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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(6)2023 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269663

ABSTRACT

The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has promoted the use of hand sanitizers among the general population as recommended by health authorities. Alcohols, which are used in many hand sanitizers, have been shown to promotes the formation of biofilms by certain bacteria and to increase bacterial resistance to disinfection. We investigated the effect of continued use of alcohol-based gel hand sanitizer on biofilm formation by the Staphylococcus epidermidis resident strain isolated from the hands of health science students. Hand microbes were counted before and after handwashing, and the ability to produce biofilms was investigated. We found that 179 (84.8%) strains of S. epidermidis isolated from hands had the ability to form biofilm (biofilm-positive strains) in an alcohol-free culture medium. Furthermore, the presence of alcohol in the culture medium induced biofilm formation in 13 (40.6%) of the biofilm-negative strains and increased biofilm production in 111 (76.6%) strains, which were classified as low-grade biofilm-producing. Based on our findings, there is no clear evidence that the continued use of alcohol-based gels results in the selection of strains with the capacity to form biofilms. However, other disinfectant formulations that are more commonly used in clinical settings, such as alcohol-based hand-rub solutions, should be tested for their long-term effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Sanitizers , Staphylococcal Infections , Humans , Hand Disinfection , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Biofilms , Ethanol/pharmacology , Culture Media/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology
2.
Addict Behav ; 143: 107691, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282446

ABSTRACT

Alcohol and marijuana are two of the most widely used substances in the U.S, with rates of alcohol and marijuana co-use increasing in recent years. Despite this increase, little is known about the effects of alcohol and marijuana co-use patterns (e.g., simultaneous, concurrent) on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration. The purpose of the current study was to examine differences in IPA among simultaneous and concurrent alcohol and marijuana use groups and an alcohol-only group. Participants were 496 individuals (57% identifying as a woman) recruited nationally in April 2020 via Qualtrics Research Services who reported being in a current relationship and recently consuming alcohol. Individuals completed an online survey that included demographics, measures of COVID-19 stress, alcohol and marijuana use, and physical and psychological IPA perpetration. Based on survey responses, individuals were categorized as belonging to the alcohol use only group (n = 300), the concurrent alcohol and marijuana use group (n = 129), or the regular simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use group (n = 67). Due to inclusion criteria, there was no marijuana use only group. Individuals with regular simultaneous or concurrent alcohol and marijuana co-use reported more frequent physical and psychological IPA perpetration compared to those who only used alcohol. Neither physical nor psychological IPA perpetration frequency differed between individuals who reported regular simultaneous versus concurrent alcohol and marijuana co-use. Results suggest that alcohol and marijuana co-use in general, and not the specific pattern of use, is associated with an increased likelihood of IPA perpetration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Marijuana Smoking , Substance-Related Disorders , Female , Humans , Aggression/psychology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology
3.
Biocontrol Sci ; 27(4): 223-228, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202199

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major burden for health care systems worldwide, and is a threat to our daily lives. Various effective ingredients against SARS-CoV-2 were already reported, however, since products contain various ingredients, it is also important to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available disinfectants per se. In this study, the virucidal efficacy of forty-eight commercially available products were evaluated according to the standardized suspension method EN 14476 and the following results were obtained: Alcohol-based disinfectants, hand soaps, wet wipes, alkaline cleaners, quaternary ammonium compound sanitizers and oxygen bleach had great virucidal efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. Enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are among the most susceptible of pathogens to formulated microbicidal actives and detergents, but as the results of this study showed, it is also necessary to pay attention to the concentration at the time of use and the required contact time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Disinfectants/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethanol/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(11): 1486-1491, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The increased infectivity and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) could cause significant human and economic damage. Hence, understanding their characteristics is crucial to control infection. We evaluated the environmental stability of the Wuhan strain and all VOCs (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Omicron BA.1, and Omicron BA.2 variants) on plastic and human skin surfaces and their disinfection efficacy. METHODS: To evaluate environmental stability, residual virus titres on plastic and human skin surfaces were measured over time. Their survival time and half-life were calculated using regression analysis. The effectiveness of ethanol-based disinfectants at different concentrations was determined by in vitro and ex vivo evaluations. RESULTS: On plastic and skin surfaces, the Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants exhibited approximately two-fold longer survival times than the Wuhan strain; the Omicron variants had the longest survival time. The median survival times of the Wuhan strain and the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron (BA.1 and BA.2) variants on human skin surface were 8.6, 19.6, 19.1, 11.0, 16.8, 21.1, and 22.5 h, respectively. The in vitro evaluation showed that the Wuhan strain and the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron (BA.1 and BA.2) variants were completely inactivated within 15 s by 32.5%, 35%, 35%, 32.5%, 35%, 40%, and 40% ethanol, respectively. However, all viruses on human skin were completely inactivated by exposure to 35% ethanol for 15 s. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, especially the Omicron variants, have higher environmental stability than the Wuhan strain, increasing their transmission risk and contributing to their spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Plastics
5.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834924

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is having devastating effects on a global scale. Since common household disinfectants are often used to minimise the risk of infection in the home and work environment, we investigated the ability of some of these products to inactivate the virus. We tested generic brands of vinegar, bleach, and dishwashing detergent, as well as laboratory-grade acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and ethanol. Assays were conducted at room temperature (18-20 °C, 40% relative humidity), and two time points were used to reflect a quick wipe (30 s) and a brief soak (5 min). Vinegar, and its active ingredient, acetic acid, were completely ineffective at virus inactivation even when exposed to the virus at 90% v/v (a final concentration equivalent to 3.6% v/v acetic acid). In contrast, ethanol was capable of inactivating the virus at dilutions as low as 40% v/v. Dishwashing detergent effectively rendered SARS-CoV-2 inactive when diluted 100-fold (1% v/v). Bleach was found to be fully effective against SARS-CoV-2 at 0.21 g/L sodium hypochlorite after a 30 s exposure (1/200 dilution of commercial product). Given reports of infectious virus recovered from the surface of frozen packaging, we tested the persistence of infectiousness after multiple freeze-thaw cycles and found no change in infectious SARS-CoV-2 titre after seven freeze-thaw cycles. These results should help inform readers of how to effectively disinfect surfaces and objects that have potentially been contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 using common household chemicals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Acetic Acid/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Detergents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 639-649, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770988

ABSTRACT

Evaluating the stability of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses on human skin and measuring the effectiveness of disinfectants are crucial for preventing contact disease transmission. We constructed an evaluation model using autopsy skin samples and evaluated factors that affect the stability and disinfectant effectiveness for various subtypes. The survival time of the avian influenza A(H5N1) virus on plastic surfaces was ≈26 hours and on skin surfaces ≈4.5 hours, >2.5-fold longer than other subtypes. The effectiveness of a relatively low ethanol concentration (32%-36% wt/wt) against the H5N1 subtype was substantially reduced compared with other subtypes. Moreover, recombinant viruses with the neuraminidase gene of H5N1 survived longer on plastic and skin surfaces than other recombinant viruses and were resistant to ethanol. Our results imply that the H5N1 subtype poses a higher contact transmission risk because of its higher stability and ethanol resistance, which might depend on the neuraminidase protein.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza A virus , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/genetics , Neuraminidase/genetics
7.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 9342748, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, an outbreak of a novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a world health concern leading to severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Virus transmission occurs through person-to-person contact, respiratory droplets, and contaminated hands or surfaces. Accordingly, we aim at reviewing the literature on all information available about the persistence of coronaviruses, including human and animal coronaviruses, on inanimate surfaces and inactivation strategies with biocides employed for chemical and physical disinfection. METHOD: A comprehensive search was systematically conducted in main databases from 1998 to 2020 to identify various viral disinfectants associated with HCoV and methods for control and prevention of this newly emerged virus. RESULTS: The analysis of 62 studies shows that human coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV), canine coronavirus (CCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) can be efficiently inactivated by physical and chemical disinfectants at different concentrations (70, 80, 85, and 95%) of 2-propanol (70 and 80%) in less than or equal to 60 s and 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Additionally, glutaraldehyde (0.5-2%), formaldehyde (0.7-1%), and povidone-iodine (0.1-0.75%) could readily inactivate coronaviruses. Moreover, dry heat at 56°C, ultraviolet light dose of 0.2 to 140 J/cm2, and gamma irradiation could effectively inactivate coronavirus. The WHO recommends the use of 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution or an ethanol-based disinfectant with an ethanol concentration between 62% and 71%. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study can help researchers, policymakers, health decision makers, and people perceive and take the correct measures to control and prevent further transmission of COVID-19. Prevention and decontamination will be the main ways to stop the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , 2-Propanol/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus, Canine/drug effects , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Formaldehyde/pharmacology , Gamma Rays , Glutaral/pharmacology , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/drug effects , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/drug effects , Ultraviolet Rays
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2610122, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this study, the cytotoxic responses of six different over-the-counter mouthwashes on L929 cells were analyzed by two different techniques: the traditional colorimetric tetrazolium-based reduction assay (MTT) and the modern impedance-based real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system to investigate their biocompatibility in vitro. Thus, the investigation of the antiproliferative effects of the specified materials via different techniques is vital to reach this goal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, L929 mouse fibroblasts were exposed to the dilutions of mouthwashes for 2 minutes. After incubation, the tetrazolium reduction method was used to assess the metabolic viability of cells measured by colorimetric MTT assay and morphological inspection of cells was performed via phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of each mouthwash on the proliferation, morphology, and adhesion of L929 cells was monitored continuously by a noninvasive and label-free RTCA system for 140 h. RESULTS: Our data showed that all of the mouthwashes had varying cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts compared to the control group in MTT assay. In addition to that, RTCA technology has provided the growth kinetic profiles that can be used to analyze if the treatment is causing antimitotic or DNA-damaging effect on cells. Thus, analysis via this system can tell us the mechanism of toxicity behind the cell growth inhibition in vitro. Here, we found that only mouthwash 1 moderately maintained the viability of the L929 cells, yet displaying antimitotic effects and the other mouthwashes (mouthwash 2-mouthwash 6) showed toxicity via DNA-damaging effects. CONCLUSIONS: Of the six types of mouthwash tested, the most biocompatible result was obtained from a mouthwash containing alcohol (i.e., mouthwash 1). On the other hand, sodium fluoride- (NaF-) and cetylpyridinium chloride- (CPC-) containing mouthwash (i.e., mouthwash 2) showed the most cytotoxic effect.


Subject(s)
Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Mice , Mouthwashes/chemistry
9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(39): 9557-9563, 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439482

ABSTRACT

Lipid-enveloped viruses, such as Ebola, influenza, or coronaviruses, are a major threat to human health. Ethanol is an efficient disinfectant that is widely used to inactivate these viruses and prevent their transmission. However, the interactions between ethanol and enveloped viruses leading to their inactivation are not yet fully understood. This study demonstrates the link between ethanol-induced viral inactivation and the nanostructural and chemical transformations of the model virus Phi6, an 85 nm diameter lipid-enveloped bacterial virus that is commonly used as surrogate for human pathogenic viruses. The virus morphology was investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering and was related to its infectivity. The Phi6's surface chemistry was characterized by cryogenic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the modifications in protein structure were assessed by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Ethanol-triggered structural modifications were found in the lipid envelope, detaching from the protein capsid and forming coexisting nanostructures.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage phi 6/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , Bacteriophage phi 6/ultrastructure , Capsid Proteins/chemistry , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Circular Dichroism , Dynamic Light Scattering , Ethanol/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Photoelectron Spectroscopy , Scattering, Small Angle , X-Ray Diffraction
10.
Biocontrol Sci ; 26(3): 177-180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438814

ABSTRACT

Ethanol is an effective disinfectant against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. However, its effective concentration has not been shown, and we therefore analyzed the effects of different concentrations of ethanol on SARS-CoV-2. When SARS-CoV-2 was treated with varying ethanol concentrations and examined for changes in infectivity, the ethanol concentration at which 99% of the infectious titers were reduced was 24.1% (w/w) [29.3% (v/v)]. For reference, ethanol susceptibility was also examined with other envelope viruses, including influenza virus, vesicular stomatitis virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, and Newcastle disease virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, and the 99% inhibitory concentrations were found to be 28.8%(w/w) [34.8% (v/v)], 24.0% (w/w) [29.2% (v/v)], and 13.3% (w/w) [16.4% (v/v)], respectively. Some differences from SARS-CoV-2 were observed, but the differences were not significant. It was concluded that ethanol at a concentration of 30%(w/w) [36.2% (v/v)] almost completely inactivates SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Disinfectants/analysis , Ethanol/analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/growth & development
11.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410351

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity and virucidal mechanisms of ozonated water (OW) with those of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and 70% ethanol (EtOH). SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity was evaluated in a virus solution containing 1%, 20% or 40% fetal bovine serum (FBS) with OW, SAEW or EtOH at a virus-to-test solution ratio of 1:9, 1:19 or 1:99 for a reaction time of 20 s. EtOH showed the strongest virucidal activity, followed by SAEW and OW. Even though EtOH potently inactivated the virus despite the 40% FBS concentration, virus inactivation by OW and SAEW decreased in proportion to the increase in FBS concentration. Nevertheless, OW and SAEW showed potent virucidal activity with 40% FBS at a virus-to-test solution ratio of 1:99. Real-time PCR targeting the viral genome revealed that cycle threshold values in the OW and SAEW groups were significantly higher than those in the control group, suggesting that OW and SAEW disrupted the viral genome. Western blotting analysis targeting the recombinant viral spike protein S1 subunit showed a change in the specific band into a ladder upon treatment with OW and SAEW. OW and SAEW may cause conformational changes in the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans
12.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(4)2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395036

ABSTRACT

Chronic alcohol abuse increases the risk of mortality and poor outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on lung injury and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the inhibition of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC). In order to produce rodent models with chronic alcohol consumption, wild­type C57BL/6 mice were treated with alcohol. A2a adenosine receptor (AR) small interfering (si)RNA or A2bAR siRNA were transfected into the lung tissue of mice and primary rat alveolar type II (ATII) cells. The rate of AFC in lung tissue was measured during exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) expression was determined to investigate the mechanisms underlying alcohol­induced regulation of AFC. In the present study, exposure to alcohol reduced AFC, exacerbated pulmonary edema and worsened LPS­induced lung injury. Alcohol caused a decrease in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and inhibited α­ENaC, ß­ENaC and γ­ENaC expression levels in the lung tissue of mice and ATII cells. Furthermore, alcohol decreased α­ENaC, ß­ENaC and γ­ENaC expression levels via the A2aAR or A2bAR­cAMP signaling pathways in vitro. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that chronic alcohol consumption worsened lung injury by aggravating pulmonary edema and impairing AFC. An alcohol­induced decrease of α­ENaC, ß­ENaC and γ­ENaC expression levels by the A2AR­mediated cAMP pathway may be responsible for the exacerbated effects of chronic alcohol consumption in lung injury.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Sodium Channels/drug effects , Epithelial Sodium Channels/metabolism , Ethanol/pharmacology , Receptors, Adenosine A2/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Animals , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Cytokines , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung Injury/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Pulmonary Edema/chemically induced , Pulmonary Edema/metabolism , Pulmonary Edema/pathology , RNA Splicing Factors/genetics , RNA Splicing Factors/metabolism , Rats , Receptor, Adenosine A2A/genetics , Receptor, Adenosine A2A/metabolism , Signal Transduction
13.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(7): 955-965, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384775

ABSTRACT

The pandemic created by SARS-CoV-2 has caused a shortage in the supplies of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs), disposable respirators with at least 95% efficiency to remove non-oily airborne particles, due to increasing cases all over the world. The current article reviewed various possible decontamination methods for FFR reuse including ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV), microwave-generated steam (MGS), hydrogen peroxide gas plasma (HPGP), and 70% or higher ethanol solution. HPV decontamination was effective against bacterial spores (6 log10 reduction of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores) on FFRs and viruses (> 4 log10 reduction of various types of viruses) on inanimate surfaces, and no degradation of respirator materials and fit has been reported. 70% or higher ethanol decontamination showed high efficacy in inactivation of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces (> 3.9 log10 reduction) but it was lower on FFRs which filtration efficiency was also decreased. UVGI method had good biocidal efficacy on FFRs (> 3 log10 reduction of H1N1 virus) combined with inexpensive, readily available equipment; however, it was more time-consuming to ensure sufficient reduction in SARS-CoV-2. MGS treatment also provided good viral decontamination on FFRs (> 4 log10 reduction of H1N1 virus) along with less time-intensive process and readily available equipment while inconsistent disinfection on the treated surfaces and deterioration of nose cushion of FFRs were observed. HPGP was a good virucidal system (> 6 log10 reduction of Vesicular stomatitis virus) but filtration efficiency after decontamination was inconsistent. Overall, HPV appeared to be one of the most promising methods based on the high biocidal efficacy on FFRs, preservation of respirator performance after multiple cycles, and no residual chemical toxicity. Nonetheless, equipment cost and time of the HPV process and a suitable operating room need to be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Decontamination/methods , N95 Respirators/microbiology , N95 Respirators/virology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/radiation effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Microwaves , Ultraviolet Rays , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/radiation effects
15.
J Chem Phys ; 154(24): 245101, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293030

ABSTRACT

Ethanol is highly effective against various enveloped viruses and can disable the virus by disintegrating the protective envelope surrounding it. The interactions between the coronavirus envelope (E) protein and its membrane environment play key roles in the stability and function of the viral envelope. By using molecular dynamics simulation, we explore the underlying mechanism of ethanol-induced disruption of a model coronavirus membrane and, in detail, interactions of the E-protein and lipids. We model the membrane bilayer as N-palmitoyl-sphingomyelin and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine lipids and the coronavirus E-protein. The study reveals that ethanol causes an increase in the lateral area of the bilayer along with thinning of the bilayer membrane and orientational disordering of lipid tails. Ethanol resides at the head-tail region of the membrane and enhances bilayer permeability. We found an envelope-protein-mediated increase in the ordering of lipid tails. Our simulations also provide important insights into the orientation of the envelope protein in a model membrane environment. At ∼25 mol. % of ethanol in the surrounding ethanol-water phase, we observe disintegration of the lipid bilayer and dislocation of the E-protein from the membrane environment.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus/physiology , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Permeability
16.
Future Microbiol ; 16(11): 797-800, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295588

ABSTRACT

Aim: Ethanol is highly effective at inactivating enveloped viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study is to evaluate the virucidal activity of Amuchina Gel Xgerm (74% ethanol) against SARS-CoV-2, according to the European Standard EN14476:2013+A2:2019. Materials & methods: Virucidal activity of the study product was evaluated against SARS-CoV-2 strain USAWA1/2020 in suspension, in the presence of 0.3 g/l of bovine serum albumin. Results: The log10 reduction of SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of bovine serum albumin was ≥4.11 ± 0.12 after 30 s of exposure to the study product (80% dilution). Cytotoxicity was observed in the 100 dilution, affecting the detection limit by 1 log10. Conclusion: Virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2 supports the effectiveness of this alcohol-based formulation as a prevention measure for COVID-19 illness.


Lay abstract The virus responsible of COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, can be inactivated by ethanol. This study evaluates the ability of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (Amuchina Gel Xgerm, 74% ethanol) to kill SARS-CoV-2, according to the European Standard guidelines. Amuchina Gel Xgerm completely inactivates the virus after 30 s of exposure. This result supports the effectiveness of this alcohol-based formulation as a prevention measure for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethanol/pharmacology , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans
17.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 1042.e1-1042.e4, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Disinfection effectiveness against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on human skin remains unclear because of the hazards of viral exposure. An evaluation model, which has been previously generated using human skin obtained from forensic autopsy samples, accurately mimics in vivo skin conditions for evaluating the effectiveness of disinfection against the virus. Using this model, we evaluated disinfection effectiveness against viruses on human skin. METHODS: Ethanol (EA), isopropanol (IPA), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) were used as target disinfectants. First, disinfectant effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) was evaluated in vitro. Disinfectant effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV on human skin was then evaluated by titrating viruses present on the skin after applying each disinfectant on the skin for 5-60 seconds. RESULTS: Both, SARS-CoV-2 and IAV on human skin were completely inactivated within 5 seconds by 40%-80% EA and 70% IPA (log reduction values (LRVs) were >4). However, SARS-CoV-2 and IAV were barely inactivated by 20% EA (LRVs were <1). In vitro evaluation showed that, compared with EA and IPA, CHG and BAC were significantly inferior in terms of disinfection effectiveness. Conversely, the disinfection effectiveness of CHG and BAC against SARS-CoV-2 was higher on human skin than in vitro, and increased with increases in their concentration and reaction time (LRVs of 0.2% CHG/0.05% BAC were >2, and LRVs of 1.0% CHG/0.2% BAC were >2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Proper hand hygiene practices using alcohol-based disinfectants such as EA/IPA effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and IAV on human skin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , 2-Propanol/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Models, Biological , Skin/virology
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2418, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054060

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is currently a global pandemic, and there are limited laboratory studies targeting pathogen resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effect of selected disinfection products and methods on the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory. We used quantitative suspension testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfectant/method. Available chlorine of 250 mg/L, 500 mg/L, and 1000 mg/L required 20 min, 5 min, and 0.5 min to inactivate SARS-CoV-2, respectively. A 600-fold dilution of 17% concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (283 mg/L) and the same concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium chloride required only 0.5 min to inactivate the virus efficiently. At 30% concentration for 1 min and 40% and above for 0.5 min, ethanol could efficiently inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Heat takes approximately 30 min at 56 °C, 10 min above 70 °C, or 5 min above 90 °C to inactivate the virus. The chlorinated disinfectants, Di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide/chloride, ethanol, and heat could effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory test. The response of SARS-CoV-2 to disinfectants is very similar to that of SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorine/chemistry , Chlorine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Ethanol/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology
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