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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2311098, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316762

ABSTRACT

Importance: Prior research has established that Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black residents in the US experienced substantially higher COVID-19 mortality rates in 2020 than non-Hispanic White residents owing to structural racism. In 2021, these disparities decreased. Objective: To assess to what extent national decreases in racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 mortality between the initial pandemic wave and subsequent Omicron wave reflect reductions in mortality vs other factors, such as the pandemic's changing geography. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for COVID-19 deaths from March 1, 2020, through February 28, 2022, among adults aged 25 years and older residing in the US. Deaths were examined by race and ethnicity across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, and the national decrease in racial and ethnic disparities between initial and Omicron waves was decomposed. Data were analyzed from June 2021 through March 2023. Exposures: Metropolitan vs nonmetropolitan areas and race and ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age-standardized death rates. Results: There were death certificates for 977 018 US adults aged 25 years and older (mean [SD] age, 73.6 [14.6] years; 435 943 female [44.6%]; 156 948 Hispanic [16.1%], 140 513 non-Hispanic Black [14.4%], and 629 578 non-Hispanic White [64.4%]) that included a mention of COVID-19. The proportion of COVID-19 deaths among adults residing in nonmetropolitan areas increased from 5944 of 110 526 deaths (5.4%) during the initial wave to a peak of 40 360 of 172 515 deaths (23.4%) during the Delta wave; the proportion was 45 183 of 210 554 deaths (21.5%) during the Omicron wave. The national disparity in age-standardized COVID-19 death rates per 100 000 person-years for non-Hispanic Black compared with non-Hispanic White adults decreased from 339 to 45 deaths from the initial to Omicron wave, or by 293 deaths. After standardizing for age and racial and ethnic differences by metropolitan vs nonmetropolitan residence, increases in death rates among non-Hispanic White adults explained 120 deaths/100 000 person-years of the decrease (40.7%); 58 deaths/100 000 person-years in the decrease (19.6%) were explained by shifts in mortality to nonmetropolitan areas, where a disproportionate share of non-Hispanic White adults reside. The remaining 116 deaths/100 000 person-years in the decrease (39.6%) were explained by decreases in death rates in non-Hispanic Black adults. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that most of the national decrease in racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 mortality between the initial and Omicron waves was explained by increased mortality among non-Hispanic White adults and changes in the geographic spread of the pandemic. These findings suggest that despite media reports of a decline in disparities, there is a continued need to prioritize racial health equity in the pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Black People/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , White/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , Health Equity , Systemic Racism/ethnology
2.
Health Serv Res ; 58(3): 642-653, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minorities among the general population in the United States; however, little is known regarding its impact on U.S. military Veterans. In this study, our objectives were to identify the extent to which Veterans experienced increased all-cause mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic, stratified by race and ethnicity. DATA SOURCES: Administrative data from the Veterans Health Administration's Corporate Data Warehouse. STUDY DESIGN: We use pre-pandemic data to estimate mortality risk models using five-fold cross-validation and quasi-Poisson regression. Models were stratified by a combined race-ethnicity variable and included controls for major comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and county fixed effects. DATA COLLECTION: We queried data for all Veterans residing in the 50 states plus Washington D.C. during 2016-2020. Veterans were excluded from analyses if they were missing county of residence or race-ethnicity data. Data were then aggregated to the county-year level and stratified by race-ethnicity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, Veterans' mortality rates were 16% above normal during March-December 2020 which equates to 42,348 excess deaths. However, there was substantial variation by racial and ethnic group. Non-Hispanic White Veterans experienced the smallest relative increase in mortality (17%, 95% CI 11%-24%), while Native American Veterans had the highest increase (40%, 95% CI 17%-73%). Black Veterans (32%, 95% CI 27%-39%) and Hispanic Veterans (26%, 95% CI 17%-36%) had somewhat lower excess mortality, although these changes were significantly higher compared to White Veterans. Disparities were smaller than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Minoritized Veterans experienced higher rates excess of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to White Veterans, though with smaller differences than the general population. This is likely due in part to the long-standing history of structural racism in the United States that has negatively affected the health of minoritized communities via several pathways including health care access, economic, and occupational inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , White/statistics & numerical data , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , American Indian or Alaska Native/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Racism/ethnology , Systemic Racism/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Employment/economics , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/economics , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(4): e238893, 2023 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313604

ABSTRACT

Importance: Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, and there is a substantial disparity in BC mortality by race, especially for early-onset BC in Black women. Many guidelines recommend starting BC screening from age 50 years; however, the current one-size-fits-all policy to start screening all women from a certain age may not be fair, equitable, or optimal. Objective: To provide race and ethnicity-adapted starting ages of BC screening based on data on current racial and ethnic disparities in BC mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using data on BC mortality in female patients in the US who died of BC in 2011 to 2020. Exposures: Proxy-reported race and ethnicity information was used. The risk-adapted starting age of BC screening by race and ethnicity was measured based on 10-year cumulative risk of BC-specific death. Age-specific 10-year cumulative risk was calculated based on age group-specific mortality data without modeling or adjustment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Disease-specific mortality due to invasive BC in female patients. Results: There were BC-specific deaths among 415 277 female patients (1880 American Indian or Alaska Native [0.5%], 12 086 Asian or Pacific Islander [2.9%], 62 695 Black [15.1%], 28 747 Hispanic [6.9%], and 309 869 White [74.6%]; 115 214 patients died before age 60 years [27.7%]) of any age in the US in 2011 to 2020. BC mortality per 100 000 person-years for ages 40 to 49 years was 27 deaths in Black females, 15 deaths in White females, and 11 deaths in American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic, and Asian or Pacific Islander females. When BC screening was recommended to start at age 50 years for all females with a 10-year cumulative risk of BC death of 0.329%, Black females reached this risk threshold level 8 years earlier, at age 42 years, whereas White females reached it at age 51 years, American Indian or Alaska Native and Hispanic females at age 57 years, and Asian or Pacific Islander females 11 years later, at age 61 years. Race and ethnicity-adapted starting ages for Black females were 6 years earlier for mass screening at age 40 years and 7 years earlier for mass screening at age 45 years. Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides evidence-based race-adapted starting ages for BC screening. These findings suggest that health policy makers may consider a risk-adapted approach to BC screening in which individuals who are at high risk are screened earlier to address mortality due to early-onset BC before the recommended age of mass screening.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/ethnology , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Early Detection of Cancer/mortality , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Health Status Disparities , United States/epidemiology , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , White/statistics & numerical data , American Indian or Alaska Native/statistics & numerical data , Asian American Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander/statistics & numerical data , Race Factors , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
5.
Clin Chest Med ; 44(2): 425-434, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257139

ABSTRACT

In the United States, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionally affected Black, Latinx, and Indigenous populations, immigrants, and economically disadvantaged individuals. Such historically marginalized groups are more often employed in low-wage jobs without health insurance and have higher rates of infection, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19 than non-Latinx White individuals. Mistrust in the health care system, language barriers, and limited health literacy have hindered vaccination rates in minorities, further exacerbating health disparities rooted in structural, institutional, and socioeconomic inequities. In this article, we discuss the lessons learned over the last 2 years and how to mitigate health disparities moving forward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Inequities , Health Services Accessibility , Social Determinants of Health , Social Discrimination , Vulnerable Populations , Humans , Black or African American , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Hispanic or Latino/psychology , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Indigenous Peoples/psychology , Indigenous Peoples/statistics & numerical data , Poverty/ethnology , Poverty/psychology , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/economics , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Discrimination/economics , Social Discrimination/ethnology , Social Discrimination/psychology , Social Discrimination/statistics & numerical data , Social Marginalization/psychology , Trust/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , White/psychology , White/statistics & numerical data
6.
Am J Prev Med ; 64(4): 492-502, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287982

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity before COVID-19 infection is associated with less severe outcomes. The study determined whether a dose‒response association was observed and whether the associations were consistent across demographic subgroups and chronic conditions. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of Kaiser Permanente Southern California adult patients who had a positive COVID-19 diagnosis between January 1, 2020 and May 31, 2021 was created. The exposure was the median of at least 3 physical activity self-reports before diagnosis. Patients were categorized as follows: always inactive, all assessments at 10 minutes/week or less; mostly inactive, median of 0-60 minutes per week; some activity, median of 60-150 minutes per week; consistently active, median>150 minutes per week; and always active, all assessments>150 minutes per week. Outcomes were hospitalization, deterioration event, or death 90 days after a COVID-19 diagnosis. Data were analyzed in 2022. RESULTS: Of 194,191 adults with COVID-19 infection, 6.3% were hospitalized, 3.1% experienced a deterioration event, and 2.8% died within 90 days. Dose‒response effects were strong; for example, patients in the some activity category had higher odds of hospitalization (OR=1.43; 95% CI=1.26, 1.63), deterioration (OR=1.83; 95% CI=1.49, 2.25), and death (OR=1.92; 95% CI=1.48, 2.49) than those in the always active category. Results were generally consistent across sex, race and ethnicity, age, and BMI categories and for patients with cardiovascular disease or hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: There were protective associations of physical activity for adverse COVID-19 outcomes across demographic and clinical characteristics. Public health leaders should add physical activity to pandemic control strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Exercise/physiology , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , California , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , Sedentary Behavior , Time Factors , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology
8.
JAMA ; 328(14): 1395-1396, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231584

ABSTRACT

This Viewpoint discusses the importance of accurately categorizing and collecting race and ethnicity data, matching self-identity with race and ethnicity labels, in an effort to quantify the extent of health disparities.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Ethnicity , Racial Groups , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Data Aggregation , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data
9.
JAMA ; 328(9): 861-871, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2058978

ABSTRACT

Importance: Novel therapies for type 2 diabetes can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease progression. The equitability of these agents' prescription across racial and ethnic groups has not been well-evaluated. Objective: To investigate differences in the prescription of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) among adult patients with type 2 diabetes by racial and ethnic groups. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the US Veterans Health Administration's Corporate Data Warehouse. The sample included adult patients with type 2 diabetes and at least 2 primary care clinic visits from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2020. Exposures: Self-identified race and self-identified ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were prevalent SGLT2i or GLP-1 RA prescription, defined as any active prescription during the study period. Results: Among 1 197 914 patients (mean age, 68 years; 96% men; 1% American Indian or Alaska Native, 2% Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander, 20% Black or African American, 71% White, and 7% of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity), 10.7% and 7.7% were prescribed an SGLT2i or a GLP-1 RA, respectively. Prescription rates for SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA, respectively, were 11% and 8.4% among American Indian or Alaska Native patients; 11.8% and 8% among Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander patients; 8.8% and 6.1% among Black or African American patients; and 11.3% and 8.2% among White patients, respectively. Prescription rates for SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA, respectively, were 11% and 7.1% among Hispanic or Latino patients and 10.7% and 7.8% among non-Hispanic or Latino patients. After accounting for patient- and system-level factors, all racial groups had significantly lower odds of SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA prescription compared with White patients. Black patients had the lowest odds of prescription compared with White patients (adjusted odds ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.71-0.74] for SGLT2i and 0.64 [95% CI, 0.63-0.66] for GLP-1 RA). Patients of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity had significantly lower odds of prescription (0.90 [95% CI, 0.88-0.93] for SGLT2i and 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85-0.91] for GLP-1 RA) compared with non-Hispanic or Latino patients. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with type 2 diabetes in the Veterans Health Administration system during 2019 and 2020, prescription rates of SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA medications were low, and individuals of several different racial groups and those of Hispanic ethnicity had statistically significantly lower odds of receiving prescriptions for these medications compared with individuals of White race and non-Hispanic ethnicity. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these differences in rates of prescribing and the potential relationship with differences in clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Healthcare Disparities , Prescriptions , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Veterans Health , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Professional Practice/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology , Veterans Health/ethnology , Veterans Health/statistics & numerical data
10.
J Behav Med ; 45(5): 760-770, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048387

ABSTRACT

Medical avoidance is common among U.S. adults, and may be emphasized among members of marginalized communities due to discrimination concerns. In the current study, we investigated whether this disparity in avoidance was maintained or exacerbated during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed the likelihood of avoiding medical care due to general-, discrimination-, and COVID-19-related concerns in an online sample (N = 471). As hypothesized, marginalized groups (i.e., non-White race, Latinx/e ethnicity, non-heterosexual sexual orientation, high BMI) endorsed more general- and discrimination-related medical avoidance than majoritized groups. However, marginalized groups were equally likely to seek COVID-19 treatment as majoritized groups. Implications for reducing medical avoidance among marginalized groups are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Social Marginalization , Vulnerable Populations , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 519-522, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384037

ABSTRACT

CDC's National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) collects and reports annual mortality statistics using data from U.S. death certificates. Because of the time needed to investigate certain causes of death and to process and review data, final annual mortality data for a given year are typically released 11 months after the end of the calendar year. Daily totals reported by CDC COVID-19 case surveillance are timely but can underestimate numbers of deaths because of incomplete or delayed reporting. As a result of improvements in timeliness and the pressing need for updated, quality data during the global COVID-19 pandemic, NVSS expanded provisional data releases to produce near real-time U.S. mortality data.* This report presents an overview of provisional U.S. mortality data for 2020, including the first ranking of leading causes of death. In 2020, approximately 3,358,814 deaths† occurred in the United States. From 2019 to 2020, the estimated age-adjusted death rate increased by 15.9%, from 715.2 to 828.7 deaths per 100,000 population. COVID-19 was reported as the underlying cause of death or a contributing cause of death for an estimated 377,883 (11.3%) of those deaths (91.5 deaths per 100,000). The highest age-adjusted death rates by age, race/ethnicity, and sex occurred among adults aged ≥85 years, non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons, and males. COVID-19 death rates were highest among adults aged ≥85 years, AI/AN and Hispanic persons, and males. COVID-19 was the third leading cause of death in 2020, after heart disease and cancer. Provisional death estimates provide an early indication of shifts in mortality trends and can guide public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing numbers of deaths that are directly or indirectly associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Mortality/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/ethnology , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Vital Statistics , Young Adult
13.
JAMA ; 328(4): 360-366, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971153

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a large decrease in US life expectancy in 2020, but whether a similar decrease occurred in 2021 and whether the relationship between income and life expectancy intensified during the pandemic are unclear. Objective: To measure changes in life expectancy in 2020 and 2021 and the relationship between income and life expectancy by race and ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective ecological analysis of deaths in California in 2015 to 2021 to calculate state- and census tract-level life expectancy. Tracts were grouped by median household income (MHI), obtained from the American Community Survey, and the slope of the life expectancy-income gradient was compared by year and by racial and ethnic composition. Exposures: California in 2015 to 2019 (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and 2020 to 2021 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). Main Outcomes and Measures: Life expectancy at birth. Results: California experienced 1 988 606 deaths during 2015 to 2021, including 654 887 in 2020 to 2021. State life expectancy declined from 81.40 years in 2019 to 79.20 years in 2020 and 78.37 years in 2021. MHI data were available for 7962 of 8057 census tracts (98.8%; n = 1 899 065 deaths). Mean MHI ranged from $21 279 to $232 261 between the lowest and highest percentiles. The slope of the relationship between life expectancy and MHI increased significantly, from 0.075 (95% CI, 0.07-0.08) years per percentile in 2019 to 0.103 (95% CI, 0.098-0.108; P < .001) years per percentile in 2020 and 0.107 (95% CI, 0.102-0.112; P < .001) years per percentile in 2021. The gap in life expectancy between the richest and poorest percentiles increased from 11.52 years in 2019 to 14.67 years in 2020 and 15.51 years in 2021. Among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian, Black, and White populations, life expectancy declined 5.74 years among the Hispanic population, 3.04 years among the non-Hispanic Asian population, 3.84 years among the non-Hispanic Black population, and 1.90 years among the non-Hispanic White population between 2019 and 2021. The income-life expectancy gradient in these groups increased significantly between 2019 and 2020 (0.038 [95% CI, 0.030-0.045; P < .001] years per percentile among Hispanic individuals; 0.024 [95% CI: 0.005-0.044; P = .02] years per percentile among Asian individuals; 0.015 [95% CI, 0.010-0.020; P < .001] years per percentile among Black individuals; and 0.011 [95% CI, 0.007-0.015; P < .001] years per percentile among White individuals) and between 2019 and 2021 (0.033 [95% CI, 0.026-0.040; P < .001] years per percentile among Hispanic individuals; 0.024 [95% CI, 0.010-0.038; P = .002] years among Asian individuals; 0.024 [95% CI, 0.011-0.037; P = .003] years per percentile among Black individuals; and 0.013 [95% CI, 0.008-0.018; P < .001] years per percentile among White individuals). The increase in the gradient was significantly greater among Hispanic vs White populations in 2020 and 2021 (P < .001 in both years) and among Black vs White populations in 2021 (P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: This retrospective analysis of census tract-level income and mortality data in California from 2015 to 2021 demonstrated a decrease in life expectancy in both 2020 and 2021 and an increase in the life expectancy gap by income level relative to the prepandemic period that disproportionately affected some racial and ethnic minority populations. Inferences at the individual level are limited by the ecological nature of the study, and the generalizability of the findings outside of California are unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Economic Status , Ethnicity , Life Expectancy , Pandemics , Racial Groups , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , California/epidemiology , Economic Status/statistics & numerical data , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Life Expectancy/ethnology , Life Expectancy/trends , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
14.
JAMA ; 327(15): 1488-1495, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919133

ABSTRACT

Importance: The racial and ethnic diversity of the US, including among patients receiving their care at the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), is increasing. Dementia is a significant public health challenge and may have greater incidence among older adults from underrepresented racial and ethnic minority groups. Objective: To determine dementia incidence across 5 racial and ethnic groups and by US geographical region within a large, diverse, national cohort of older veterans who received care in the largest integrated health care system in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study within the VHA of a random sample (5% sample selected for each fiscal year) of 1 869 090 participants aged 55 years or older evaluated from October 1, 1999, to September 30, 2019 (the date of final follow-up). Exposures: Self-reported racial and ethnic data were obtained from the National Patient Care Database. US region was determined using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regions from residential zip codes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident diagnosis of dementia (9th and 10th editions of the International Classification of Diseases). Fine-Gray proportional hazards models were used to examine time to diagnosis, with age as the time scale and accounting for competing risk of death. Results: Among the 1 869 090 study participants (mean age, 69.4 [SD, 7.9] years; 42 870 women [2%]; 6865 American Indian or Alaska Native [0.4%], 9391 Asian [0.5%], 176 795 Black [9.5%], 20 663 Hispanic [1.0%], and 1 655 376 White [88.6%]), 13% received a diagnosis of dementia over a mean follow-up of 10.1 years. Age-adjusted incidence of dementia per 1000 person-years was 14.2 (95% CI, 13.3-15.1) for American Indian or Alaska Native participants, 12.4 (95% CI, 11.7-13.1) for Asian participants, 19.4 (95% CI, 19.2-19.6) for Black participants, 20.7 (95% CI, 20.1-21.3) for Hispanic participants, and 11.5 (95% CI, 11.4-11.6) for White participants. Compared with White participants, the fully adjusted hazard ratios were 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98-1.13) for American Indian or Alaska Native participants, 1.20 (95% CI, 1.13-1.28) for Asian participants, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.51-1.57) for Black participants, and 1.92 (95% CI, 1.82-2.02) for Hispanic participants. Across most US regions, age-adjusted dementia incidence rates were highest for Black and Hispanic participants, with rates similar among American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and White participants. Conclusions and Relevance: Among older adults who received care at VHA medical centers, there were significant differences in dementia incidence based on race and ethnicity. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Veterans , Aged , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Veterans Health Services/statistics & numerical data
15.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854995

ABSTRACT

Health inequalities based on race are well-documented, and the COVID-19 pandemic is no exception. Despite the advances in modern medicine, access to health care remains a primary determinant of health outcomes, especially for communities of color. African-Americans and other minorities are disproportionately at risk for infection with COVID-19, but this problem extends beyond access alone. This study sought to identify trends in race-based disparities in COVID-19 in the setting of universal access to care. Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) is a Department of Defense Military Treatment Facility (DoD-MTF) that provides full access to healthcare to active duty military members, beneficiaries, and veterans. We evaluated the characteristics of individuals diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection at TAMC in a retrospective, case-controlled (1:1) study. Most patients (69%) had received a COVID-19 test within 3 days of symptom onset. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with testing positive and to estimate adjusted odds ratios. African-American patients and patients who identified as "Other" ethnicities were two times more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 relative to Caucasian patients. Other factors associated with testing positive include: younger age, male gender, previous positive test, presenting with >3 symptoms, close contact with a COVID-19 positive patient, and being a member of the US Navy. African-Americans and patients who identify as "Other" ethnicities had disproportionately higher rates of positivity of COVID-19. Although other factors contribute to increased test positivity across all patient populations, access to care does not appear to itself explain this discrepancy with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hawaii/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
16.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 29-33, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841235

ABSTRACT

Minority populations have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and disparities have been noted in vaccine uptake. In the state of Arkansas, health equity strike teams (HESTs) were deployed to address vaccine disparities. A total of 13 470 vaccinations were administered by HESTs to 10 047 eligible people at 45 events. Among these individuals, 5645 (56.2%) were African American, 2547 (25.3%) were White, and 1068 (10.6%) were Hispanic. Vaccination efforts must specifically target populations that have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):29-33. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306564).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Health Equity/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Arkansas , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Social Determinants of Health
17.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 91, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) provides numerous health benefits relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, concerns exist that PA levels may have decreased during the pandemic thus exacerbating health disparities. This study aims to determine changes in and locations for PA and reasons for decreased PA during the pandemic. METHODS: Reported percentage of changes in and locations for PA and reasons for decreased PA were examined in 3829 US adults who completed the 2020 SummerStyles survey. RESULTS: Overall, 30% reported less PA, and 50% reported no change or no activity during the pandemic; percentages varied across subgroups. Adults who were non-Hispanic Black (Black) or Hispanic (vs. non-Hispanic White, (White)) reported less PA. Fewer Black adults (vs. White) reported doing most PA in their neighborhood. Concern about exposure to the virus (39%) was the most common reason adults were less active. CONCLUSIONS: In June 2020, nearly one-third of US adults reported decreased PA; 20% reported increased PA. Decreased activity was higher among Black and Hispanic compared to White adults; these two groups have experienced disproportionate COVID-19 impacts. Continued efforts are needed to ensure everyone has access to supports that allow them to participate in PA while still following guidance to prevent COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003932, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine uptake is lower amongst most minority ethnic groups compared to the White British group in England, despite higher COVID-19 mortality rates. Here, we add to existing evidence by estimating inequalities for 16 minority ethnic groups, examining ethnic inequalities within population subgroups, and comparing the magnitudes of ethnic inequalities in COVID-19 vaccine uptake to those for routine seasonal influenza vaccine uptake. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Greater Manchester Care Record, which contains de-identified electronic health record data for the population of Greater Manchester, England. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate ethnic inequalities in time to COVID-19 vaccination amongst people eligible for vaccination on health or age (50+ years) criteria between 1 December 2020 and 18 April 2021 (138 days of follow-up). We included vaccination with any approved COVID-19 vaccine, and analysed first-dose vaccination only. We compared inequalities between COVID-19 and influenza vaccine uptake adjusting by age group and clinical risk, and used subgroup analysis to identify populations where inequalities were widest. The majority of individuals (871,231; 79.24%) were White British. The largest minority ethnic groups were Pakistani (50,268; 4.75%), 'other White background' (43,195; 3.93%), 'other ethnic group' (34,568; 3.14%), and Black African (18,802; 1.71%). In total, 83.64% (919,636/1,099,503) of eligible individuals received a COVID-19 vaccine. Uptake was lower compared to the White British group for 15 of 16 minority ethnic groups, with particularly wide inequalities amongst the groups 'other Black background' (hazard ratio [HR] 0.42, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.44), Black African (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.44), Arab (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.48), and Black Caribbean (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.45). In total, 55.71% (419,314/752,715) of eligible individuals took up influenza vaccination. Compared to the White British group, inequalities in influenza vaccine uptake were widest amongst the groups 'White and Black Caribbean' (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.68) and 'White and Black African' (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.72). In contrast, uptake was slightly higher than the White British group amongst the groups 'other ethnic group' (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.12) and Bangladeshi (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.11). Overall, ethnic inequalities in vaccine uptake were wider for COVID-19 than influenza vaccination for 15 of 16 minority ethnic groups. COVID-19 vaccine uptake inequalities also existed amongst individuals who previously took up influenza vaccination. Ethnic inequalities in COVID-19 vaccine uptake were concentrated amongst older and extremely clinically vulnerable adults, and the most income-deprived. A limitation of this study is the focus on uptake of the first dose of COVID-19 vaccination, rather than full COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic inequalities in COVID-19 vaccine uptake exceeded those for influenza vaccine uptake, existed amongst those recently vaccinated against influenza, and were widest amongst those with greatest COVID-19 risk. This suggests the COVID-19 vaccination programme has created additional and different inequalities beyond pre-existing health inequalities. We suggest that further research and policy action is needed to understand and remove barriers to vaccine uptake, and to build trust and confidence amongst minority ethnic communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e221744, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739100

ABSTRACT

Importance: Crisis standards of care (CSOC) scores designed to allocate scarce resources during the COVID-19 pandemic could exacerbate racial disparities in health care. Objective: To analyze the association of a CSOC scoring system with resource prioritization and estimated excess mortality by race, ethnicity, and residence in a socially vulnerable area. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort analysis included adult patients in the intensive care unit during a regional COVID-19 surge from April 13 to May 22, 2020, at 6 hospitals in a health care network in greater Boston, Massachusetts. Participants were scored by acute severity of illness using the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and chronic severity of illness using comorbidity and life expectancy scores, and only participants with complete scores were included. The score was ordinal, with cutoff points suggested by the Massachusetts guidelines. Exposures: Race, ethnicity, Social Vulnerability Index. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was proportion of patients in the lowest priority score category stratified by self-reported race. Secondary outcomes were discrimination and calibration of the score overall and by race, ethnicity, and neighborhood Social Vulnerability Index. Projected excess deaths were modeled by race, using the priority scoring system and a random lottery. Results: Of 608 patients in the intensive care unit during the study period, 498 had complete data and were included in the analysis; this population had a median (IQR) age of 67 (56-75) years, 191 (38.4%) female participants, 79 (15.9%) Black participants, and 225 patients (45.7%) with COVID-19. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the priority score was 0.79 and was similar across racial groups. Black patients were more likely than others to be in the lowest priority group (12 [15.2%] vs 34 [8.1%]; P = .046). In an exploratory simulation model using the score for ventilator allocation, with only those in the highest priority group receiving ventilators, there were 43.9% excess deaths among Black patients (18 of 41 patients) and 28.6% (58 of 203 patients among all others (P = .05); when the highest and intermediate priority groups received ventilators, there were 4.9% (2 of 41 patients) excess deaths among Black patients and 3.0% (6 of 203) among all others (P = .53). A random lottery resulted in more excess deaths than the score. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a CSOC priority score resulted in lower prioritization of Black patients to receive scarce resources. A model using a random lottery resulted in more estimated excess deaths overall without improving equity by race. CSOC policies must be evaluated for their potential association with racial disparities in health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Rationing/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Standard of Care , Aged , Boston , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Female , Health Priorities , Healthcare Disparities , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
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