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1.
Euro Surveill ; 26(45)2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630353

ABSTRACT

We report a rapid increase in enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections, with 139 cases reported from eight European countries between 31 July and 14 October 2021. This upsurge is in line with the seasonality of EV-D68 and was presumably stimulated by the widespread reopening after COVID-19 lockdown. Most cases were identified in September, but more are to be expected in the coming months. Reinforcement of clinical awareness, diagnostic capacities and surveillance of EV-D68 is urgently needed in Europe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus D, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Myelitis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Myelitis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261776, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631646

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 has resulted in a transition from physical education to online learning, leading to a collapse of the established educational order and a wisdom test for the education governance system. As a country seriously affected by the pandemic, the health of the Indian higher education system urgently requires assessment to achieve sustainable development and maximize educational externalities. This research systematically proposes a health assessment model from four perspectives, including educational volume, efficiency, equality, and sustainability, by employing the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution Model, Principal Component Analysis, DEA-Tobit Model, and Augmented Solow Model. Empirical results demonstrate that India has high efficiency and an absolute health score in the higher education system through multiple comparisons between India and the other selected countries while having certain deficiencies in equality and sustainability. Additionally, single-target and multiple-target path are simultaneously proposed to enhance the Indian current education system. The multiple-target approach of the India-China-Japan-Europe-USA process is more feasible to achieve sustainable development, which would improve the overall health score from .351 to .716. This finding also reveals that the changes are relatively complex and would take 91.5 years considering the relationship between economic growth rates and crucial indicators. Four targeted policies are suggested for each catching-up period, including expanding and increasing the social funding sources, striving for government expenditure support to improve infrastructures, imposing gender equality in education, and accelerating the construction of high-quality teachers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/methods , Educational Status , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sustainable Development , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Principal Component Analysis/methods , United States/epidemiology
4.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S2): e2021329, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625048

ABSTRACT

The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has restored the attention of policy-makers on the essentiality of Primary Care and the need of the Family and Community Nurses (FCNs), in order to ensure the proactive interception of individuals, families and community needs. In Italy, the Decree-Law no.34 of 19 May 2020 was issued, officially introducing the FCN. Therafter, it has been elaborated the "Address lines of the FCN proposal", starting from the "Position Statement on Family and Community Nurses" of the Italian National Federation of Nursing Professions Orders. In Europe, the ENhANCE (EuropeaN-curriculum-for-fAmily-aNd-Community-nursE) project has defined a standardized professional profile of the FCNs, based on specific Core Competencies. The aim of this work was to investigate and integrate the differences between the two profiles. In order to carry out this comparison, these competencies were compared and integrated with those identified by the Tuning model (TM), which identifies the knowledge, the skills and the attitudes that all newly graduated nurses must have acquired at the end of their education programme. Nine of the eleven italian competencies are included among the twenty-eight competencies of ENhANCE. The same applies to two of three competencies identified in the TM. As a result, this benchmark has resulted in a list of 30 competencies. This benchmark integrates the european profile with the national one, also oriented to their effective applicability in educational setting thanks to the TM. Through this comparison it is possible to develop professional educational projects, in order to standardize the grounding process on the national context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Competence , Curriculum , Europe , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Euro Surveill ; 27(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613510

ABSTRACT

We estimate the potential remaining COVID-19 hospitalisation and death burdens in 19 European countries by estimating the proportion of each country's population that has acquired immunity to severe disease through infection or vaccination. Our results suggest many European countries could still face high burdens of hospitalisations and deaths, particularly those with lower vaccination coverage, less historical transmission and/or older populations. Continued non-pharmaceutical interventions and efforts to achieve high vaccination coverage are required in these countries to limit severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Europe/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 11, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent multicenter studies identified COVID-19 as a risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). However, no large multicenter study has compared the incidence of IPA between COVID-19 and influenza patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of putative IPA in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients, compared with influenza patients. METHODS: This study was a planned ancillary analysis of the coVAPid multicenter retrospective European cohort. Consecutive adult patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for > 48 h for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia or influenza pneumonia were included. The 28-day cumulative incidence of putative IPA, based on Blot definition, was the primary outcome. IPA incidence was estimated using the Kalbfleisch and Prentice method, considering extubation (dead or alive) within 28 days as competing event. RESULTS: A total of 1047 patients were included (566 in the SARS-CoV-2 group and 481 in the influenza group). The incidence of putative IPA was lower in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia group (14, 2.5%) than in influenza pneumonia group (29, 6%), adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio (cHR) 3.29 (95% CI 1.53-7.02, p = 0.0006). When putative IPA and Aspergillus respiratory tract colonization were combined, the incidence was also significantly lower in the SARS-CoV-2 group, as compared to influenza group (4.1% vs. 10.2%), adjusted cHR 3.21 (95% CI 1.88-5.46, p < 0.0001). In the whole study population, putative IPA was associated with significant increase in 28-day mortality rate, and length of ICU stay, compared with colonized patients, or those with no IPA or Aspergillus colonization. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the incidence of putative IPA was low. Its incidence was significantly lower in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia than in those with influenza pneumonia. Clinical trial registration The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04359693 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Intubation , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 72(4): 403-408, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594032

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic poses a significant threat in area of public health. In the light of dynamic increase of infections European countries decided to implement special safety measures in order to stop spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Reduction of the activity of shopping galleries, grocery stores and gastronomy directly impacted the change of consumer behaviours. Objective: The aim of this research was the analysis of consumer behaviour during COVID-19 pandemic regarding the use of gastronomical services, grocery shopping and undertaken safety measures. Material and methods: The main instrument was original survey conducted on-line in November 2020. The form consisted of metrics and close-ended questions about consumer behaviour during COVID-19 pandemic. 1080 respondents took part in the study (females - 850; men - 230). Results were mapped out in Statistics 13.1 program and graphical representation was prepared in Microsoft Excel. Results: More than half of respondents were working people (n=629; 58%). Vast majority of working respondents during the study were working stationary (n=304; 48%), while remotely only 33% (n=208). Among young respondents almost half of the group was unemployed (n=158; 45%), while the rest of the group was employed (n=195; 55%). Professional activities in the group of respondents that were still learning was mostly stationary/ physic (n=57; 29%). During the pandemic the stationary form of working switched into remote in every third of respondent (n=307; 28%). Conclusions: Global pandemic of COVID-19 forced people to change their current behaviours - both consumer and social. Consumers are aware of risks borne by SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may be concluded from undertaken safety measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consumer Behavior , Europe , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(1): e21-e31, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586210

ABSTRACT

High-quality randomised clinical trials testing moderately fractionated breast radiotherapy have clearly shown that local control and survival is at least as effective as with 2 Gy daily fractions with similar or reduced normal tissue toxicity. Fewer treatment visits are welcomed by patients and their families, and reduced fractions produce substantial savings for health-care systems. Implementation of hypofractionation, however, has moved at a slow pace. The oncology community have now reached an inflection point created by new evidence from the FAST-Forward five-fraction randomised trial and catalysed by the need for the global radiation oncology community to unite during the COVID-19 pandemic and rapidly rethink hypofractionation implementation. The aim of this paper is to support equity of access for all patients to receive evidence-based breast external beam radiotherapy and to facilitate the translation of new evidence into routine daily practice. The results from this European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology Advisory Committee in Radiation Oncology Practice consensus state that moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy can be offered to any patient for whole breast, chest wall (with or without reconstruction), and nodal volumes. Ultrafractionation (five fractions) can also be offered for non-nodal breast or chest wall (without reconstruction) radiotherapy either as standard of care or within a randomised trial or prospective cohort. The consensus is timely; not only is it a pragmatic framework for radiation oncologists, but it provides a measured proposal for the path forward to influence policy makers and empower patients to ensure equity of access to evidence-based radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees/standards , Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Patient Selection , Radiation Oncology/standards , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Consensus , Europe , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24390, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585778

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the role of large outbreaks on the persistence of Covid-19 over time. Using data from 650 European regions in 14 countries, I first show that winter school holidays in late February/early March 2020 (weeks 8, 9 and 10) led to large regional outbreaks of Covid-19 in the spring with the spread being 60% and up-to over 90% higher compared to regions with earlier school holidays. While the impact of these initial large outbreaks fades away over the summer months, it systematically reappears from the fall as regions with school holidays in weeks 8, 9 and 10 had 30-70% higher spread. This suggests that following a large outbreak, there is a strong element of underlying (latent) regional persistence of Covid-19. The strong degree of persistence highlights the long-term benefits of effective (initial) containment policies, as once a large outbreak has occurred, Covid-19 persists. This result emphasizes the need for vaccinations against Covid-19 in regions that have recently experienced large outbreaks but are well below herd-immunity, to avoid a new surge of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Europe/epidemiology , Holidays , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools , Urbanization
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581127

ABSTRACT

Despite the "migrants and COVID-19" topic has been neglected since felt marginal concerning other aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it represents a relevant public health issue in the European countries. This report describes COVID-19 containment strategies adopted in a large Italian reception center hosting recently arrived asylum-seeker migrants. Risk assessment and prevention measures adopted were described. Geo-spatial epidemiological analysis of the outbreak was reported. Significant gaps in the knowledge of self-protection measures from contagious diseases and in the perception of the pandemic risk were observed in migrants; health promotion activities, targeted to remove cultural barriers and improve behaviors appropriate to individual protection, were able to fulfill this gap. In low-resource settings, especially in closed communities, the implementation of social distancing strategies, the systematic use of individual protection devices, and active syndromic surveillance are essential tools to limit the risk of outbreaks. In the event of an outbreak, it is relevant to rapidly activate containment procedures based on systematic screening, isolation, and quarantine, taking into consideration the limits of tracing contacts within a closed community. Not being able to trace certain contacts, the geo-spatial epidemiological analysis of cases distribution could be key in the management of the outbreak. Interestingly, positive cases identified in our facility were all clinically pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic. Dedicated strategies are needed to minimize the chance of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a limited space such as reception centers and a vulnerable population such as migrants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Developing Countries , Europe , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580772

ABSTRACT

Unrealistic optimism, the underestimation of one's risk of experiencing harm, has been investigated extensively to understand better and predict behavioural responses to health threats. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, a relative dearth of research existed in this domain regarding epidemics, which is surprising considering that this optimistic bias has been associated with a lack of engagement in protective behaviours critical in fighting twenty-first-century, emergent, infectious diseases. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by investigating whether people demonstrated optimism bias during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe, how this changed over time, and whether unrealistic optimism was negatively associated with protective measures. Taking advantage of a pre-existing international participative influenza surveillance network (n = 12,378), absolute and comparative unrealistic optimism were measured at three epidemic stages (pre-, early, peak), and across four countries-France, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Despite differences in culture and health response, similar patterns were observed across all four countries. The prevalence of unrealistic optimism appears to be influenced by the particular epidemic context. Paradoxically, whereas absolute unrealistic optimism decreased over time, comparative unrealistic optimism increased, suggesting that whilst people became increasingly accurate in assessing their personal risk, they nonetheless overestimated that for others. Comparative unrealistic optimism was negatively associated with the adoption of protective behaviours, which is worrying, given that these preventive measures are critical in tackling the spread and health burden of COVID-19. It is hoped these findings will inspire further research into sociocognitive mechanisms involved in risk appraisal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Optimism , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 lockdown has had a significant impact on mental health. Patients with eating disorders (ED) have been particularly vulnerable. AIMS: (1) To explore changes in eating-related symptoms and general psychopathology during lockdown in patients with an ED from various European and Asian countries; and (2) to assess differences related to diagnostic ED subtypes, age, and geography. METHODS: The sample comprised 829 participants, diagnosed with an ED according to DSM-5 criteria from specialized ED units in Europe and Asia. Participants were assessed using the COVID-19 Isolation Scale (CIES). RESULTS: Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) experienced the highest impact on weight and ED symptoms in comparison with other ED subtypes during lockdown, whereas individuals with other specified feeding and eating disorders (OFSED) had greater deterioration in general psychological functioning than subjects with other ED subtypes. Finally, Asian and younger individuals appeared to be more resilient. CONCLUSIONS: The psychopathological changes in ED patients during the COVID-19 lockdown varied by cultural context and individual variation in age and ED diagnosis. Clinical services may need to target preventive measures and adapt therapeutic approaches for the most vulnerable patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Asia , Child , Europe , Female , Humans , Internationality , Longitudinal Studies , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248072, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573852

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 and resulting local and national lockdowns have a host of potential consequences for demographic trends. While impacts on mortality and, to some extent, short-term migration flows are beginning to be documented, it is too early to measure actual consequences for family demography. To gain insight into potential future consequences of the lockdown for family demography, we use cross-national Google Trends search data to explore whether trends in searches for words related to fertility, relationship formation, and relationship dissolution changed following lockdowns compared to average, pre-lockdown levels in Europe and the United States. Because lockdowns were not widely anticipated or simultaneous in timing or intensity, we exploit variability over time and between countries (and U.S. states). We use a panel event-study design and difference-in-differences methods, and account for seasonal trends and average country-level (or state-level) differences in searches. We find statistically significant impacts of lockdown timing on changes in searches for terms such as wedding and those related to condom use, emergency contraception, pregnancy tests, and abortion, but little evidence of changes in searches related to fertility. Impacts for union formation and dissolution tended to only be statistically significant at the start of a lockdown with a return to average-levels about 2 to 3 months after lockdown initiation, particularly in Europe. Compared to Europe, returns to average search levels were less evident for the U.S., even 2 to 3 months after lockdowns were introduced. This may be due to the fact, in the U.S., health and social policy responses were less demarcated than in Europe, such that economic uncertainty was likely of larger magnitude. Such pandemic-related economic uncertainty may therefore have the potential to slightly increase already existing polarization in family formation behaviours in the U.S. Alongside contributing to the wider literature on economic uncertainty and family behaviors, this paper also proposes strategies for efficient use of Google Trends data, such as making relative comparisons and testing sensitivity to outliers, and provides a template and cautions for their use in demographic research when actual demographic trends data are not yet available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Europe , Family Characteristics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Policy , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States
17.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573960

ABSTRACT

In this editorial, we describe the experience of the JCI editors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our goal is to share how we operated during the pandemic, recount how the JCI contributed to the response, highlight some of the major papers we published on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, and impart our insights in the hope that these are helpful to journal editors that may need to deal with similar types of crises in the future.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Publications , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Pandemics , Public Health , Quarantine , Social Isolation , United States/epidemiology
18.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E625-E627, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573927

ABSTRACT

Background: Cases of COVID-19 infection have increased sharply in Europe since August 2020, and the WHO recommend the use of respirators in situations where keeping distance is not possible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the use of respirators on infection cases and viral deaths in European countries. Methods: COVID-19 cases and related deaths in 29 countries relative to population were searched through the WHO database on 15.10.2020. Recent 14-day cases in relation to the population were retrieved from the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control's website, covering the period from 1 to 14 October 2020. Information related to the use of respirators was retrieved from the IHME database of the University of Washington at time point, 1.6.2020. Results: The proportion of people using of respirators at 1.6.2020 correlate negatively to the reported cases of disease (Rs = -0.528) and to deaths (Rs = -0.553). No significant correlation was found for recent cases or mortality. Countries with at least 60% respirator use did not differ from other countries. Conclusion: Long-term use of respirators appears to reduce disease incidence and death in the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572468

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) is an effective secondary preventive model of care. However, the use of CR is insufficient, and the reasons for this are not well-characterized in East-Central Europe. This prospective observational study psychometrically validated the recently translated Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale for the Czech language (CRBS-CZE) and identified the main CR barriers. Consecutive cardiac in/out-patients were approached from January 2020 for 18 months, of whom 186 (89.9%) consented. In addition to sociodemographic characteristics, participants completed the 21-item CRBS-CZE (response options 1-5, with higher scores representing greater barriers), and their CR utilization was tracked. Forty-five (24.2%) participants enrolled in CR, of whom 42 completed the CRBS a second time thereafter. Factor analysis revealed four factors, consistent with other CRBS translations. Internal reliability was acceptable for all but one factor (Cronbach's alpha range = 0.44-0.77). Mean total barrier scores were significantly higher in non-enrollers (p < 0.001), decreased from first and second administration in these enrollers (p < 0.001), and were lower in CR completers (p < 0.001), supporting criterion validity. There were also significant differences in barrier scores by education, geography, tobacco use, among other variables, further supporting validity. The biggest barriers to enrolment were distance, work responsibilities, lack of time, transportation problems, and comorbidities; and the greatest barriers to adherence were distance and travel. Several items were considered irrelevant at first and second administration. Other barriers included wearing a mask during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study demonstrated sufficient validity and reliability of CRBS-CZE, which supports its use in future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Czech Republic , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 271-276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535084

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In December 2019, a new coronavirus emerged in Wuhan, China, which has become a global health problem. OBJECTIVEs: To estimate how many daily COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 population could have been avoided if each one of five restrictive measures had been implemented at the time the first case was diagnosed, and to estimate a multiple linear regression model predictive of the number of deaths per 100,000 population. METHODS: A simple linear regression was performed between the days elapsed since the first COVID-19 diagnosed case, implementation of each one of the five restrictive measures carried out by the 39 European studied countries, the number of hospital beds per 1,000 population (independent variables) and the number of COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 population. RESULTS: For each day elapsed from the first COVID-19 reported case to the adoption of restrictive measures, between 0.611 (p = 0.004) and 1.863 (p = 0.000) patients died per 100,000 population, depending on the implemented measure. CONCLUSIONS: Restrictive measures and social distancing, as well as promptness of their implementation, are necessary for achieving a decrease in COVID-19 infections and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Linear Models , Time Factors
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