , Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging
8.
Surg Endosc ; 35(11): 6081-6088, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical society guidelines have recommended changing the treatment strategy for early esophageal cancer during the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Delaying resection can allow for interim disease progression, but the impact of this delay on mortality is unknown. The COVID-19 infection rate at which immediate operative risk exceeds benefit is unknown. We sought to model immediate versus delayed surgical resection in a T1b esophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: A decision analysis model was developed, and sensitivity analyses performed. The base case was a 65-year-old male smoker presenting with cT1b esophageal adenocarcinoma scheduled for esophagectomy during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared immediate surgical resection to delayed resection after 3 months. The likelihood of key outcomes was derived from the literature where available. The outcome was 5-year overall survival. RESULTS: Proceeding with immediate esophagectomy for the base case scenario resulted in slightly improved 5-year overall survival when compared to delaying surgery by 3 months (5-year overall survival 0.74 for immediate and 0.73 for delayed resection). In sensitivity analyses, a delayed approach became preferred when the probability of perioperative COVID-19 infection increased above 7%. CONCLUSIONS: Immediate resection of early esophageal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic did not decrease 5-year survival when compared to resection after 3 months for the base case scenario. However, as the risk of perioperative COVID-19 infection increases above 7%, a delayed approach has improved 5-year survival. This balance should be frequently re-examined by surgeons as infection risk changes in each hospital and community throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophagectomy , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Surg Today ; 50(10): 1240-1248, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888203

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients who receive trastuzumab (T-mab) plus chemotherapy for stage IV HER2-positive gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer sometimes respond remarkably well and can undergo radical surgery. However, the clinical outcomes of preoperative T-mab combined chemotherapy with radical gastrectomy remain unclear. We conducted this study to investigate the clinical outcomes of this multimodal treatment. METHODS: From among a total of 199 patients who received T-mab-based chemotherapy for stage IV HER2-positive gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer between 2011 and 2018, the subjects of this retrospective analysis were 20 patients who subsequently underwent radical gastrectomy. RESULTS: Seven patients had gastroesophageal junction cancer and 13 had gastric cancer. Eleven patients had unresectable stage IV cancer and 9 had resectable metastatic disease. Chemotherapy regimens included capecitabine, cisplatin + T-mab (11 patients), and S-1, oxaliplatin + T-mab (nine patients). The median number of chemotherapy cycles before surgery was three (range, 2-62). During preoperative chemotherapy, grade 3/4 adverse events developed in six patients. None suffered grade ≥ 3b postoperative complications. The 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 58.9% and 89.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Combined preoperative T-mab-based chemotherapy and surgery appears to be safe and effective for stage IV HER2-positive gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer, with a clinically meaningful impact on RFS and OS.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Esophageal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophagogastric Junction , Gastrectomy , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Trastuzumab/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Esophageal Neoplasms/genetics , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Preoperative Care , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Young Adult , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
10.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(16): 2561-2569, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833375

ABSTRACT

Background: During the outbreak period of COVID-19 pneumonia, cancer patients have been neglected and in greater danger. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonia and radiation pneumonitis in cancer patients remains a challenge. This study determined their clinical presentations and radiological features in order to early diagnose and separate COVID-19 pneumonia from radiation pneumonitis patients promptly. Methods and Findings: From January 21, 2020 to February 18, 2020, 112 patients diagnosed with suspected COVID-19 were selected consecutively. A retrospective analysis including all patients' presenting was performed. Four patients from 112 suspected individals were selected, including 2 males and 2 females with a median age of 54 years (range 39-64 years). After repeated pharyngeal swab nucleic acid tests, 1 case was confirmed and 3 cases were excluded from COVID-19 pneumonia. Despite the comparable morphologic characteristics of lung CT imaging, the location, extent, and distribution of lung lesions between COVID-19 pneumonia and radiation pneumonitis differed significantly. Conclusions: Lung CT imaging combined with clinical and laboratory findings can facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate management of COVID-19 pneumonia with a history of malignancy and radiation therapy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiation Pneumonitis/diagnostic imaging , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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