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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1002209, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109883

ABSTRACT

Racial and ethnic minority communities have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19, but the uptake of COVID-19 mitigation strategies like vaccination and testing have been slower in these populations. With the continued spread of COVID-19 while in-person learning is a priority, school-aged youth and their caregivers must make health-related decisions daily to ensure health at school. It is critical to understand factors associated with COVID-related health decisions such as vaccination, testing, and other health behaviors (e.g., wearing masks, hand washing). Community-engaged campaigns are necessary to overcome barriers to these health behaviors and promote health equity. The aim of this study was to examine COVID-19-related concerns and influences on health decisions in middle and high schools serving primarily racial and ethnic minority, low-income families. Seven focus groups were conducted with school staff, parents, and students (aged 16 years and older). Qualitative data were analyzed using a general inductive approach. Factors related to COVID-19 concerns and health decisions centered on (1) vaccine hesitancy, (2) testing hesitancy, (3) developmental stage (i.e., ability to engage in health behaviors based on developmental factors like age), (4) cultural and family traditions and beliefs, (5) compatibility of policies and places with recommended health behaviors, (6) reliability of information, and (7) perceived risk. We explore sub-themes in further detail. It is important to understand the community's level of concern and identify factors that influence COVID-19 medical decision making to better address disparities in COVID-19 testing and vaccination uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Health Promotion , Minority Groups , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , COVID-19 Testing , Reproducibility of Results
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 875198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080281

ABSTRACT

Background: Worldwide, the Coronavirus pandemic has had a major impact on people's health, lives, and livelihoods. However, this impact has not been felt equally across various population groups. People from ethnic minority backgrounds in the UK have been more adversely affected by the pandemic, especially in terms of their physical health. Their mental health, on the other hand, has received less attention. This study aimed to explore the mental health experiences of UK adults from ethnic minorities during the Coronavirus pandemic. This work forms part of our wider long-term UK population study "Mental Health in the Pandemic." Methods: We conducted an exploratory qualitative study with people from ethnic minority communities across the UK. A series of in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 women, 14 men and 1 non-binary person from ethnic minority backgrounds, aged between 18 and 65 years old (mean age = 40). We utilized purposefully selected maximum variation sampling in order to capture as wide a variety of views, perceptions and experiences as possible. Inclusion criteria: adults (18+) from ethnic minorities across the UK; able to provide full consent to participate; able to participate in a video- or phone-call interview. All interviews took place via MS Teams or Zoom. The gathered data were transcribed verbatim and underwent thematic analysis following Braun and Clarke carried out using NVivo 12 software. Results: The qualitative data analysis yielded seven overarching themes: (1) pandemic-specific mental health and wellbeing experiences; (2) issues relating to the media; (3) coping mechanisms; (4) worries around and attitudes toward vaccination; (5) suggestions for support in moving forward; (6) best and worst experiences during pandemic and lockdowns; (7) biggest areas of change in personal life. Generally, participants' mental health experiences varied with some not being affected by the pandemic in a way related to their ethnicity, some sharing positive experiences and coping strategies (exercising more, spending more time with family, community cohesion), and some expressing negative experiences (eating or drinking more, feeling more isolated, or even racism and abuse, especially toward Asian communities). Concerns were raised around trust issues in relation to the media, the inadequate representation of ethnic minorities, and the spread of fake news especially on social media. Attitudes toward vaccinations varied too, with some people more willing to have the vaccine than others. Conclusion: This study's findings highlight the diversity in the pandemic mental health experiences of ethnic minorities in the UK and has implications for policy, practice and further research. To enable moving forward beyond the pandemic, our study surfaced the need for culturally appropriate mental health support, financial support (as a key mental health determinant), accurate media representation, and clear communication messaging from the Governments of the UK.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Adult , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , Mental Health , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
Health Expect ; 25(6): 3040-3052, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052476

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Medicines-centred consultations are vital to support medicine effectiveness and optimize health outcomes for patients. However, inequalities negatively impact ethnic minority populations when accessing medicines advice. It is important to identify opportunities to improve access for these communities however, knowledge of how best to achieve this is lacking; this study will generate recommendations to improve access to medicines advice from community pharmacies for people from ethnic minority communities. METHODS: A series of codesign workshops, with four groups of patient-stakeholders, were conducted between September-November 2021; they took place in-person or via video call (adhering to COVID-19 restrictions). Existing evidence-based perceptions affecting access to medicines advice were critiqued and recommendations were generated, by use of reflexive thematic analysis, to improve access for ethnic minority patients. The workshops were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. QSR NVivo (Version 12) facilitated data analysis. RESULTS: Twelve participants were recruited using purposive sampling; including eight UK citizens, two asylum seekers and two participants in receipt of residency visas. In total, four different ethnic minority groups were represented. Each participant took part in a first and second workshop to share and cocreate recommendations to improve access to medicines advice in community pharmacies. Three recommendations were developed and centred on: (i) delivering and providing culturally competent medicines advice; (ii) building awareness of accessing medicines advice from community pharmacies; and (iii) enabling better discussions with patients from ethnic minority communities. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations have the potential to support community pharmacy services to overcome ethnic inequalities affecting medicines advice; service commissioners should consider these findings to best meet the needs of ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training for community pharmacy staff could support the creation of pharmacies as inclusive healthcare settings. Collaborative working with ethnic minority communities could enable specific tailoring of medicines-centred services to best meet their needs. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and Newcastle University Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement group had extensive input in the study design and conceptualization. Seven patient champions were appointed to the steering group to ensure that the research was conducted, and findings were reported, with cultural competence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacies , Humans , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , COVID-19/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility
5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270504, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021838

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccination effectively reduces severe disease and death from COVID-19. However, both vaccine uptake and intention to vaccinate differ amongst population groups. Vaccine hesitancy is highest amongst specific ethnic minority groups. There is very limited understanding of the barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Black and South Asian ethnicities. Therefore, we aimed to explore COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in primary care patients from South Asian (Bangladeshi/Pakistani) and Black or Black British/African/Caribbean/Mixed ethnicities. METHODS: Patients from the above ethnicities were recruited using convenience sampling in four London general practices. Telephone interviews were conducted, using an interpreter if necessary, covering questions on the degree of vaccine hesitancy, barriers and potential facilitators, and decision-making. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Data collection and analysis occurred concurrently with the iterative development of the topic guide and coding framework. Key themes were conceptualised through discussion with the wider team. RESULTS: Of thirty-eight interviews, 55% (21) of these were in Black or Black British/African/Caribbean/Mixed ethnicities, 32% (12) in Asian / British Asian and 13% (5) in mixed Black and White ethnicities. Key themes included concerns about the speed of vaccine roll-out and potential impacts on health, mistrust of official information, and exposure to misinformation. In addition, exposure to negative messages linked to vaccination appears to outweigh positive messages received. Facilitators included the opportunity to discuss concerns with a healthcare professional, utilising social influences via communities and highlighting incentives. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted ethnic minority groups. Vaccination is an effective strategy for mitigating risk. We have demonstrated factors contributing to vaccine reluctance, hesitancy and refusal and highlighted levers for change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Minority Groups , Primary Health Care , Vaccination
6.
J Nurs Educ ; 61(8): 483-487, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presented undergraduate racial and ethnic minority nursing students with unprecedented educational restrictions as their communities were also affected disproportionately by COVID-19. This study explored the lived experiences of racial and ethnic minority nursing students in the southeastern United States during the pandemic. METHOD: Semistructured interviews using a qualitative framework and methodology of post-intentional phenomenology were conducted with one Muslim, one multiracial, and three Black nursing student participants. Data were analyzed in an iterative process using poststructural concepts of lines, rhizomes, and space. RESULTS: Students experienced abrupt challenging changes and isolation with the onset of pandemic restrictions. Barriers created by the pandemic and by routine educational experiences were met by creating alternate pathways to maintain forward progress. CONCLUSION: Undergraduate racial and ethnic minority nursing students experienced pandemic restrictions within a larger context of their lived experiences. Nurse educators can use these experiences to create better relationships between these students and nursing education. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(8):483-487.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , Qualitative Research
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271661, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987153

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic minorities have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. The effects of COVID-19 on the long-term mental health of minorities remains unclear. To evaluate differences in odds of screening positive for depression and anxiety among various racial and ethnic groups during the latter phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of 691,473 participants nested within the prospective smartphone-based COVID Symptom Study in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K). from February 23, 2021 to June 9, 2021. In the U.S. (n=57,187), compared to White participants, the multivariable odds ratios (ORs) for screening positive for depression were 1·16 (95% CI: 1·02 to 1·31) for Black, 1·23 (1·11 to 1·36) for Hispanic, and 1·15 (1·02 to 1·30) for Asian participants, and 1·34 (1·13 to 1·59) for participants reporting more than one race/other even after accounting for personal factors such as prior history of a mental health disorder, COVID-19 infection status, and surrounding lockdown stringency. Rates of screening positive for anxiety were comparable. In the U.K. (n=643,286), racial/ethnic minorities had similarly elevated rates of positive screening for depression and anxiety. These disparities were not fully explained by changes in leisure time activities. Racial/ethnic minorities bore a disproportionate mental health burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. These differences will need to be considered as health care systems transition from prioritizing infection control to mitigating long-term consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
8.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(11): 5029-5033, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and underrepresented minorities (URMs) historically have below average vaccination rates. URMs have increased morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. We surveyed IBD patients to assess COVID vaccination attitudes, particularly among URMs. METHODS: In May and June 2021, all 822 adult patients with IBD, medically homed at a tertiary IBD referral center and safety net hospital, and with access to the electronic patient portal, were sent an electronic survey assessing their attitudes regarding COVID-19 vaccination. An additional 115 without access to the patient portal were contacted by phone. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. The primary outcome was vaccination hesitancy, defined as: likely will become vaccinated later this year, but not immediately; unsure if they will get the vaccine; or do not want the vaccine. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of factors associated with vaccination intent. RESULTS: The mean age was 46.6 years (SD 15.1). 210/1029 patients responded to the survey: 150/822 (18.2%) electronically and 60/115 (52.2%) by phone. Overall vaccine hesitancy rate was 11.9%, significantly higher in younger (aOR for 10-year increments, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.90, p = 0.011), Hispanic (aOR, 7.67; 95% CI, 2.99-21.3, p < 0.0002), and Black patients (aOR, 3.52; 95% CI 1.11-11.1, p = 0.050). Safety concerns were the most cited reasons for vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSIONS: URM patients were more vaccine hesitant. Future studies should further explore factors leading to lower vaccination rates among these groups and strategies to improve COVID-19 vaccination rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Vaccination Hesitancy , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Parents , Safety-net Providers , Vaccination , Vaccines , Healthcare Disparities , Ethnic and Racial Minorities
10.
Health Commun ; 37(12): 1476-1487, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915397

ABSTRACT

To inform health communication campaigns for COVID-19 prevention and vaccine promotion among racial and ethnic minorities facing disparities, we conducted formative research by interviewing Hispanic/Latino American (Latino), Black/African American (AA), and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) participants to explore their challenges during the pandemic, the barriers and facilitators to receiving COVID-19 vaccines, acceptability of using chatbots to deliver COVID-19 and vaccine information, and preferred features and suggestions for culturally tailored prevention messages. Positive perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine were mainly derived from beliefs that the vaccine can protect oneself and families from getting infected and help stop the pandemic. Negative perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine were driven by concerns about vaccine safety due to the rapid development process and side effects. Latino participants would like to know more information about the vaccine and evidence of its effectiveness. AA participants identified seeing others, especially government officials, get the vaccine first as a facilitator and low trust in the government and healthcare system as barriers to getting the COVID-19 vaccine. AI/AN participants emphasized the importance of equitable access to the vaccine. Participants preferred messages with the following features: informative and evidence-based messages about COVID-19 and vaccination, encouraging and motivational messages that focused on the hope to end the pandemic and return to normal, prosocial messages, and clear instructions for COVID-19 prevention strategies. Participants also suggested that messages should include different cultural practices, be translated into their native languages, and emphasize care for family members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e059132, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Obesity has been recognised as a risk factor for poor outcomes associated with COVID-19. Ethnic minorities with COVID-19 have been independently found to fare poorly. We aim to determine if ethnic minorities with severe obesity-defined as a body mass index (BMI) above 40 kg/m²-experience higher rates of hospitalisation, invasive ventilation and death. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 within an integrated healthcare organisation in Southern California. PARTICIPANTS: We identified 373 831 patients by COVID-19 diagnosis code or positive laboratory test. METHODS: Multivariable Poisson regression with robust error variance estimated adjusted risks of hospitalisation, invasive ventilator use and death within 30 days. Risks were stratified by ethnicity and BMI. RESULTS: We identified multiple differences in risk of poor outcomes across BMI categories within individual ethnic groups. Hospitalisation risk with a BMI over 45 kg/m² was greater in Asian (RR 2.31, 95% CI 1.53 to 3.49; p<0.001), Hispanic (RR 3.22, 95% CI 2.99 to 3.48; p<0.001) and Pacific Islander (RR 3.79, 95% CI 2.49 to 5.75; p<0.001) patients compared with White (RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.33; p<0.001) and Black (RR 2.00, 95% CI 1.70 to 2.34; p<0.001) patients. A similar trend was observed with invasive ventilation risk. The risk of death was greater in Asian (RR 3.96, 95% CI 1.88 to 8.33; p<0.001), Hispanic (RR 3.03, 95% CI 2.53 to 3.61; p<0.001) and Pacific Islander (RR 4.60, 95% CI 1.42 to 14.92; p=0.011) patients compared with White (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.91; p=0.005) and Black (RR 2.83, 95% CI 1.99 to 4.02; p<0.001) patients with a BMI over 45 kg/m². CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic minorities with severe obesity, particularly Asian, Hispanic and Pacific Islander patients, had a statistically significant higher risk of hospitalisation, invasive ventilator use and death due to COVID-19. Potential explanations include differences in adipose tissue deposition, overall inflammation and ACE-2 receptor expression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , COVID-19 Testing , California/epidemiology , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Humans , Retrospective Studies
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e059844, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the COVID-19 health information needs of older adults from ethnic minority groups in the UK. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Indian and Nepalese older adults (≥65 years), their families (≥18 years) and healthcare professionals (HCPs) (≥18 years) engaging with these communities. Participants were recruited between July and December 2020 from Kent, Surrey and Sussex through community organisations. RESULTS: 24 participants took part in the study; 13 older adults, 7 family members and 4 HCPs. Thirteen participants were female, and the majority (n=17) spoke a language other than English at home. Older participants mostly lived in multigenerational households, and family and community were key for providing support and communicating about healthcare needs. Participants' knowledge of COVID-19 varied widely; some spoke confidently about the subject, while others had limited information. Language and illiteracy were key barriers to accessing health information. Participants highlighted the need for information in multiple formats and languages, and discussed the importance of culturally appropriate avenues, such as community centres and religious sites, for information dissemination. CONCLUSION: This study, undertaken during the COVID-19 pandemic, provides insight into how health information can be optimised for ethnic minority older adults in terms of content, format and cultural relevance. The study highlights that health information interventions should recognise the intersection between multigenerational living, family structure, and the health and well-being of older adults, and should promote intergenerational discussion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Minority Groups , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
Behav Sleep Med ; 20(3): 294-303, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873783

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been concern that the pandemic and associated mitigation efforts would have a particularly adverse effect on communities that are marginalized. This study examined disparities in the perceived impacts of the pandemic on sleep, mental and physical health, social functioning, and substance use among young adults based on sexual/gender minority (SGM) status and race/ethnicity. METHOD: Participants were 2,411 young adults (mean age = 23.6) surveyed between July 2020-July 2021. A linear regression analysis tested SGM and racial/ethnic group differences on 17 outcomes. RESULTS: Most young adults reported little-to-no effect of the pandemic on sleep or other indicators of health and functioning. However, SGM young adults reported more adverse effects than non-SGM young adults on their sleep and most other outcomes. Hispanic young adults reported shorter sleep duration - but less pandemic-related depression, loneliness, and relationship problems - compared to non-Hispanic white young adults. We found no evidence that young adults with multiple minority statuses had especially poor pandemic-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: While most young adults did not perceive much impact of the pandemic, results highlight disparities across certain demographic subgroups that may need to be addressed through targeted interventions and close monitoring for long-term effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adult , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep , Young Adult
14.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 67, 2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In high income countries, racialized/ethnic minorities are disproportionally affected by COVID-19. Despite the established importance of community involvement in epidemic preparedness, we lack in-depth understanding of these communities' experiences with and responses to COVID-19. We explored information and prevention needs, coping mechanisms with COVID-19 control measures and their impact on lived experiences among selected racialized/ethnic minority communities. METHODS: This qualitative rapid assessment conducted in Antwerp/Belgium used an interpretative and participatory approach. We included migrant communities with geographic origins ranging from Sub-Saharan Africa, North-Africa to the Middle East, Orthodox Jewish communities and professional community workers. Data were collected between May 2020-May 2021 through key informant-, in-depth interviews and group discussions (N = 71). Transcripts were analyzed inductively, adopting a reflexive thematic approach. A community advisory board provided feedback throughout the research process. RESULTS: Participants indicated the need for tailored information in terms of language and timing. At the start of the epidemic, they perceived official public health messages as insufficient to reach all community members. Information sources included non-mainstream (social) media and media from home countries, hampering a nuanced understanding of virus transmission mechanisms and local and national protection measures. Participants felt the measures' most negative impact on their livelihoods (e.g. loss of income, disruption of social and immigration support). Economic insecurity triggered chronic stress and fears at individual and family level. High degrees of distrust in authorities and anticipated stigma were grounded in previously experienced racial and ethnic discrimination. Community-based initiatives mitigated this impact, ranging from disseminating translated and tailored information, providing individual support, and successfully reaching community members with complex needs (e.g. the elderly, digitally illiterate people, those with small social networks or irregular legal status). CONCLUSION: Study participants' narratives showed how coping with and responding to COVID-19 was strongly intertwined with socio-economic and ethnic/racial characteristics. This justifies conceptualizing COVID-19 a social disease. At the same time, communities demonstrated resilience in responding to these structural vulnerabilities. From a health equity perspective, we provide concrete policy recommendations grounded in insights into communities' structural vulnerabilities and resilience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Belgium , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups
15.
Vaccine ; 40(25): 3413-3432, 2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815244

ABSTRACT

Ethnic minority communities in the UK have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic, with increased risks of infection, severe disease, and death. Hesitancy around the COVID-19 vaccine may be contributing to disparities in vaccine delivery to ethnic minority communities. This systematic review aims to strengthen understanding of COVID-19 vaccine concerns among ethnic minorities in the UK. Five databases were searched in February 2022, yielding 24 peer-reviewed studies reporting on vaccine hesitancy or acceptance in ethnic minority groups. Data were extracted using a standardised form, and quality assessment was carried out using the Standard Quality Criteria. There were three key themes: (1). Prevalence of vaccine hesitancy; (2). Reasons for vaccine hesitancy and acceptance; and (3). Recommendations to address vaccine concerns. Vaccine hesitancy, which was more common among some ethnic minority groups, is a complex phenomenon, driven by misinformation, mistrust, concerns about safety and efficacy, and structural and systemic inequities. Community engagement and tailored communication may help to address vaccine concerns. Robust data disaggregated by ethnicities are needed to better understand barriers and facilitators for COVID-19 vaccine delivery in ethnic minority communities. Strategies to address structural disadvantage need to be inclusive, comprehensive, and behaviorally informed and foster confidence in healthcare systems and governments. Community leaders and health care practitioners may prove to be the most important agents in creating an environment of trust within ethnic minority groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , United Kingdom , Vaccination Hesitancy
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809874

ABSTRACT

The unique professional competence of pharmacists can support the safe and effective use of medicines by patients. Additionally, it is important to acknowledge and incorporate the needs of patients with various cultural and social backgrounds. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the experiences and expectations of Russian- and Estonian-speaking pharmacy customers about medicines-related services in Estonian community pharmacies. Cross-sectional study among pharmacy customers was conducted in Estonia 2018-2020. For data analysis, an Independent t-Test was used to compare experiences and expectations of respondents towards medicines-related services. The study involved 552 pharmacy customers: 58.5% (n = 323) Estonians and 41.5% (n = 229) Russians. The majority of the total sample (78.3%) considered the pharmacist competent to help. Medicines-related concerns were more common among Russians (p = 0.037), however, they sought less contact to consult a pharmacist than Estonians (p < 0.001). Furthermore, expectations about different medicines-related services in the future were higher among Estonians than among Russians (p < 0.001). Community pharmacists in Estonia should focus more on person-centered care to better meet the expectations and needs of different ethnic groups about medicines-related services. It is also important to reduce the language barrier and to increase the recognition of cultural traditions by health professionals.


Subject(s)
Community Pharmacy Services , Pharmacies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Estonia , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Humans , Motivation , Pharmacists , Professional Role
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2054261, 2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806174

ABSTRACT

Ethnic minorities account for 8% of the Hong Kong population, most are Filipino and Indonesian domestic helpers taking care of children and the elderly. To understand the COVID-19 vaccination rates and factors associated with vaccine acceptance of ethnic minorities, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study recruiting Hong Kong ethnic minorities aged ≥18 years between 1 July and 18 July 2021 in public areas. Demographics, knowledge about COVID-19, vaccination status, intention and reasons to receive the vaccine, and planning to be re-vaccinated were analyzed. Continuous and categorical variables were compared using unpaired t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Potential confounders were adjusted using multiple logistic regression. 2,012 ethnic minorities participated, with a mean age of 39 years, of which 97.6% were female, 79.5% were Filipino, and 17.5% were Indonesian. 80.6% of participants were categorized as vaccine acceptance, and 69.2% were willing to be re-vaccinated. There were significantly more Filipinos than Indonesians in the vaccine acceptance group (p < .001). Subjects in the vaccine acceptance group were more likely to have higher education (p < .001), a higher COVID-19 knowledge score (p < .001), received information from the Government website (p = .003) and not from their friends or family members (p = .02), and were more confident in judging the accuracy of the information (p < .001). Logistic regression showed the mean knowledge score (ß = 3.07, p < .001) and receiving information from official Government websites (adjusted OR = 1.37, p = .03) were significant factors that positively influenced vaccine acceptance. The Hong Kong Government should improve COVID-19 vaccination acceptance among ethnic minorities through public education using official channels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination
18.
Health Expect ; 25(4): 1432-1443, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779233

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Regular reviews of medications, including prescription reviews and adherence reviews, are vital to support pharmacological effectiveness and optimize health outcomes for patients. Despite being more likely to report a long-term illness that requires medication when compared to their white counterparts, individuals from ethnic minority communities are less likely to engage with regular medication reviews, with inequalities negatively affecting their access. It is important to understand what barriers may exist that impact the access of those from ethnic minority communities and to identify measures that may act to facilitate improved service accessibility for these groups. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted between June and August 2021 using the following formats as permitted by governmental COVID-19 restrictions: in person, over the telephone or via video call. Perspectives on service accessibility and any associated barriers and facilitators were discussed. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Reflexive thematic analysis enabled the development of themes. QSR NVivo (Version 12) facilitated data management. Ethical approval was obtained from the Health Research Authority (ref: 21/HRA/1426). RESULTS: In total 20 participants from ethnic minority communities were interviewed; these participants included 16 UK citizens, 2 refugees and 2 asylum seekers, and represented a total of 5 different ethnic groups. Three themes were developed from the data regarding the perceived barriers and facilitators affecting access to medication reviews and identified approaches to improve the accessibility of such services for ethnic minority patients. These centred on (1) building knowledge and understanding about medication reviews; (2) delivering medication review services; and (3) appreciating the lived experience of patients. CONCLUSION: The results of this study have important implications for addressing inequalities that affect ethnic minority communities. Involving patients and practitioners to work collaboratively in coproduction approaches could enable better design, implementation and delivery of accessible medication review services that are culturally competent. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: The National Institute for Health Research Applied Research Collaboration and Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement group at Newcastle University supported the study design and conceptualization. Seven patient champions inputted to ensure that the research was conducted, and the findings were reported, with cultural sensitivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Medication Review , Minority Groups , Qualitative Research
19.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(2): 302-310, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immigrants and ethnic minorities have been shown to be at increased risk of hospitalization from COVID-19. Our aim was to analyse the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic risk factors on hospital admissions for COVID-19 among immigrants and ethnic minorities compared to the majority population. METHODS: We used nationwide register data on all hospitalized COVID-19 cases between February and June 2020 (N = 2232) and random controls from the general population (N = 498 117). We performed logistic regression analyses and adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, and socioeconomic and demographic factors. The main outcome measure was hospitalization with COVID-19 and was estimated using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Among 2232 COVID-19 cases, the OR of hospitalization with COVID-19 among immigrants and descendants of non-Western origin was 2.5 times higher (95% CI: 2.23-2.89) compared with individuals of Danish origin with most pronounced results among individuals from Iraq, Morocco, Pakistan and Somalia. The OR was largely attributed to comorbidity and socioeconomic factors, especially household size, occupation, and population density. CONCLUSION: There is a significantly higher OR of hospitalization with COVID-19 among non-Western immigrants and ethnic minorities compared with ethnic Danes. This knowledge is crucial for health policymakers and practitioners in both the current and future pandemics to identify more vulnerable groups and target prevention initiatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity , Hospitalization , Humans , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
Health Expect ; 25(2): 628-638, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764933

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare inequalities and ethnicity are closely related. Evidence has demonstrated that patients from ethnic minority groups are more likely to report a long-term illness than their white counterparts; yet, in some cases, minority groups have reported poorer adherence to prescribed medicines and may be less likely to access medicine services. Knowledge of the barriers and facilitators that impact ethnic minority access to medicine services is required to ensure that services are fit for purpose to meet and support the needs of all. METHODS: Semistructured interviews with healthcare professionals were conducted between October and December 2020, using telephone and video call-based software. Perspectives on barriers and facilitators were discussed. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Reflexive thematic analysis enabled the development of themes. QSR NVivo (Version 12) facilitated data management. Ethical approval was obtained from the Newcastle University Faculty of Medical Sciences Ethics Committee. RESULTS: Eighteen healthcare professionals were interviewed across primary, secondary and tertiary care settings; their roles spanned medicine, pharmacy and dentistry. Three themes were developed from the data regarding the perceived barriers and facilitators affecting access to medicine services for ethnic minority patients. These centred around patient expectations of health services; appreciating cultural stigma and acceptance of certain health conditions; and individually addressing communication and language needs. CONCLUSION: This study provides much-needed evidence relating to the barriers and facilitators impacting minority ethnic communities when seeking medicine support. The results of this study have important implications for the delivery of person-centred care. Involving patients and practitioners in coproduction approaches could enable the design and delivery of culturally sensitive and accessible medicine services. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: The Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement (PPIE) group at Newcastle University had extensive input in the design and concept of this study before the research was undertaken. Throughout the work, a patient champion (Harpreet Guraya) had input in the project by ensuring that the study was conducted, and the findings were reported, with cultural sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Qualitative Research , Social Stigma
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