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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(4): 1359-1364, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939177

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the causes of acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) in young adults and children in the setting of COVID-19-induced home confinement. Methods: A retrospective, clinical study of all patients, who presented to the Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus services of a tertiary eye care center in South India from August 2020 to January 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic, with acute-onset, comitant esotropia. Results: 11 (73.3%) of the total 15 patients were students, above 10 years and with a mean age of 16.8 years. 12 patients (80%) had more than 8 hours of near activity a day with a mean duration of 8.6 hours per day. The most common near activity was online classes, followed by job-related work and mobile games, and 86.7% used smartphones for near work. The average esotropia was 22.73 prism diopter (PD) for distance and 18.73 PD for near. Majority (66.6%) had hyperopia with basic or divergence insufficiency esotropia, and the remaining 33.3% had myopia and fitted in to the Bielschowsky type AACE. There was no precipitating event other than sustained near work in all, except in one patient who also had fever prior to the onset of esotropia. Conclusion: The habit of long-time and sustained near work, especially on smartphones, may increase the risk of inducement of AACE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esotropia , Mobile Applications , Video Games , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Esotropia/diagnosis , Esotropia/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
2.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 52(2): 96-101, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818497

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the management of the pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus clinic when strict quarantine conditions were adopted during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Turkey. Materials and Methods: The study presents a review of the patients examined during the quarantine period. All patients were assessed with the highest possible level of personal protection. Results: Ten patients (6 girls, 4 boys) with a mean age of 9 years (range: 2-16) were evaluated. The patients presented 3-20 days after symptom onset. Ocular misalignment and diplopia were the main symptoms. Four of the 10 patients were diagnosed with sixth cranial nerve palsy and three patients were diagnosed with acute-onset comitant esotropia. Six patients had significant cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings. Conclusion: Acute-onset neurological conditions are more common during the COVID-19 pandemic. These reports will contribute to global experience and understanding of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esotropia , Strabismus , Acute Disease , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Strabismus/diagnosis , Strabismus/epidemiology , Turkey/epidemiology
3.
Strabismus ; 29(3): 163-167, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294592

ABSTRACT

Extra time of sitting in front of a digital device is required for e-learning by children during Corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic which can lead to many ocular problems including digital eye strain (DES). In view of increased incidence of DES in children, multiple studies had been conducted in central India to assess the eye strain in children due to excessive online classes as a research project named "Digital eye strain among kids (DESK) study." This study DESK-3 aimed to report series of cases of acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) in children attending online classes during COVID-19 pandemic. Children aged 6-18 years with recent onset of esotropia of < 1-month duration without any similar history in past presented in month of July-August 2020 at a tertiary children eye care hospital were evaluated. Data collection included age and gender of child, presence or absence of diplopia, visual acuity, duration of smartphone use, duration of online classes, angle of deviation for near and distance and cycloplegic refraction. Total eight children of AACE were included in the study. The mean age of children was 12.5 ± 4.2 years. All eight were males. The mean duration of smartphone use was 4.6 + 0.7 hours per day. All children were attending online classes > 4 hours per day on smartphone of average size 5.5 inches. Five children were emmetropic, one myopic, one pseudomyopic and one hyperopic. The angle of deviation for near and distance were 48.1 ± 16.4 PD and 49.3 ± 15.9 PD respectively with normal ocular motility. Seven children complained of horizontal diplopia in all gazes. Neurological examination and CT scan of brain and orbit was normal in all patients.  Two months before the lockdown only one case was identified as compared to eight during the lockdown. Prolonged near work during smart phone use for e-learning might lead to the development of AACE in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esotropia , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Esotropia/epidemiology , Esotropia/etiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
4.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 57: e88-e91, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890440

ABSTRACT

The public health measures imposed in many countries to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak could have negative effects on children's physical and mental health. The authors describe four cases of acquired concomitant acute esotropia likely caused from excessive application of near vision during the COVID-19 lockdown. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2020;57:e88-e91.].


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Esotropia/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Screen Time , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Myopia , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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