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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1002209, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109883

ABSTRACT

Racial and ethnic minority communities have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19, but the uptake of COVID-19 mitigation strategies like vaccination and testing have been slower in these populations. With the continued spread of COVID-19 while in-person learning is a priority, school-aged youth and their caregivers must make health-related decisions daily to ensure health at school. It is critical to understand factors associated with COVID-related health decisions such as vaccination, testing, and other health behaviors (e.g., wearing masks, hand washing). Community-engaged campaigns are necessary to overcome barriers to these health behaviors and promote health equity. The aim of this study was to examine COVID-19-related concerns and influences on health decisions in middle and high schools serving primarily racial and ethnic minority, low-income families. Seven focus groups were conducted with school staff, parents, and students (aged 16 years and older). Qualitative data were analyzed using a general inductive approach. Factors related to COVID-19 concerns and health decisions centered on (1) vaccine hesitancy, (2) testing hesitancy, (3) developmental stage (i.e., ability to engage in health behaviors based on developmental factors like age), (4) cultural and family traditions and beliefs, (5) compatibility of policies and places with recommended health behaviors, (6) reliability of information, and (7) perceived risk. We explore sub-themes in further detail. It is important to understand the community's level of concern and identify factors that influence COVID-19 medical decision making to better address disparities in COVID-19 testing and vaccination uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Health Promotion , Minority Groups , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , COVID-19 Testing , Reproducibility of Results
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 996311, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109882

ABSTRACT

With over 500 million confirmed cases and 6.2 million deaths worldwide, the novel coronavirus has highlighted the underlying disparities in healthcare, unpreparedness to deal with a new disease and the need for monitoring and surveillance for a post-infectious syndrome as well as complicated diseases. Initially, children were thought to be spared but reports of a new phenomenon manifesting as Kawasaki-like disease, toxic shock syndrome, and multi-system inflammatory syndrome, which developed after a few weeks of severe COVID-19 infection, emerged in the pediatric population. As the pandemic progressed, increased prevalence of multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to COVID-19 was seen in non-Hispanic blacks, Asians, and Latinos as compared to the white population drawing attention to a possible role of ethnicity and socio-economic disparities. The CDC currently reports that 31% of MIS-C cases were seen in Black Non-Hispanics and 26% in Latinos, who were historically more affected in previous pandemics. Furthermore, MIS-C cases in developing countries showed higher mortality as compared to high-income countries, which points toward the role of social determinants of health and limitations in a low-resource set up in increasing the disease burden of MIS-C, which should be treated as a public health emergency. Our review highlights the role of ethnicity, socio-economic factors, comorbidities, and differences in populations affected by MIS-C in high-income vs. low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1626-1634, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109343

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a heightened toll on people incarcerated in prisons in the United States, with those incarcerated experiencing a higher rate of infection and mortality than the US population more generally. What is less well known is the degree to which COVID-19 outcomes differ among incarcerated populations, especially by race and ethnicity, where significant differences have been found among the US population as a whole. This knowledge gap is, in part, due to a lack of reporting of COVID-19 outcomes by race and ethnicity by most state prison systems. To shed light on this topic, we analyzed mortality patterns of the population incarcerated in Texas state prison facilities during both the year before (beginning April 1, 2019) and the first year of (beginning April 1, 2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. We used a unique data set of roster information from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice and medical examiner records. COVID-19 mortality was 1.61 and 2.12 times higher for Black and Hispanic populations, respectively, when compared with the White population in Texas prisons. Strategies for COVID-19 mitigation in carceral settings, such as vaccination and decarceration, should include an equity component to minimize disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States , Humans , Prisons , Ethnicity , Pandemics , Texas/epidemiology
4.
Prev Med ; 164: 107287, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106177

ABSTRACT

Black and Latino populations have been disproportionately burdened by COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Subsidized housing, crowding, and neighborhood poverty might be associated with increased COVID-19 transmission and play a role in observed racial and ethnic disparities, yet research is limited. Our study investigated whether these housing variables mediate the relationship between race and ethnicity and SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity among New York City (NYC) adults. We analyzed data from a SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey (n = 1074), nested within the 2020 cross-sectional NYC Community Health Survey (June-October 2020). We defined SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity as either a positive blood test for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies or a self-reported positive test result. We used causal mediation analyses to test whether subsidized housing, crowding, and neighborhood poverty mediate a relationship between race and ethnicity and seropositivity. After controlling for potential confounding, we found elevated prevalence ratios of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among Black (APR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10-2.73) and Latino (APR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.05-2.37) residents compared with White residents and for those living in crowded housing (APR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.03-2.12) and high-poverty neighborhoods (APR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.12-2.11) but not for subsidized housing. We observed statistically significant natural direct effects for all three mediators. While living in crowded housing and high-poverty neighborhoods contributed to racial and ethnic disparities in seropositivity the estimated contribution from living in subsidized housing was -9% (Black) and - 14% (Latino). Our findings revealed racial and ethnic disparities in seropositivity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among NYC adults. Unlike crowding and neighborhood poverty, living in subsidized housing did not explain racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adult , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Housing , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6575-6580, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the trends of HPV vaccination between 03/2019-09/2021 and whether the impact of the COVID pandemic on HPV vaccination varied by race/ethnicity and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI). METHODS: Electronic medical records at Kaiser Permanente Southern California were used to assess monthly volume of HPV vaccine doses administered among children aged 9-12.9yrs, and up-to-date coverage (% vaccinated) by age 13 between 03/2019-09/2021. Modified Poisson models were used to evaluate the interactions between race/ethnicity, NDI and the pandemic periods on HPV vaccine coverage. RESULTS: HPV vaccine doses administered in 2020/2021 have returned to the 2019 level after the initial drop. The average up-to-date coverage in 05/2021-09/2021 (54.8%) remained lower than the pre-pandemic level (58.5%). The associations between race/ethnicity, NDI and HPV vaccine coverage did not vary due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine promotion efforts are needed to address COVID-19 pandemic's lasting impact on HPV vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Ethnicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Social Class , California/epidemiology
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2241144, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103438

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study explores geographic disparities in antiviral access by quantifying the accessibility of COVID-19 Test to Treat sites for subpopulations by race, ethnicity, age, and rurality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Humans , Rural Population , Healthcare Disparities
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099423

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity has affected the health of millions of children around the world despite vigorous efforts by health experts. The obesity epidemic in the United States has disproportionately afflicted certain racial and ethnic minority groups. African American children are more likely than other children to have obesity-related risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and coronavirus disease (COVID-19). For the reduction in obesity-related health inequalities to be successful, it is essential to identify the variables affecting various groups. A notable advancement in epigenetic biology has been made over the past decade. Epigenetic changes like DNA methylation impact on many genes associated with obesity. Here, we evaluated the DNA methylation levels of the genes NRF1, FTO, and LEPR from the saliva of children using real-time quantitative PCR-based multiplex MethyLight technology. ALU was used as a reference gene, and the Percent of Methylated Reference (PMR) was calculated for each sample. European American children showed a significant increase in PMR of NRF1 and FTO in overweight/obese participants compared to normal weight, but not in African American children. After adjusting for maternal education and annual family income by regression analysis, the PMR of NRF1 and FTO was significantly associated with BMI z-score only in European American children. While for the gene LEPR, African American children had higher methylation in normal weight participants as compared to overweight/obese and no methylation difference in European American children. The PMR of LEPR was significantly negative associated with the obesity measures only in African American children. These findings contribute to a race-specific link between NRF1, FTO, and LEPR gene methylation and childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Humans , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , United States
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276806, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes exist, but whether in-hospital care explains this difference is not known. We sought to determine racial and ethnic differences in demographics, comorbidities, in-hospital treatments, and in-hospital outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a cohort study using MiCOVID-19, a multi-center, retrospective, collaborative quality improvement registry, which included data on patients hospitalized with COVID-19 across 38 hospitals in the State of Michigan. 2,639 adult patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at a site participating in the MiCOVID-19 Registry were randomly selected. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, age at death, intensive care unit admission, and need for invasive mechanical ventilation by race and ethnicity. Baseline comorbidities differed by race and ethnicity. In addition, Black patients had higher lactate dehydrogenase, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, creatine phosphokinase, and ferritin levels. Black patients were less likely to receive dexamethasone and remdesivir compared with White patients (4.2% vs 14.3% and 2.2% vs. 11.8%, p < 0.001 for each). Black (18.7%) and White (19.6%) patients experienced greater mortality compared with Asian (13.0%) and Latino (5.9%) patients (p < 0.01). The mean age at death was significantly lower by 8 years for Black patients (69.4 ± 13.3 years) compared with White (77.9 ± 12.6), Asian (77.6 ± 6.6), and Latino patients (77.4 ± 15.5) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mortality appears to be driven by both pre-hospitalization clinical and social factors and potentially in-hospital care. Policies aimed at population health and equitable application of evidence-based medical therapy are needed to alleviate the burden of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Child , Ethnicity , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Whites , Hospitalization , Registries
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1988, 2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women have been especially impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This exploratory study aimed to characterize women's adverse experiences related to their work, home lives, and wellbeing during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic and to describe demographic differences of those lived experiences. METHODS: Using the validated Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory, we collected data from reproductive-aged women in the state of Georgia about their exposure to adverse events during the pandemic. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify subgroups of women reporting similar adverse experiences and describe their sociodemographic characteristics. An optional open-ended question yielded qualitative data that were analyzed thematically and merged with subgroup findings. Data were collected from September 2020 to January 2021. RESULTS: 423 individuals aged 18-49 completed the survey with 314 (74.2%) providing qualitative responses. The LCA yielded 4 subgroups: (1) a "low exposure" subgroup (n = 123, 29.1%) with relatively low probability of adverse experiences across domains (e.g. financial insecurity, health challenges, barriers to access to healthcare, intimate partner violence (IPV)); (2) a "high exposure" subgroup (n = 46, 10.9%) with high probability of experiencing multiple adversities across domains including the loss of loved ones to COVID-19; (3) a "caregiving stress" subgroup (n = 104, 24.6%) with high probability of experiencing challenges with home and work life including increased partner conflict; and (4) a "mental health changes" subgroup (n = 150, 35.5%) characterized by relatively low probability of adverse experiences but high probability of negative changes in mental health and lifestyle. Individuals in subgroups 1 and 4, which had low probabilities of adverse experiences, were significantly more likely to be non-Hispanic white. Individuals in subgroup 2 were more likely to identify with a sexual or racial/ethnic minority population. Inductive coding of qualitative data yielded themes such as stress, mental health, financial impact, and adaptation/resilience, providing context for pandemic-related adversity. CONCLUSION: Though many individuals in our sample experienced hardship, minority populations were unequally impacted by pandemic-related adversity in work life, home life, and wellbeing. Recovery and future emergency preparedness efforts in Georgia must incorporate support mechanisms for mental health and IPV, focusing especially on the intersectional needs of racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Female , Humans , Adult , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Georgia/epidemiology , Minority Groups
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e065804, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097999

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Achieving high vaccination coverage is vital to the efforts of curbing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public health and society. This study tested whether communicating the social benefit through community protection for friends and family members versus overall society, affects vaccination intention and perception among a sample enriched with respondents from black and ethnic minority backgrounds. DESIGN: A web-based experimental survey was conducted. Eligible participants were individually randomised, with equal probability, to one of the three experimental vignettes. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 512 (212 white, 300 ethnically diverse) vaccine-hesitant members from an online panel. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19. The secondary outcome consisted of a behavioural measure in the form of active interest in reading more about the COVID-19 vaccine. Additional measures included the perceived importance and expected uptake in others, as well as the attitudes towards vaccination. RESULTS: Logistic regression models did not show an effect of the messages on intentions for the overall sample (society: adjusted OR (aOR): 128, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.88 and friends and family: aOR 1.32, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.94). The role of vaccination in achieving community immunity yielded higher vaccination intentions among study participants with white ethnic background (society: aOR: 1.94, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.51 and friends and family: aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.96), but not among respondents from ethnically diverse backgrounds (society: aOR: 0.95, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.58 and friends and family: aOR 1.06, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.73). The messages, however, did not affect the perceived importance of the vaccine, expected vaccination uptake and active interest in reading more about the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, although highlighting the social benefits of COVID-19 vaccinations can increase intentions among vaccine non-intenders, they are unlikely to address barriers among ethnically diverse communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnicity , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Minority Groups , Vaccination , Intention , United Kingdom
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e065709, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The association between impaired digital provision, access and health outcomes has not been systematically studied. The Wolverhampton Digital ENablement programme (WODEN) is a multiagency collaborative approach to determine and address digital factors that may impact on health and social care in a single deprived multiethnic health economy. The objective of this study is to determine the association between measurable broadband provision and demographic and health outcomes in a defined population. DESIGN: An observational cross-sectional whole local population-level study with cohorts defined according to broadband provision. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Data for all residents of the City of Wolverhampton, totalling 269 785 residents. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Poor broadband provision is associated with variation in demographics and with increased comorbidity and urgent care needs. RESULTS: Broadband provision was measured using the Broadband Infrastructure Index (BII) in 158 City localities housing a total of 269 785 residents. Lower broadband provision as determined by BII was associated with younger age (p<0.001), white ethnic status (p<0.001), lesser deprivation as measured by Index of Multiple Deprivation (p<0.001), a higher number of health comorbidities (p<0.001) and more non-elective urgent events over 12 months (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Local municipal and health authorities are advised to consider the variations in broadband provision within their locality and determine equal distribution both on a geographical basis but also against demographic, health and social data to determine equitable distribution as a platform for equitable access to digital resources for their residents.


Subject(s)
Economics, Medical , Ethnicity , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geography , Social Support
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18448, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096791

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to evaluate the mental health of pregnant individuals during the early COVID-19 pandemic and the potential factors associated. A Swiss online survey was proposed to individuals who gave birth during the pandemic period from March 2020. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 questions (GAD-7), and Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were evaluated and used to defined mental health impairment as a composite outcome. From October, 2020 to February, 2021, 736 participants responded. The anxiety GAD-7 score was moderate in 9.6% and severe in 2.0%. The EPDS was moderate in 21.5% and severe in 32.9%. The IES-R was moderate in 10.3% and severe in 3.9%. Mental health impairment was reported in 37.0%. The association between the risk of mental health impairment and foreign nationality was significant (OR = 1.48; 95%CI [1.06-2.05]) as well as fetal and pregnancy worries because of coronavirus (OR = 1.46; 95% CI [1.08-1.98]) and 1.65; 95% CI [1.22-2.24]). Adjusted ORs were significant for foreign nationality (aOR = 1.51; 95%CI [1.07-2.13]) and pregnancy worries because of coronavirus (aOR = 1.62; 95%CI [1.10-2.40]). Pregnant people and especially foreign national have a high risk of mental health impairment during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Ethnicity , Switzerland/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(43): 1359-1365, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091066

ABSTRACT

In December 2021 and early 2022, four medications received emergency use authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration for outpatient treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in patients who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease; these included nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid) and molnupiravir (Lagevrio) (both oral antivirals), expanded use of remdesivir (Veklury; an intraveneous antiviral), and bebtelovimab (a monoclonal antibody [mAb]).* Reports have documented disparities in mAb treatment by race and ethnicity (1) and in oral antiviral treatment by zip code-level social vulnerability (2); however, limited data are available on racial and ethnic disparities in oral antiviral treatment.† Using electronic health record (EHR) data from 692,570 COVID-19 patients aged ≥20 years who sought medical care during January-July 2022, treatment with Paxlovid, Lagevrio, Veklury, and mAbs was assessed by race and ethnicity, overall and among high-risk patient groups. During 2022, the percentage of COVID-19 patients seeking medical care who were treated with Paxlovid increased from 0.6% in January to 20.2% in April and 34.3% in July; the other three medications were used less frequently (0.7%-5.0% in July). During April-July 2022, when Paxlovid use was highest, compared with White patients, Black or African American (Black) patients were prescribed Paxlovid 35.8% less often, multiple or other race patients 24.9% less often, American Indian or Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (AIAN/NHOPI) patients 23.1% less often, and Asian patients 19.4% less often; Hispanic patients were prescribed Paxlovid 29.9% less often than non-Hispanic patients. Racial and ethnic disparities in Paxlovid treatment were generally somewhat higher among patients at high risk for severe COVID-19, including those aged ≥50 years and those who were immunocompromised. The expansion of programs focused on equitable awareness of and access to outpatient COVID-19 treatments, as well as COVID-19 vaccination, including updated bivalent booster doses, can help protect persons most at risk for severe illness and facilitate equitable health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Outpatients , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antiviral Agents
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090150

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread worldwide, with over half a billion cases linked to over 6 million deaths globally. COVID-19 has impacted populations unequally based on income, age, race, sex, and geographical location. This study aimed to characterize COVID-19 incidence and death rate trends in six states of the southern region of the USA and to understand the demographic and racial differences in its incidence and death rates. Data for the study were collected from the COVID-19 Data tracker of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the following southern states: Alabama (AL), Florida (FL), Georgia (GA), Louisiana (LA), Mississippi (MS), and Tennessee (TN). The results showed a significant geographical variation in the COVID-19 cases and related deaths. Significant variations in COVID-19 cases and death rates were observed among different races and ethnic groups. The highest number of COVID-19 cases were observed among the Hispanic and Black populations, and the highest death rates were found among non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites. The southern states included in this paper showed a high number of COVID-19 cases and high death rates during the study period. These increased rates may result from the low socioeconomic status and large minority populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Incidence , Health Status Disparities
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090142

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has disproportionally impacted Latinx and Black communities in the US. Our study aimed to extend the understanding of ethnic disparities in COVID-19 case rates by using a unique dataset of municipal case rates across New Jersey (NJ) during the first 17 months of the pandemic. We examined the extent to which there were municipal-level ethnic disparities in COVID-19 infection rates during three distinct spikes in case rates over this period. Furthermore, we used the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis to identify municipal-level exposure and vulnerability factors that contributed to ethnic disparities and how the contributions of these factors changed across the three initial waves of infection. Two clear results emerged. First, in NJ, the COVID-19 infection risk disproportionally affected Latinx communities across all three waves during the first 17 months of the pandemic. Second, the exposure and vulnerability factors that most strongly contributed to higher rates of infection in Latinx and Black communities changed over time as the virus, alongside medical and societal responses to it, also changed. These findings suggest that understanding and addressing ethnicity-based COVID-19 disparities will require sustained attention to the systemic and structural factors that disproportionately place historically marginalized ethnic communities at greater risk of contracting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities , New Jersey/epidemiology , Pandemics
16.
Prev Med ; 164: 107268, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086855

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated socioeconomic disparities in food insecurity. Non-citizens, who do not qualify for most publicly-funded food assistance programs, may be most vulnerable to food insecurity during the pandemic. However, no study has examined heterogeneity in food insecurity by immigration status and ethnicity in the context of the pandemic. We analyzed the 2020 non-restricted California Health Interview Survey to examine disparities in food insecurity by ethnicity and immigration status (i.e., US-born, naturalized, non-citizen) among Asians and Latinxs (N = 19,514) compared to US-born Whites. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analyses assessed the association of immigration status and ethnicity with food insecurity. Decomposition analyses assessed the extent to which pandemic-related economic stressors, including experiencing reduced work hours or losing a job versus pre-pandemic socioeconomic position (SEP), accounted for disparities in food insecurity by ethnicity and immigration status. Regardless of immigration status, Latinxs were more likely to experience food insecurity than Whites. Based on the adjusted analyses, non-citizen, naturalized, and US-born Latinxs had a predicted probability of 12%, 11.4%, and 11.9% of experiencing food insecurity, respectively. In contrast, non-citizen Asians, but not US-born or naturalized Asians, reported greater food insecurity than Whites (12.5% vs. 8.2%). SEP accounted for 43% to 66% of the relationship between immigration status-ethnicity and food insecurity. The pandemic exacerbated economic hardship, but food insecurity was largely explained by long-standing SEP-related factors among Latinxs, regardless of immigration status, and non-citizen Asians. To address disparities in food insecurity, social assistance programs and COVID-19 economic relief should be extended to non-citizens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Emigration and Immigration , Risk Factors , Food Insecurity , Food Supply
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 898787, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080282

ABSTRACT

Background: The continued emergence of new COVID-19 variants highlights the importance of vaccination in the effort to reduce disease transmission and burden. The objective of this study is to evaluate the processes and outcomes associated with a novel in-home COVID-19 vaccination program aimed at vaccinating high-risk populations in New York, USA. Methods: To evaluate program processes, we described the program itself and reflected on some key lessons learned. To evaluate program outcomes, we analyzed data reported by vaccine recipients. These outcomes included the percentage of vaccine recipients that successfully received the full course of vaccinations, and the demographic and health characteristics of vaccine recipients. We additionally assessed demographic differences in motivations for receiving in-home care, using chi-squared tests to assess statistical significance. Data were collected and reported via dynamic online intake forms. Results: The median age of vaccine recipients was 79 ± SD 9.0 years. The oldest vaccine recipient was 107 years old. Of those with non-missing data, more than half of vaccine recipients were female (63%), identified as part of a racial/ethnic minority (66%), reported an annual income of < $25,000 (58%), and received a high school degree or less (68%). Most vaccine recipients reported having one or more health conditions associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease (72%). Vaccine recipients were most likely to report receiving in-home vaccination because they were home-bound due to disability. Motivations for receiving in-home vaccination differed by demographic subgroup. Conclusion: The population receiving vaccinations from this in-home care delivery program comprised seniors who were mostly female and non-white, indicated socioeconomic vulnerability, and reported one or more COVID-related health conditions; this signified that the program met its goal of vaccinating those most at risk for severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ethnicity , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vulnerable Populations
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 875198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080281

ABSTRACT

Background: Worldwide, the Coronavirus pandemic has had a major impact on people's health, lives, and livelihoods. However, this impact has not been felt equally across various population groups. People from ethnic minority backgrounds in the UK have been more adversely affected by the pandemic, especially in terms of their physical health. Their mental health, on the other hand, has received less attention. This study aimed to explore the mental health experiences of UK adults from ethnic minorities during the Coronavirus pandemic. This work forms part of our wider long-term UK population study "Mental Health in the Pandemic." Methods: We conducted an exploratory qualitative study with people from ethnic minority communities across the UK. A series of in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 women, 14 men and 1 non-binary person from ethnic minority backgrounds, aged between 18 and 65 years old (mean age = 40). We utilized purposefully selected maximum variation sampling in order to capture as wide a variety of views, perceptions and experiences as possible. Inclusion criteria: adults (18+) from ethnic minorities across the UK; able to provide full consent to participate; able to participate in a video- or phone-call interview. All interviews took place via MS Teams or Zoom. The gathered data were transcribed verbatim and underwent thematic analysis following Braun and Clarke carried out using NVivo 12 software. Results: The qualitative data analysis yielded seven overarching themes: (1) pandemic-specific mental health and wellbeing experiences; (2) issues relating to the media; (3) coping mechanisms; (4) worries around and attitudes toward vaccination; (5) suggestions for support in moving forward; (6) best and worst experiences during pandemic and lockdowns; (7) biggest areas of change in personal life. Generally, participants' mental health experiences varied with some not being affected by the pandemic in a way related to their ethnicity, some sharing positive experiences and coping strategies (exercising more, spending more time with family, community cohesion), and some expressing negative experiences (eating or drinking more, feeling more isolated, or even racism and abuse, especially toward Asian communities). Concerns were raised around trust issues in relation to the media, the inadequate representation of ethnic minorities, and the spread of fake news especially on social media. Attitudes toward vaccinations varied too, with some people more willing to have the vaccine than others. Conclusion: This study's findings highlight the diversity in the pandemic mental health experiences of ethnic minorities in the UK and has implications for policy, practice and further research. To enable moving forward beyond the pandemic, our study surfaced the need for culturally appropriate mental health support, financial support (as a key mental health determinant), accurate media representation, and clear communication messaging from the Governments of the UK.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Adult , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , Mental Health , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
PLoS Med ; 19(8): e1004048, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Equity in vaccination coverage is a cornerstone for a successful public health response to COVID-19. To deepen understanding of the extent to which vaccination coverage compares with initial strategies for equitable vaccination, we explore primary vaccine series and booster rollout over time and by race/ethnicity, social vulnerability, and geography. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed data from the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services on all COVID-19 vaccinations administered across 7 counties in the St. Louis region and 4 counties in the Kansas City region. We compared rates of receiving the primary COVID-19 vaccine series and boosters relative to time, race/ethnicity, zip-code-level Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), vaccine location type, and COVID-19 disease burden. We adapted a well-established tool for measuring inequity-the Lorenz curve-to quantify inequities in COVID-19 vaccination relative to these key metrics. Between 15 December 2020 and 15 February 2022, 1,763,036 individuals completed the primary series and 872,324 received a booster. During early phases of the primary series rollout, Black and Hispanic individuals from high SVI zip codes were vaccinated at less than half the rate of White individuals from low SVI zip codes, but rates increased over time until they were higher than rates in White individuals after June 2021; Asian individuals maintained high levels of vaccination throughout. Increasing vaccination rates in Black and Hispanic communities corresponded with periods when more vaccinations were offered at small community-based sites such as pharmacies rather than larger health systems and mass vaccination sites. Using Lorenz curves, zip codes in the quartile with the lowest rates of primary series completion accounted for 19.3%, 18.1%, 10.8%, and 8.8% of vaccinations while representing 25% of the total population, cases, deaths, or population-level SVI, respectively. When tracking Gini coefficients, these disparities were greatest earlier during rollout, but improvements were slow and modest and vaccine disparities remained across all metrics even after 1 year. Patterns of disparities for boosters were similar but often of much greater magnitude during rollout in fall 2021. Study limitations include inherent limitations in the vaccine registry dataset such as missing and misclassified race/ethnicity and zip code variables and potential changes in zip code population sizes since census enumeration. CONCLUSIONS: Inequities in the initial COVID-19 vaccination and booster rollout in 2 large US metropolitan areas were apparent across racial/ethnic communities, across levels of social vulnerability, over time, and across types of vaccination administration sites. Disparities in receipt of the primary vaccine series attenuated over time during a period in which sites of vaccination administration diversified, but were recapitulated during booster rollout. These findings highlight how public health strategies from the outset must directly target these deeply embedded structural and systemic determinants of disparities and track equity metrics over time to avoid perpetuating inequities in healthcare access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Kansas , Missouri , Social Vulnerability
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2237711, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074863

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persistent racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity (SMM) in the US remain a public health concern. Structural racism leaves women of color in a disadvantaged situation especially during COVID-19, leading to disproportionate pandemic afflictions among racial and ethnic minority women. Objective: To examine racial and ethnic disparities in SMM rates before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and whether the disparities varied with level of Black residential segregation. Design, Setting, and Participants: A statewide population-based retrospective cohort study used birth certificates linked to all-payer childbirth claims data in South Carolina. Participants included women who gave birth between January 2018 and June 2021. Data were analyzed from December 2021 to February 2022. Exposures: Exposures were (1) period when women gave birth, either before the pandemic (January 2018 to February 2020) or during the pandemic (March 2020 to June 2021) and (2) Black-White residential segregation (isolation index), categorizing US Census tracts in a county as low (<40%), medium (40%-59%), and high (≥60%). Main Outcomes and Measures: SMM was identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multilevel logistic regressions with an interrupted approach were used, adjusting for maternal-level and facility-level factors, accounting for residential county-level random effects. Results: Of 166 791 women, 95 098 (57.0%) lived in low-segregated counties (mean [SD] age, 28.1 [5.7] years; 5126 [5.4%] Hispanic; 20 523 [21.6%] non-Hispanic Black; 62 690 [65.9%] White), and 23 521 (14.1%) women (mean [SD] age, 28.1 [5.8] years; 782 [3.3%] Hispanic; 12 880 [54.8%] non-Hispanic Black; 7988 [34.0%] White) lived in high-segregated areas. Prepandemic SMM rates were decreasing, followed by monthly increasing trends after March 2020. On average, living in high-segregated communities was associated with higher odds of SMM (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.06-2.34). Black women regardless of residential segregation had higher odds of SMM than White women (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.11-1.96 for low-segregation; 2.12; 95% CI, 1.38-3.26 for high-segregation). Hispanic women living in low-segregated communities had lower odds of SMM (aOR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25-0.90) but those living in high-segregated communities had nearly twice the odds of SMM (aOR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.07-4.17) as their White counterparts. Conclusions and Relevance: Living in high-segregated Black communities in South Carolina was associated with racial and ethnic SMM disparities. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Black vs White disparities persisted with no signs of widening gaps, whereas Hispanic vs White disparities were exacerbated. Policy reforms on reducing residential segregation or combating the corresponding structural racism are warranted to help improve maternal health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Whites , African Americans , Retrospective Studies , Minority Groups
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