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1.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1184209, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243044

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ethnic minorities are considered one of the most vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the explanatory pathway of how their disadvantaged experiences during epidemics are related to the embedded and longstanding stigmas against them and how these embedded stigmas can affect their resilience in disease outbreaks are not well understood. This study investigated the experiences of ethnic minorities in the COVID-19 pandemic, and how their experiences were related to the embedded stigma toward them. Methods: This study adopted a qualitative approach, interviewed 25 individuals (13 women and 12 men) from ethnic minority groups residing in Hong Kong from August 2021 to February 2022 in a semi-structured format. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data. Results: The participants were isolated and stereotyped as infectious during the COVID-19 pandemic at community and institutional levels. Their experiences did not occur suddenly during the pandemic but were embedded in the longstanding segregation and negative stereotypes toward ethnic minorities in different aspects of life before the pandemic. These negative stereotypes affected their resilience in living and coping with the pandemic. Conclusion: The participants' experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic were mostly disadvantageous and predominantly initiated by the mainstream stigmatization toward them by the local Chinese residents and government. Their disadvantaged experiences in the pandemic should be traced to the embedded social systems, imposing structural disparities for ethnic minorities when accessing social and medical resources during a pandemic. Because of the preexisting stigmatization and social seclusion of ethnic minorities in Hong Kong, the participants experienced health inequality, which stemmed from social inequality and the power differential between them and the Chinese locals. The disadvantaged situation of the participants negatively affected their resilience to the pandemic. To enable ethnic minorities better cope with future epidemics, merely providing assistance to them during an epidemic is barely adequate, but a more supportive and inclusive social system should be established for them in the long run.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Health Status Disparities , Social Stigma , Female , Humans , Male , East Asian People , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Hong Kong
2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 248: 109894, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Polysubstance use among adolescents is a significant public health concern, yet most studies on adolescent substance use focus on a singular substance. This study is one of the first to investigate the association between perceived racial discrimination (PRD) in school and polysubstance use among racial/ethnic minority adolescents using a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Data was from the 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey. The sample included 4145 racial/ethnic minority adolescents (52.8% female). Hierarchical binary logistic regression was used to examine the association between PRD in school and polysubstance use among racial/ethnic minority adolescents. RESULTS: About 12% of racial/ethnic minority adolescents engaged in polysubstance use and 23.4% reported experiencing PRD in school sometimes/most of the time/always. Controlling for other factors, experiencing PRD in school sometimes/most of the time/always was associated with 1.52 times higher odds of polysubstance use when compared to adolescents who never experienced PRD in school (OR=1.52, p=.044, 95% CI=1.01-2.30). Cyberbullying victimization, symptoms of depression, and being emotionally abused by a parent during COVID-19 were also associated with polysubstance use. CONCLUSION: Controlling for demographic characteristics and psychosocial stressors, PRD in school was significantly associated with higher odds of polysubstance use among racial/ethnic minority adolescents. The findings of this study could inform clinicians and policymakers of the association between PRD in school and polysubstance use, which could contribute to early identification of polysubstance use among racial/ethnic minority adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , Female , United States/epidemiology , Male , Racism/psychology , Ethnicity , Minority Groups/psychology , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114877, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250909

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the prevalence of perceived racial discrimination (PRD) in school, among racial/ethnic minority adolescents, and (2) the association between PRD and suicidal behaviors among racial/ethnic minority adolescents in the United States. Data from a sample of 3241 racial/ethnic minority adolescents (53.7% female) from the 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Controlling for other factors, racial/ethnic minority adolescents who experienced PRD had 1.57 times higher odds of experiencing suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.57, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = 1.09-2.25), 1.64 times higher odds of making a suicide plan (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.09-2.49), and 1.67 times higher odds of attempting suicide (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.04-2.68) during the past year. Other factors associated with suicidal behaviors included self-identifying as lesbian/gay, bisexual, or other/questioning; experiencing cyberbullying; feeling sad or hopeless; and poor mental health during the pandemic. The findings of this study extend past research and demonstrate that racial/ethnic minority adolescents who experienced PRD were more likely to report suicidal behaviors over and above other well-established risk factors for suicidal behaviors. Future studies that employ longitudinal designs are needed to elucidate mechanisms underlying these associations.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Racism , Humans , Adolescent , Female , United States/epidemiology , Male , Suicidal Ideation , Ethnicity , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Minority Groups
4.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 111, 2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted health disparities affecting ethnic minority communities. There is growing concern about the lack of diversity in clinical trials. This study aimed to assess the representation of ethnic groups in UK-based COVID-19 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken. A search strategy was developed for MEDLINE (Ovid) and Google Scholar (1st January 2020-4th May 2022). Prospective COVID-19 RCTs for vaccines or therapeutics that reported UK data separately with a minimum of 50 participants were eligible. Search results were independently screened, and data extracted into proforma. Percentage of ethnic groups at all trial stages was mapped against Office of National Statistics (ONS) statistics. Post hoc DerSimonian-Laird random-effects meta-analysis of percentages and a meta-regression assessing recruitment over time were conducted. Due to the nature of the review question, risk of bias was not assessed. Data analysis was conducted in Stata v17.0. A protocol was registered (PROSPERO CRD42021244185). RESULTS: In total, 5319 articles were identified; 30 studies were included, with 118,912 participants. Enrolment to trials was the only stage consistently reported (17 trials). Meta-analysis showed significant heterogeneity across studies, in relation to census-expected proportions at study enrolment. All ethnic groups, apart from Other (1.7% [95% CI 1.1-2.8%] vs ONS 1%) were represented to a lesser extent than ONS statistics, most marked in Black (1% [0.6-1.5%] vs 3.3%) and Asian (5.8% [4.4-7.6%] vs 7.5%) groups, but also apparent in White (84.8% [81.6-87.5%] vs 86%) and Mixed 1.6% [1.2-2.1%] vs 2.2%) groups. Meta-regression showed recruitment of Black participants increased over time (p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Asian, Black and Mixed ethnic groups are under-represented or incorrectly classified in UK COVID-19 RCTs. Reporting by ethnicity lacks consistency and transparency. Under-representation in clinical trials occurs at multiple levels and requires complex solutions, which should be considered throughout trial conduct. These findings may not apply outside of the UK setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity , Bias , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
BMJ ; 380: 448, 2023 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286843
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1060694, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239915

ABSTRACT

Background: Minority ethnic groups are at increased risk of COVID-19 related mortality or morbidity yet continue to have a disproportionally lower uptake of the vaccine. The importance of adherence to prevention and control measures to keep vulnerable populations and their families safe therefore remains crucial. This research sought to examine the knowledge, perceived risk, and attitudes toward COVID-19 among an ethnically diverse community. Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire was implemented to survey ethnic minority participants purposefully recruited from Luton, an ethnically diverse town in the southeast of England. The questionnaire was structured to assess participants knowledge, perceived risk, attitudes toward protective measures as well as the sources of information about COVID-19. The questionnaire was administered online via Qualtrics with the link shared through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp. Questionnaires were also printed into brochures and disseminated via community researchers and community links to individuals alongside religious, community and outreach organisations. Data were analysed using appropriate statistical techniques, with the significance threshold for all analyses assumed at p = 0.05. Findings: 1,058 participants (634; 60% females) with a median age of 38 (IQR, 22) completed the survey. National TV and social networks were the most frequently accessed sources of COVID-19 related information; however, healthcare professionals, whilst not widely accessed, were viewed as the most trusted. Knowledge of transmission routes and perceived susceptibility were significant predictors of attitudes toward health-protective practises. Conclusion/recommendation: Improving the local information provision, including using tailored communication strategies that draw on trusted sources, including healthcare professionals, could facilitate understanding of risk and promote adherence to health-protective actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , United Kingdom
8.
Nurs Outlook ; 71(1): 101899, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the well-being of nursing professionals, especially long-term and acute care nurses, many of whom are nurses of color. PURPOSE: We examine the evidence and gaps in the literature addressing psychological well-being of racial/ethnic minority RNs in the United States during COVID-19. METHODS: We searched eight databases during March 2022 and used Joanna Briggs' Scoping Review Methodology and PRISMA-ScR reporting standards. DISCUSSION: Seven studies met inclusion criteria. Two exclusively examined nurses; five reported findings from heterogeneous samples of health care workers. No significant racial/ethnic differences in well-being were reported among health care workers. Among nurses, if a difference existed, White nurses reported decreased psychological well-being relative to ethnic and racial minority nurses. Two studies report modest racial/ethnic differences in nurses' psychological well-being. CONCLUSION: Significant gaps in the literature remain; future studies should analyze groups of health care workers separately, clearly identify racial and ethnic groups, and examine the role of respondents' work setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Humans , United States , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Minority Groups , Psychological Well-Being , Pandemics
9.
Am J Community Psychol ; 71(1-2): 54-78, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172356

ABSTRACT

Racial reckoning is defined as the subjugation of Black, Indigenous, and people of Color (BIPOC) to racial hierarchies and subordinate groups that influence multiple well-being outcomes throughout the developmental lifespan and across generations. With the two pandemics of racial reckoning and COVID-19 amidst a growing controversial political landscape, topics around civic engagement have been brought to the forefront of community conversation. Discussions surrounding civic engagement must go beyond addressing issues of public concern and examine the vehicle in which civic engagement may be delivered. This is becoming increasingly important as civic engagement is one of the main avenues of social change through individual and collective action, particularly regarding racial reckoning and healthcare disparities highlighted by COVID-19. The paper focuses on civic engagement among ethnic minority youth and young adults. An integrated model of civic engagement was created based off what was learned through this review. This proposed model of civic engagement is meant to be the first step to addressing the gap in civic engagement literature for ethnic minority youth. Weaknesses and future considerations regarding the model will also be discussed, as well as any implications for ethnic minority youth and young adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Young Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Minority Groups , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Racial Groups
10.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 136, 2022 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196237

ABSTRACT

The aim of UK-REACH ("The United Kingdom Research study into Ethnicity And COVID-19 outcomes in Healthcare workers") is to understand if, how, and why healthcare workers (HCWs) in the United Kingdom (UK) from ethnic minority groups are at increased risk of poor outcomes from COVID-19. In this article, we present findings from the ethical and legal stream of the study, which undertook qualitative research seeking to understand and address legal, ethical, and social acceptability issues around data protection, privacy, and information governance associated with the linkage of HCWs' registration data and healthcare data. We interviewed 22 key opinion leaders in healthcare and health research from across the UK in two-to-one semi-structured interviews. Transcripts were coded using qualitative thematic analysis. Participants told us that a significant aspect of Big Data research in public health is varying drivers of mistrust-of the research itself, research staff and funders, and broader concerns of mistrust within participant communities, particularly in the context of COVID-19 and those situated in more marginalised community settings. However, despite the challenges, participants also identified ways in which legally compliant and ethically informed approaches to research can be crafted to mitigate or overcome mistrust and establish greater confidence in Big Data public health research. Overall, our research indicates that a "Big Data Ethics by Design" approach to research in this area can help assure (1) that meaningful community and participant engagement is taking place and that extant challenges are addressed, and (2) that any new challenges or hitherto unknown unknowns can be rapidly and properly considered to ensure potential (but material) harms are identified and minimised where necessary. Our findings indicate such an approach, in turn, will help drive better scientific breakthroughs that translate into medical innovations and effective public health interventions, which benefit the publics studied, including those who are often marginalised in research.


Subject(s)
Big Data , COVID-19 , Humans , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Qualitative Research , Health Personnel , United Kingdom
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(2)2023 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166563

ABSTRACT

Given the differential impacts of COVID-19 on racial and ethnic groups, it is unclear how racial/ethnic status and frailty combine to influence pandemic-related healthcare disruptions. This study aimed to test the double jeopardy hypothesis: racial/ethnic minority older adults suffer a double disadvantage in access to health care during the pandemic due to the interactive effects of frailty and race. This study uses the linked National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and COVID-19 public use data files. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed. Overall, approximately two out of five (41%) older adults reported postponing care due to the pandemic. The likelihood of putting off care increased slightly by frailty status. We found no significant difference between Whites and non-Whites in putting off care. However, the simple comparison masked significant variation across frailty status. Robust non-White older people were less likely to put off care than robust Whites (robust non-Whites: 29% vs. robust Whites: 39%); in contrast, frail non-White older people were more likely to put off care (frail non-Whites: 55% vs. frail Whites: 42%). Being frail and non-White creates double jeopardy, which has a negative impact on access to healthcare. Timely access to care is essential for frail older people, particularly non-Whites, because of their complex health conditions accentuated by health and social disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Humans , Aged , United States/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Frail Elderly , Hispanic or Latino , Pandemics , Frailty/epidemiology , Minority Groups , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Healthcare Disparities
13.
Lancet ; 400 Suppl 1: S9, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID19 pandemic revealed and deepened existing inequalities. These were exacerbated by institutional and interpersonal racism and poorly conceived public health messaging. As a result, people from minority ethnic backgrounds in the UK were disproportionately affected. We conducted a creative interdisciplinary session to support interactive reflection and discussion on these inequalities between the actors and the audience, who was comprised of public health scientists and NHS practitioners, to come up with practical ways to address ethnicity-based health inequalities going forward. METHODS: We prepared a 45 min interactive scenario drawing on forum theatre approaches, which are based on the Theatre of the Oppressed: a set of dramatical techniques created by Augusto Boal. To understand what to include the interactive scenario we carried out a workshop built on a narrative interview study with 70 adults who had Covid between March, 2020, and November, 2021. We adopted a maximum variation sampling strategy focusing on people from minority ethnic backgrounds (45 of total sample). Interviews were done remotely and recorded via video or audio. Study participants were invited to tell their story in their own words, alongside semi-structured prompting. After thematic analysis, the research team worked with theatre practitioners from the Performing Medicine company to create scenarios from verbatim interview content. The format allows audience members to watch scenarios and interact directly with actors, giving advice on how to improve the situation. The study was approved by Berkshire Ethics Committee. Informed verbal and written consent were obtained from all participants. FINDINGS: Five themes from analysis explored in the workshop emerged: (1) existing racialised disadvantages that impacted COVID-19 exposure: employment, housing, and caring responsibilities; (2) unequal access to care, welfare, and support; (3) fears about the health-care system regarding quality of care and vaccine safety; (4) perceptions that the media and public health messaging blamed minority ethnic groups for spreading infection; and (5) increases in acts of direct racism. These informed the development of a 45-minute interactive scenario, which will be performed at the 10th UK Public Health Science conference. INTERPRETATION: There is an urgent need to re-evaluate public health messaging and care for people from minority ethnic backgrounds. This theatre workshop will support reflection to refine workshop content for further dissemination. FUNDING: UK Economic and Social Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Qualitative Research
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e061896, 2022 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Migrants and ethnic minority groups have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 and have lower levels of vaccine uptake in some contexts. We aimed to determine the extent and nature of social media use in migrant and ethnic minority communities for COVID-19 information, and implications for preventative health measures including vaccination intent and uptake. DESIGN: A systematic review of published and grey literature following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched databases including Embase, Web of Science, PubMed NIH, CINAHL, facilitated through the WHO Global Research on COVID-19 database from 31 December 2019 to 9 June 2021. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Research reporting the use of social media by migrants and/or ethnic minority groups in relation to COVID-19. DATA EXTRACTION: We extracted data on key outcomes, study design, country, population under study and sample size. RESULTS: 1849 unique records were screened, and 21 data sources were included, including populations in the UK, USA, China, Jordan, Qatar and Turkey. We found evidence of consistent use of a range of social media platforms for COVID-19 information in some migrant and ethnic minority populations (including WeChat, Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, Twitter, YouTube), which may stem from difficulty in accessing COVID-19 information in their native languages or from trusted sources. Some evidence suggested circulating misinformation and social media use may be associated with lower participation in preventative health measures, including vaccine intent and uptake, findings which are likely relevant to multiple population groups. CONCLUSIONS: Social media platforms are an important source of information about COVID-19 for some migrant and ethnic minority populations. Urgent actions and further research are now needed to better understand effective approaches to tackling circulating misinformation, and to seize on opportunities to better use social media platforms to support public health communication and improve vaccine uptake. REGISTRATION: This study has been registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021259190).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Minority Groups , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Pandemics/prevention & control
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116020

ABSTRACT

Health Communication is critical in the context of public health and this was highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ethnic minority groups were significantly impacted during the pandemic; however, communication and information available to them were reported to be insufficient. This study explored the health information communication amongst ethnic communities in relation to their experiences with primary health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research used qualitative methodology using focus groups and semi-structured interviews with community members and leaders from three ethnic minority communities (African-Caribbean, Somali and South Asian) in Leicester, United Kingdom. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and open-coded. Rigour was determined through methodological coherence, appropriate and sufficient sampling, and iterative data collection and analysis. Six focus groups and interviews were conducted with 42 participants. Four overarching themes were identified related to health communication, experiences, services and community recommendations to improve primary care communication. To address primary care inequalities effectively and improve future health communication strategies, experiences from the pandemic should be reflected upon, and positive initiatives infused into the healthcare strategies, especially for ethnic minority communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , Humans , Minority Groups , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Primary Health Care
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1002209, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109883

ABSTRACT

Racial and ethnic minority communities have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19, but the uptake of COVID-19 mitigation strategies like vaccination and testing have been slower in these populations. With the continued spread of COVID-19 while in-person learning is a priority, school-aged youth and their caregivers must make health-related decisions daily to ensure health at school. It is critical to understand factors associated with COVID-related health decisions such as vaccination, testing, and other health behaviors (e.g., wearing masks, hand washing). Community-engaged campaigns are necessary to overcome barriers to these health behaviors and promote health equity. The aim of this study was to examine COVID-19-related concerns and influences on health decisions in middle and high schools serving primarily racial and ethnic minority, low-income families. Seven focus groups were conducted with school staff, parents, and students (aged 16 years and older). Qualitative data were analyzed using a general inductive approach. Factors related to COVID-19 concerns and health decisions centered on (1) vaccine hesitancy, (2) testing hesitancy, (3) developmental stage (i.e., ability to engage in health behaviors based on developmental factors like age), (4) cultural and family traditions and beliefs, (5) compatibility of policies and places with recommended health behaviors, (6) reliability of information, and (7) perceived risk. We explore sub-themes in further detail. It is important to understand the community's level of concern and identify factors that influence COVID-19 medical decision making to better address disparities in COVID-19 testing and vaccination uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Health Promotion , Minority Groups , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , COVID-19 Testing , Reproducibility of Results
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 875198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080281

ABSTRACT

Background: Worldwide, the Coronavirus pandemic has had a major impact on people's health, lives, and livelihoods. However, this impact has not been felt equally across various population groups. People from ethnic minority backgrounds in the UK have been more adversely affected by the pandemic, especially in terms of their physical health. Their mental health, on the other hand, has received less attention. This study aimed to explore the mental health experiences of UK adults from ethnic minorities during the Coronavirus pandemic. This work forms part of our wider long-term UK population study "Mental Health in the Pandemic." Methods: We conducted an exploratory qualitative study with people from ethnic minority communities across the UK. A series of in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 women, 14 men and 1 non-binary person from ethnic minority backgrounds, aged between 18 and 65 years old (mean age = 40). We utilized purposefully selected maximum variation sampling in order to capture as wide a variety of views, perceptions and experiences as possible. Inclusion criteria: adults (18+) from ethnic minorities across the UK; able to provide full consent to participate; able to participate in a video- or phone-call interview. All interviews took place via MS Teams or Zoom. The gathered data were transcribed verbatim and underwent thematic analysis following Braun and Clarke carried out using NVivo 12 software. Results: The qualitative data analysis yielded seven overarching themes: (1) pandemic-specific mental health and wellbeing experiences; (2) issues relating to the media; (3) coping mechanisms; (4) worries around and attitudes toward vaccination; (5) suggestions for support in moving forward; (6) best and worst experiences during pandemic and lockdowns; (7) biggest areas of change in personal life. Generally, participants' mental health experiences varied with some not being affected by the pandemic in a way related to their ethnicity, some sharing positive experiences and coping strategies (exercising more, spending more time with family, community cohesion), and some expressing negative experiences (eating or drinking more, feeling more isolated, or even racism and abuse, especially toward Asian communities). Concerns were raised around trust issues in relation to the media, the inadequate representation of ethnic minorities, and the spread of fake news especially on social media. Attitudes toward vaccinations varied too, with some people more willing to have the vaccine than others. Conclusion: This study's findings highlight the diversity in the pandemic mental health experiences of ethnic minorities in the UK and has implications for policy, practice and further research. To enable moving forward beyond the pandemic, our study surfaced the need for culturally appropriate mental health support, financial support (as a key mental health determinant), accurate media representation, and clear communication messaging from the Governments of the UK.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Adult , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , Mental Health , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
Health Expect ; 25(6): 3040-3052, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052476

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Medicines-centred consultations are vital to support medicine effectiveness and optimize health outcomes for patients. However, inequalities negatively impact ethnic minority populations when accessing medicines advice. It is important to identify opportunities to improve access for these communities however, knowledge of how best to achieve this is lacking; this study will generate recommendations to improve access to medicines advice from community pharmacies for people from ethnic minority communities. METHODS: A series of codesign workshops, with four groups of patient-stakeholders, were conducted between September-November 2021; they took place in-person or via video call (adhering to COVID-19 restrictions). Existing evidence-based perceptions affecting access to medicines advice were critiqued and recommendations were generated, by use of reflexive thematic analysis, to improve access for ethnic minority patients. The workshops were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. QSR NVivo (Version 12) facilitated data analysis. RESULTS: Twelve participants were recruited using purposive sampling; including eight UK citizens, two asylum seekers and two participants in receipt of residency visas. In total, four different ethnic minority groups were represented. Each participant took part in a first and second workshop to share and cocreate recommendations to improve access to medicines advice in community pharmacies. Three recommendations were developed and centred on: (i) delivering and providing culturally competent medicines advice; (ii) building awareness of accessing medicines advice from community pharmacies; and (iii) enabling better discussions with patients from ethnic minority communities. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations have the potential to support community pharmacy services to overcome ethnic inequalities affecting medicines advice; service commissioners should consider these findings to best meet the needs of ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training for community pharmacy staff could support the creation of pharmacies as inclusive healthcare settings. Collaborative working with ethnic minority communities could enable specific tailoring of medicines-centred services to best meet their needs. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and Newcastle University Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement group had extensive input in the study design and conceptualization. Seven patient champions were appointed to the steering group to ensure that the research was conducted, and findings were reported, with cultural competence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pharmacies , Humans , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Health Services Accessibility
19.
Public Health Rep ; 138(1): 149-156, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038480

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has propelled the use of technology for health care services delivery. Because of inequities in health care and technology access, we investigated the use of telehealth services among racial and ethnic minority groups before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: For this retrospective study, we examined the electronic health records of privately insured patients in the Healthjump database, provided by the COVID-19 Research Database Consortium. We examined 17.98 million unique visit records of 2.93 million patients from March through December 2019 and 22.17 million records of 3.55 million patients from March through December 2020. We conducted a descriptive analysis and used multiple logistic regression to examine differences in the use of telehealth services among 3 racial and ethnic groups: non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic people. RESULTS: Telehealth visits before and during COVID-19 accounted for 8.3% and 10.9% of total visits, respectively, with a peak of 15.5% in April 2020. Pre-COVID-19, Hispanic patients had a significantly lower monthly utilization rate (5.3%) than non-Hispanic White patients (8.4%, P < .001) and non-Hispanic Black patients (10.4%, P = .001). During the pandemic study period, Hispanic patients were 41% less likely than non-Hispanic White patients to have a telehealth visit, controlling for age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of using telehealth was lower among Hispanic patients than among non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black patients during the pandemic. Culturally sensitive measures are needed to support telehealth use among the Hispanic population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Ethnic and Racial Minorities
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