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2.
Alcohol (Hanover) ; 47(2): 219-239, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with alcohol use disorder (AUD) may be at higher risk for COVID-19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) are required for cellular entry by SARS-CoV-2, but information on their expression in specific brain regions after alcohol exposure is limited. We sought to clarify how chronic alcohol exposure affects ACE2 expression in monoaminergic brainstem circuits and other putative SARS-CoV-2 entry points. METHODS: Brains were examined for ACE2 using immunofluorescence after 4 weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor inhalation. We also examined TMPRSS2, Cathepsin L, and ADAM17 by Western blot and RAS pathway mediators and pro-inflammatory markers via RT-qPCR. RESULTS: ACE2 was increased in most brain regions following CIE including the olfactory bulb (OB), hypothalamus (HT), raphe magnus (RMG), raphe obscurus (ROB), locus coeruleus (LC), and periaqueductal gray (PAG). We also observed increased colocalization of ACE2 with monoaminergic neurons in brainstem nuclei. Moreover, soluble ACE2 (sACE2) was elevated in OB, HT, and LC. The increase in sACE2 in OB and HT was accompanied by upregulation of ADAM17, an ACE2 sheddase, while TMPRSS2 increased in HT and LC. Cathepsin L, an endosomal receptor involved in viral entry, was also increased in OB. Alcohol can increase Angiotensin II, which triggers a pro-inflammatory response that may upregulate ACE2 via activation of RAS pathway receptors AT1R/AT2R. ACE2 then metabolizes Angiotensin II to Angiotensin (1-7) and provokes an anti-inflammatory response via MAS1. Accordingly, we report that AT1R/AT2R mRNA decreased in OB and increased in the LC, while MAS1 mRNA increased in both OB and LC. Other mRNAs for pro-inflammatory markers were also dysregulated in OB, HT, raphe, and LC. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that alcohol triggers a compensatory upregulation of ACE2 in the brain due to disturbed RAS and may increase the risk or severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Ethanol/adverse effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
4.
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat ; 30(1): 57-58, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2046604

ABSTRACT

Proper hand hygiene is one of the top preventive measures against the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we report the cases of four patients who presented with blonde discoloration of hair of the dorsal hands and distal forearms during the COVID-19 pandemic. The mean age of participants was 41.25±4.35 years, and 75% percent of them were men. Three patients were medical staff who had to use antiseptics frequently, and one of them was a housewife. In all participants, the primary color of hand hair was black. The duration of sanitizer use was approximately four months (Table 1). One of the patients, a 42-year-old male ophthalmologist, was examined due to the blonde discoloration of hairs of the dorsal hands and distal forearms (Figure 1). The color of the hand and forearms hair had changed to blonde. However, the underlying skin was unaffected. A dermoscopy examination showed lighter hair compared with the natural black hair of unaffected parts. In addition, the hair color of the scalp, upper arms, and other body parts was normal. The patient had frequently used a hand sanitizer that contained 70% ethanol and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) for the past five months. The three other patients also had blonde discoloration observable on the hair of dorsal hands. They all reported excessive use of various alcoholic sanitizers. However, they were unaware of other ingredients. In addition, the examination of hair shafts and underlying skin was normal. The COVID-19 pandemic caused an abrupt increase in the use of sanitizers. Hand disinfectants consist of two main categories: non-alcohol-based hand sanitizers and alcohol-based hand sanitizers. The alcohol-based type is an effective measure for the inactivation of enveloped viruses such as coronaviruses (1). It has been shown that percutaneous absorption of alcohol is possible through intact skin. The use of ethanol as a penetration enhancer for pharmaceutical purposes also confirms that ethanol can be absorbed via the skin and be systematically distributed in the body (2). Reisfield et al. observed that intensive use of ethanol-based sanitizers led to an increase in urinary ethanol biomarkers concentrations (3). Alcohols used in various types of gels and solutions are easily released during hand rubbing (4). Ethanol absorption by inhalation should therefore also be taken into account (5). Different pathways of ethanol metabolism can produce free radicals, which affect the antioxidant system (6). In addition, DDAC is also associated with cell growth inhibition and stress oxidative induction (7). Hair discoloration may be a voluntary cosmetic change or a result of chemical or metal exposure. Most unwanted hair discolorations are blonde or white (8). Previous data suggested that an increase in pro-oxidants and a decrease in antioxidants play an important role in hair discoloration. A study performed by Akin Belli et al. demonstrated that hair discoloration is closely related to factors such as emotional stress and alcohol consumption, which cause oxidative stress (9). Hair discoloration might therefore result from oxidative stress induced by ethanol and DDAC used in sanitizers. Golden hair discoloration has been associated with chloride in water. Hypochlorous acid in swimming pool water can penetrate the hair cortex through the cuticle, where it can oxidize and degenerate melanosomes (10). Another possible hypothesis is that the chloride compound in DDAC might be the culprit in sanitizer hair discoloration. Additionally, the bleaching compounds used in some hand disinfectants could be another possible cause of hair discoloration. To the best of our knowledge, this observation of hair discoloration was not previously reported during the COVID-19 outbreak. It is also noteworthy that most hair discoloration normalizes over time (8). The limitations of our study included the fact that the hand sanitizers used by the patients were unavailable and thus their ingredients could not be examined. Furthermore, as most of the sanitizers in this current pandemic are not standardized, they may have unknown ingredients with discoloration properties. Due to the overzealous use of various antiseptics during the pandemic, it is expected that this side-effect will be observed more and more often. Therefore, physicians must be aware of this presentation and reassure the patient regarding this phenomenon. Additionally, products free of such agents should be prescribed to avoid hair discoloration.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Hair Diseases , Hand Sanitizers , Adult , Ammonium Chloride , Antioxidants , Chlorides , Ethanol/adverse effects , Female , Gels , Hair , Hand Sanitizers/adverse effects , Hand Sanitizers/chemistry , Humans , Hypochlorous Acid , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Water
5.
Alcohol ; 103: 1-7, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035682

ABSTRACT

On November 19th, 2021, the annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois. The 2021 meeting focused on how alcohol misuse is linked to immune system derangements, leading to tissue and organ damage, and how this research can be translated into improving treatment of alcohol-related disease. This meeting was divided into three plenary sessions: the first session focused on how alcohol misuse affects different parts of the immune system, the second session presented research on mechanisms of organ damage from alcohol misuse, and the final session highlighted research on potential therapeutic targets for treating alcohol-mediated tissue damage. Diverse areas of alcohol research were covered during the meeting, from alcohol's effect on pulmonary systems and neuroinflammation to epigenetic changes, senescence markers, and microvesicle particles. These presentations yielded a thoughtful discussion on how the findings can lead to therapeutic treatments for people suffering from alcohol-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Alcoholism/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Ethanol/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Public Opinion
6.
Am J Pathol ; 192(7): 990-1000, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906699

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, alcohol consumption increased markedly. Nearly one in four adults reported drinking more alcohol to cope with stress. Chronic alcohol abuse is now recognized as a factor complicating the course of acute respiratory distress syndrome and increasing mortality. To investigate the mechanisms behind this interaction, a combined acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic alcohol abuse mouse model was developed by intratracheally instilling the subunit 1 (S1) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1SP) in K18-human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transgenic mice that express the human ACE2 receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and were kept on an ethanol diet. Seventy-two hours after S1SP instillation, mice on an ethanol diet showed a strong decrease in body weight, a dramatic increase in white blood cell content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and an augmented cytokine storm, compared with S1SP-treated mice on a control diet. Histologic examination of lung tissue showed abnormal recruitment of immune cells in the alveolar space, abnormal parenchymal architecture, and worsening Ashcroft score in S1SP- and alcohol-treated animals. Along with the activation of proinflammatory biomarkers [NF-κB, STAT3, NLR family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome], lung tissue homogenates from mice on an alcohol diet showed overexpression of ACE2 compared with mice on a control diet. This model could be useful for the development of therapeutic approaches against alcohol-exacerbated coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Alcoholism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Ethanol/adverse effects , Humans , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a teratogen and prenatal exposure may adversely impact the developing fetus, increasing risk for negative outcomes, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Global trends of increasing alcohol use among women of childbearing age due to economic development, changing gender roles, increased availability of alcohol, peer pressure and social acceptability of women's alcohol use may put an increasing number of pregnancies at risk for prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). This risk has been exacerbated by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in some countries. METHOD: This literature review presents an overview on the epidemiology of alcohol use among childbearing age and pregnant women and FASD by World Health Organization regions; impact of PAE on fetal health, including FASD; associated comorbidities; and social outcomes. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The impact of alcohol on fetal health and social outcomes later in life is enormous, placing a huge economic burden on countries. Prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and early identification of affected individuals should be a global public health priority.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/pathology , Ethanol/adverse effects , Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders/epidemiology , Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders/pathology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/pathology , Causality , Female , Humans , Pregnancy
9.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376916

ABSTRACT

Alcohol consumption is associated with gut dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability, endotoxemia, and a cascade that leads to persistent systemic inflammation, alcoholic liver disease, and other ailments. Craving for alcohol and its consequences depends, among other things, on the endocannabinoid system. We have analyzed the relative role of central vs. peripheral cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) using a "two-bottle" as well as a "drinking in the dark" paradigm in mice. The globally acting CB1R antagonist rimonabant and the non-brain penetrant CB1R antagonist JD5037 inhibited voluntary alcohol intake upon systemic but not upon intracerebroventricular administration in doses that elicited anxiogenic-like behavior and blocked CB1R-induced hypothermia and catalepsy. The peripherally restricted hybrid CB1R antagonist/iNOS inhibitor S-MRI-1867 was also effective in reducing alcohol consumption after oral gavage, while its R enantiomer (CB1R inactive/iNOS inhibitor) was not. The two MRI-1867 enantiomers were equally effective in inhibiting an alcohol-induced increase in portal blood endotoxin concentration that was caused by increased gut permeability. We conclude that (i) activation of peripheral CB1R plays a dominant role in promoting alcohol intake and (ii) the iNOS inhibitory function of MRI-1867 helps in mitigating the alcohol-induced increase in endotoxemia.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/pathology , Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Endotoxemia/pathology , Ethanol/adverse effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/antagonists & inhibitors , Alcohol Drinking/blood , Animals , Anxiety/blood , Anxiety/complications , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Catalepsy/chemically induced , Catalepsy/complications , Cyclohexanols/administration & dosage , Elevated Plus Maze Test , Endotoxemia/blood , Endotoxemia/complications , Endotoxins/blood , Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Hypothermia, Induced , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/metabolism , Rimonabant/administration & dosage , Rimonabant/pharmacology , Stereoisomerism , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage
11.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 675-688, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a worldwide crisis caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Many COVID-19 patients present with fever in the early phase, with some progressing to a hyperinflammatory phase. Ethanol (EtOH) exposure may lead to systemic inflammation. Network meta-analysis was conducted to examine possible relationships between EtOH consumption and COVID-19 pathologies. METHODS: Molecules affected by EtOH exposure were identified by analysis with QIAGEN Knowledge Base. Molecules affected by COVID-19 were identified from studies in MEDLINE, bioRxiv, and medRxiv reporting gene expression profiles in COVID-19 patients, QIAGEN Coronavirus Network Explorer, and analysis of the RNA-sequencing data of autopsied lungs of COVID-19 patients retrieved from the GEO database. Network meta-analysis was then conducted on these molecules using QIAGEN Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies reporting significant gene expression changes in COVID-19 patients were identified. One RNA-sequencing dataset on autopsied lungs of COVID-19 patients was retrieved from GEO. Our network meta-analysis suggests that EtOH exposure may augment the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on hepatic fibrosis signaling pathway, cellular metabolism and homeostasis, inflammation, and neuroinflammation. EtOH may also enhance the activity of key mediators including cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF, and transcription factors, such as JUN and STAT, while inhibiting the activity of anti-inflammatory mediators including glucocorticoid receptor. Furthermore, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF, JUN, and STAT were mapped to 10 pathways predicted to associate with SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including HMGB1, IL-1, and IL-6 signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analyses demonstrate that EtOH exposure may augment SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation by altering the activity of key inflammatory mediators. Our findings suggest that it is important for clinicians to caution patients about the risk of alcohol consumption, which has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings also call for further investigation into how alcohol exposure affects viral infections.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Ethanol/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Regulatory Networks/physiology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Network Meta-Analysis
12.
Subst Abus ; 42(2): 140-147, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180374

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 crisis presents new challenges and opportunities in managing alcohol use disorders, particularly for people unable to shelter in place due to homelessness or other reasons. Requiring abstinence for shelter engagement is impractical for many with severe alcohol use disorders and poses a modifiable barrier to self-isolation orders. Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) have successfully increased housing adherence for those with physical alcohol dependence in Canada, but to our knowledge, they have not been implemented in the United States. To avoid life-threatening alcohol withdrawal syndromes and to support adherence to COVID-19 self-isolation and quarantine orders, MAPs were piloted by the public health departments of San Francisco and Alameda counties. Development of MAPs: We describe implementation of a first-in-the-nation alcohol use disorder intervention of a MAP that emerged at three public health isolation settings within San Francisco and Alameda counties in California. All three interventions utilized a similar process to develop the protocol and implement the MAP that included identification of champions for system-level advocacy and engagement of stakeholders. Implementation of MAPs: We describe the creation and implementation of the distinct protocols. We provide examples of iterative changes to workflow processes and key lessons learned pertaining to protocol development, acceptability by stakeholders, alcohol procurement, documentation, and assessment. We discuss safety considerations, noting that there were no deaths or serious adverse events in any of the patients of the MAP during the 2-month implementation period. Conclusions: MAP pilots have been implemented in the US to aid adherence to isolation and quarantine setting guidelines. Lessons learned provide a foundation for their expansion as a recognized public health intervention for individuals with severe alcohol use disorders who are unable to stabilize within existing care systems. Based on the success of MAP implementation, efforts are under way to investigate alcohol management in homeless populations more broadly.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Harm Reduction , Housing , Ill-Housed Persons , Quarantine/methods , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/prevention & control , Alcohol Abstinence , California , Central Nervous System Depressants/adverse effects , Central Nervous System Depressants/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Ethanol/adverse effects , Ethanol/therapeutic use , Humans , Implementation Science , Pilot Projects , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco , Stakeholder Participation , Workflow
14.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(3): 348-351, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039145

ABSTRACT

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has made alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) widely available in public places. This may warrant determining whether cases of unintentional ocular exposure are increasing, especially in children. Objective: To describe the epidemiologic trend of pediatric eye exposures to ABHS and to report the severity of the ocular lesions. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective case series conducted from April 1, 2020, to August 24, 2020. Cases were retrieved from the national database of the French Poison Control Centers (PCC) and from a pediatric ophthalmology referral hospital in Paris, France. Cases of ocular exposure to chemical agents in children younger than 18 years during the study period were reviewed. Cases of ABHS exposure were included. Exposures: The following data were collected: age, sex, circumstances of exposure, symptoms, size of the epithelial defect at first examination, time between the incident and re-epithelialization, and medical and/or surgical management. Main Outcomes and Measures: Comparison of the number of eye exposures to ABHS in children between April to August 2020 and April to August 2019. Results: Between April 1 and August 24, 2020, there were 7 times more pediatric cases of ABHS eye exposures reported in the PCC database compared with the same period in 2019 (9.9% of pediatric eye exposures in 2020 vs 1.3% in 2019; difference, 8.6%; 95% CI, 7.4-9.9; P < .001). The number of cases occurring in public places increased in 2020 (from 16.4% in May to 52.4% in August). Similarly, admissions to the eye hospital for ABHS exposure increased at the same period (16 children in 2020 including 10 boys; mean [SD] age, 3.5 [1.4] years vs 1 boy aged 16 months in 2019). Eight of them presented with a corneal and/or conjunctival ulcer, involving more than 50% of the corneal surface for 6 of them. Two cases required amniotic membrane transplant. Conclusions and Relevance: These data support the likelihood of an increasing number of unintentional ocular exposures to ABHS in the pediatric population. To maintain good public compliance with hand disinfection, these findings support that health authorities should ensure the safe use of these devices and warn the parents and caregivers about their potential danger for children.


Subject(s)
2-Propanol/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethanol/adverse effects , Eye Injuries/chemically induced , Eye Injuries/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Hand Sanitizers/adverse effects , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Eye Injuries/diagnosis , Female , France/epidemiology , Gels , Humans , Infant , Male , Poison Control Centers , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
16.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(9): 674-676, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973006

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread globally at a staggering speed. At present, there is no effective treatment or vaccine for COVID-19. Hand disinfection is a cost-effective way to prevent its transmission. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, we should wash our hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not readily available, alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) with at least 60% alcohol are the alternative. With diligent hand disinfection reinforced during COVID-19, there is an increased prevalence of contact dermatitis. This commentary highlights the fact that contact dermatitis is a readily treatable condition and should not cause any deviation of proper hand hygiene. In irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), the management strategies are selection of less irritating hand hygiene products, frequent use of moisturisers to rebuild the skin barrier, and education on proper hand hygiene practices. In allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), the identification and avoidance of the contact allergen is the key to treatment. However, ACD is less common and only accounts for 20% of the cases. The identified allergens in hand cleansers are predominantly preservative excipients and ACD attributable to ABHR are very uncommon. Alcohol-free hand rubs are widely available on the market but it is not a recommended alternative to ABHRs by the CDC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/therapy , Dermatitis, Irritant/therapy , Emollients/therapeutic use , Hand Dermatoses/therapy , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hygroscopic Agents/therapeutic use , 1-Propanol/adverse effects , 2-Propanol/adverse effects , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Irritant/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/therapy , Detergents/adverse effects , Ethanol/adverse effects , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Hand Hygiene , Hand Sanitizers/adverse effects , Health Personnel , Humans
17.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 56(1): 42-46, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-929805

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence and clinical manifestation of disulfiram ethanol reaction (DER) and isopropanol toxicity (IT) in patients with alcohol use disorders, on disulfiram. Alcohol-based hand rub contains either ethanol or isopropanol or both. COVID-19 pandemic has led to wide scale usage of sanitizers. Patients with alcohol use disorders, on disulfiram, might experience disulfiram ethanol like reactions with alcohol-based sanitizers. METHODS: We telephonically contacted 339 patients, prescribed disulfiram between January 2014 and March 2020. The assessment pertained to the last 3 months (i.e. third week of March to third week of June 2020). RESULT: The sample consisted of middle-aged men with a mean 16 years of alcohol dependence. Among the 82 (24%) patients adherent to disulfiram, 42 (12.3%) were using alcohol-based hand rubs. Out of these, a total of eight patients (19%; 95% CI 9-33) had features suggestive of DER; four of whom also had features indicative of IT. Five patients (62.5%) had mild and self-limiting symptoms. Severe systemic reactions were experienced by three (37.5%). Severe reactions were observed with exposure to sanitizers in greater amounts, on moist skin or through inhalation. CONCLUSION: Patients on disulfiram should be advised to use alternate methods of hand hygiene.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Deterrents/adverse effects , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Disulfiram/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Ethanol/adverse effects , Hand Sanitizers/adverse effects , 2-Propanol/administration & dosage , 2-Propanol/adverse effects , Adult , Alcohol Deterrents/administration & dosage , Alcoholism/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disulfiram/administration & dosage , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Hand Sanitizers/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
19.
Alcohol ; 90: 11-17, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866385

ABSTRACT

Alcohol misuse is long established as a contributor to the pathophysiology of the lung. The intersection of multi-organ responses to alcohol-mediated tissue injury likely contributes to the modulation of lung in response to injury. Indeed, the negative impact of alcohol on susceptibility to infection and on lung barrier function is now well documented. Thus, the alcohol lung represents a very likely comorbidity for the negative consequences of both COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. In this review, we present the known alcohol misuse ramifications on the lung in the context of the current coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Alcoholism/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Ethanol/adverse effects , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Risk Factors
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