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1.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(7): 488, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150876
2.
Elife ; 112022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145047

ABSTRACT

Background: The global distribution of COVID-19 vaccinations remains highly unequal. We examine public preferences in six European countries regarding the allocation of COVID-19 vaccines between the Global South and Global North. Methods: We conducted online discrete choice experiments with adult participants in France (n=766), Germany (n=1964), Italy (n=767), Poland (n=670), Spain (n=925), and Sweden (n=938). Respondents were asked to decide which one of two candidates should receive the vaccine first. The candidates varied on four attributes: age, mortality risk, employment, and living in a low- or high-income country. We analysed the relevance of each attribute in allocation decisions using conditional logit regressions. Results: In all six countries, respondents prioritised candidates with a high mortality and infection risk, irrespective of whether the candidate lived in the respondent's own country. All else equal, respondents in Italy, France, Spain, and Sweden gave priority to a candidate from a low-income country, whereas German respondents were significantly more likely to choose the candidate from their own country. Female, younger, and more educated respondents were more favourable to an equitable vaccine distribution. Conclusions: Given these preferences for global solidarity, European governments should promote vaccine transfers to poorer world regions. Funding: Funding was provided by the European Union's Horizon H2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 101016233 (PERISCOPE).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Europe/epidemiology
3.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 58(1): 6-15, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144605

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic came along with several health and social unprecedented emergencies, among which handling people with substance use disorder issues. METHODS: In this work, data from a cross-sectional online survey conducted among more than 40,000 adults in 21 European countries during the spring of 2020 are analyzed. The survey recorded participants drinking habits during the year preceding the survey and the changes in alcohol consumption during lockdown. The analyses focused on alcohol consumers' type, investigating on the behavioral change in people who already had a problematic alcohol consumption attitude. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results show how subjects with risky or hazardous use of alcohol increased both drinking quantity and frequency in most European countries, underlining the urge to establish regulations on online and home delivered alcoholic beverages availability and reinforcing and restructuring health care services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Humans
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1015501, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142346

ABSTRACT

Objective: To quantify the (direct and indirect) impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mortality for actual populations of persons living in 12 European countries in 2020. Method: Based on demographic and mortality data, as well as remaining life expectancies found in the Human Mortality Database, we calculated a "population life loss" in 2020 for men and women living in Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. This quantity was obtained by dividing the total number of years lost in 2020 (estimated from all-cause mortality data and attributed directly or indirectly to COVID-19) by the size of the population. Results: A significant population life loss was found in 8 countries in 2020, with men losing an average of 8.7, 5.0, 4.4, 4.0, 3.7, 3.4, 3.1, and 2.7 days in Lithuania, Spain, Belgium, Hungary, Croatia, Portugal, Switzerland, and Sweden, respectively. For women, this loss was 5.5, 4.3, 3.7, 3.7, 3.1, 2.4, 1.6, and 1.4 days, respectively. No significant losses were found in Finland, Luxembourg, Denmark and Norway. Life loss was highly dependent on age, reaching 40 days at the age of 90 in some countries, while only a few significant losses occurred under the age of 60. Even in countries with a significant population life loss in 2020, it was on average about 30 times lower than in 1918, at the time of the Spanish flu. Conclusions: Our results based on the concept of population life loss were consistent with those based on the classical concept of life expectancy, confirming the significant impact of COVID-19 on mortality in 8 European countries in 2020. However, while life expectancy losses were typically counted in months or years, population life losses could be counted in days, a potentially useful piece of information from a public health perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , History, 20th Century , Male , Humans , Female , Infant , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Life Expectancy , Europe/epidemiology
5.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly age-dependent, we aimed to identify population subgroups at an elevated risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 using age-/gender-adjusted data from European cohort studies with the aim to identify populations that could potentially benefit from booster vaccinations. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of underlying medical conditions as prognostic factors for adverse outcomes due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including death, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation within three separate settings (community, hospital and ICU). Cohort studies that reported at least age and gender-adjusted data from Europe were identified through a search of peer-reviewed articles published until 11 June 2021 in Ovid Medline and Embase. Results are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and absolute risk differences in deaths per 1000 COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: We included 88 cohort studies with age-/gender-adjusted data from 6 653 207 SARS-CoV-2 patients from Europe. Hospital-based mortality was associated with high and moderate certainty evidence for solid organ tumours, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, liver disease and obesity, while a higher risk, albeit with low certainty, was noted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. Community-based mortality was associated with a history of heart failure, stroke, diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Evidence of high/moderate certainty revealed a strong association between hospitalisation for COVID-19 and solid organ transplant recipients, sleep apnoea, diabetes, stroke and liver disease. INTERPRETATION: The results confirmed the strong association between specific prognostic factors and mortality and hospital admission. Prioritisation of booster vaccinations and the implementation of nonpharmaceutical protective measures for these populations may contribute to a reduction in COVID-19 mortality, ICU and hospital admissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Europe/epidemiology , Male , Female
7.
Clin Lab Med ; 42(2): 161-191, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130433

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the rapid development of a plethora of molecular diagnostic assays with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the forefront. In this review, we will discuss the history and utility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) molecular diagnostics and the associated current and future regulatory process in Europe. We will assess the performance characteristics of a range of the most common SARS-CoV-2 molecular tests currently used in Europe with a focus on as rapid molecular platforms, stand-alone RT-PCR kits, the role of low-throughput and high-throughput end-to-end testing platforms, and the rapidly evolving field of SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern identification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pathology, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25695, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted Europe, resulting in a high caseload and deaths that varied by country. The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has breached the borders of Europe. Public health surveillance is necessary to inform policy and guide leaders. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide advanced surveillance metrics for COVID-19 transmission that account for weekly shifts in the pandemic, speed, acceleration, jerk, and persistence, to better understand countries at risk for explosive growth and those that are managing the pandemic effectively. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal trend analysis and extracted 62 days of COVID-19 data from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in Europe as a function of the prior number of cases, the level of testing, and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: New COVID-19 cases slightly decreased from 158,741 (week 1, January 4-10, 2021) to 152,064 (week 2, January 11-17, 2021), and cumulative cases increased from 22,507,271 (week 1) to 23,890,761 (week 2), with a weekly increase of 1,383,490 between January 10 and January 17. France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom had the largest 7-day moving averages for new cases during week 1. During week 2, the 7-day moving average for France and Spain increased. From week 1 to week 2, the speed decreased (37.72 to 33.02 per 100,000), acceleration decreased (0.39 to -0.16 per 100,000), and jerk increased (-1.30 to 1.37 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: The United Kingdom, Spain, and Portugal, in particular, are at risk for a rapid expansion in COVID-19 transmission. An examination of the European region suggests that there was a decrease in the COVID-19 caseload between January 4 and January 17, 2021. Unfortunately, the rates of jerk, which were negative for Europe at the beginning of the month, reversed course and became positive, despite decreases in speed and acceleration. Finally, the 7-day persistence rate was higher during week 2 than during week 1. These measures indicate that the second wave of the pandemic may be subsiding, but some countries remain at risk for new outbreaks and increased transmission in the absence of rapid policy responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
9.
Eur J Health Econ ; 23(5): 893-901, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128716

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions aimed at reducing the spread of COVID-19 rely largely on voluntary compliance among the target population to be effective, since such measures, which are aimed at the entire population, are very hard to enforce. In this paper, we focus on the impact of different work ethics on the spread of COVID-19. There are indeed reasons to believe that populations with different attitudes toward work will react differently to stay-at-home orders and other policies that forbid people from working. By means of a quantitative analysis, using hybrid model estimators, we test the impact of different work ethics on COVID-19 diffusion in a sample of 30 European countries. Results show that the more a population holds certain beliefs about work-namely, that it is humiliating to receive money without working, that people who do not work become lazy, and that work always comes first-the higher contagion rates of COVID-19 are, ceteris paribus. On the other hand, the more a population perceives work as a social duty, the lower contagion rates are. All this suggests that different work ethics matter in the containment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275523, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140575

ABSTRACT

From the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers advised policy makers to make informed decisions towards the adoption of mitigating interventions. Key easy-to-interpret metrics applied over time can measure the public health impact of epidemic outbreaks. We propose a novel method which quantifies the effect of hospitalizations or mortality when the number of COVID-19 cases doubles. Two analyses are used, a country-by-country analysis and a multi-country approach which considers all countries simultaneously. The new measure is applied to several European countries, where the presence of different variants, vaccination rates and intervention measures taken over time leads to a different risk. Based on our results, the vaccination campaign has a clear effect for all countries analyzed, reducing the risk over time. However, the constant emergence of new variants combined with distinct intervention measures impacts differently the risk per country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Administrative Personnel , Europe/epidemiology
11.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 131, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of SARS-CoV-2, multidrug-resistant organisms and other healthcare-associated pathogens represents supra-regional challenges for infection prevention and control (IPC) specialists in every European country. To tackle these problems, cross-site research collaboration of IPC specialists is very important. This study assesses the extent and quality of national research collaborations of IPC departments of university hospitals located in Austria, England, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, identifies network gaps, and provides potential solutions. METHODS: Joint publications of IPC heads of all university hospitals of the included countries between 1st of June 2013 until 31st of May 2020 were collected by Pubmed/Medline search. Further, two factors, the journal impact factor and the type/position of authorship, were used to calculate the Scientific Collaboration Impact (SCI) for all included sites; nationwide network analysis was performed. RESULTS: In five European countries, 95 sites and 125 responsible leaders for IPC who had been in charge during the study period were identified. Some countries such as Austria have only limited national research cooperations, while the Netherlands has established a gapless network. Most effective collaborating university site of each country were Lille with an SCI of 1146, Rotterdam (408), Berlin (268), Sussex (204), and Vienna/Innsbruck (18). DISCUSSION: The present study indicates major differences and room for improvement in IPC research collaborations within each country and underlines the potential and importance of collaborating in IPC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Infection Control , Europe/epidemiology
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(7): 865-875, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible and escapes vaccine-induced immunity. We aimed to describe outcomes due to COVID-19 during the omicron outbreak compared with the prevaccination period and alpha (B.1.1.7) and delta (B.1.617.2) waves in patients with cancer in Europe. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of the multicentre OnCovid Registry study, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, who had a history of solid or haematological malignancy that was either active or in remission. Patient were recruited from 37 oncology centres from UK, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, and Germany. Participants were followed up from COVID-19 diagnosis until death or loss to follow-up, while being treated as per standard of care. For this analysis, we excluded data from centres that did not actively enter new data after March 1, 2021 (in France, Germany, and Belgium). We compared measures of COVID-19 morbidity, which were complications from COVID-19, hospitalisation due to COVID-19, and requirement of supplemental oxygen and COVID-19-specific therapies, and COVID-19 mortality across three time periods designated as the prevaccination (Feb 27 to Nov 30, 2020), alpha-delta (Dec 1, 2020, to Dec 14, 2021), and omicron (Dec 15, 2021, to Jan 31, 2022) phases. We assessed all-cause case-fatality rates at 14 days and 28 days after diagnosis of COVID-19 overall and in unvaccinated and fully vaccinated patients and in those who received a booster dose, after adjusting for country of origin, sex, age, comorbidities, tumour type, stage, and status, and receipt of systemic anti-cancer therapy. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04393974, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: As of Feb 4, 2022 (database lock), the registry included 3820 patients who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 between Feb 27, 2020, and Jan 31, 2022. 3473 patients were eligible for inclusion (1640 [47·4%] were women and 1822 [52·6%] were men, with a median age of 68 years [IQR 57-77]). 2033 (58·5%) of 3473 were diagnosed during the prevaccination phase, 1075 (31·0%) during the alpha-delta phase, and 365 (10·5%) during the omicron phase. Among patients diagnosed during the omicron phase, 113 (33·3%) of 339 were fully vaccinated and 165 (48·7%) were boosted, whereas among those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase, 152 (16·6%) of 915 were fully vaccinated and 21 (2·3%) were boosted. Compared with patients diagnosed during the prevaccination period, those who were diagnosed during the omicron phase had lower case-fatality rates at 14 days (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·32 [95% CI 0·19-0·61) and 28 days (0·34 [0·16-0·79]), complications due to COVID-19 (0·26 [0·17-0·46]), and hospitalisation due to COVID-19 (0·17 [0·09-0·32]), and had less requirements for COVID-19-specific therapy (0·22 [0·15-0·34]) and oxygen therapy (0·24 [0·14-0·43]) than did those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase. Unvaccinated patients diagnosed during the omicron phase had similar crude case-fatality rates at 14 days (ten [25%] of 40 patients vs 114 [17%] of 656) and at 28 days (11 [27%] of 40 vs 184 [28%] of 656) and similar rates of hospitalisation due to COVID-19 (18 [43%] of 42 vs 266 [41%] of 652) and complications from COVID-19 (13 [31%] of 42 vs 237 [36%] of 659) as those diagnosed during the alpha-delta phase. INTERPRETATION: Despite time-dependent improvements in outcomes reported in the omicron phase compared with the earlier phases of the pandemic, patients with cancer remain highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 if they are not vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support universal vaccination of patients with cancer as a protective measure against morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health and Care Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre and the Cancer Treatment and Research Trust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Outbreaks , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Oxygen , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1360, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has not only impacted intensive care units, but all healthcare services generally. This PsyGipo2C project specifically investigates how psychiatry and mental health professionals have been affected by the reorganizations and constraints imposed, which have reshaped their often already difficult working conditions. METHODS: Our research combined quantitative and qualitative methods, surveying and interviewing health professionals of all occupations working in psychiatric and mental health services. A questionnaire was completed by 1241 professionals from 10 European countries, and 13 group interviews were conducted across 5 countries. In addition to this, 31 individual interviews were conducted in Belgium and France. RESULTS: Among the questionnaire respondents, 70.2% felt that their workload had increased, particularly due to their tasks being diversified and due to increased complexity in the provision of care. 48.9% felt that finding a work-life balance had become more difficult, and 59.5% felt their health had been affected by the crisis. The impact of the health crisis nevertheless varied across professions: our data provides insight into how the health measures have had a differential impact on professional tasks and roles across the various categories of occupations, obliging professionals to make various adaptations. The distress incurred has been linked not only to these new constraints in their work, but also to the combination of these with other pressures in their personal lives, which has consequently compromised their well-being and their ability to cope with multiple demands. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 health crisis has had varying impacts depending on the profession and access to remote work, sometimes leading to conflicts within the teams. The suffering expressed by the professionals was tied to their values and patterns of investment in work. Our research also highlights how these professionals made little use of the psychological supports offered, probably due to a reluctance to acknowledge that their mental health was affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health Services , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Anxiety , Europe/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies comparing how the European nursing homes (NHs) handled the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic remain scarce. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the first wave in a private NHs network in Belgium, France, Germany and Italy. Mortality rates were estimated, and prevention and control measures were described by country. Data from the Oxford governmental response tracker project were used to elaborate a "modified stringency index" measuring the magnitude of the COVID-19 global response. RESULTS: Of the 580 NHs surveyed, 383 responded to the online questionnaire. The COVID-19 mortality rate was similar in France (3.9 deaths per 100 residents) and Belgium (4.5). It was almost four times higher in Italy (11.9) and particularly low in Germany (0.3). Prevention and control measures were diversely implemented: residents' sectorization was mainly carried out in France and Italy (~90% versus ~30% in Germany and Belgium). The "modified stringency index" followed roughly the same pattern in each country. CONCLUSION: This study, conducted in a European network of NHs, showed differences in mortality rate which could be explained by the characteristics of the residents, the magnitude of the first wave and the prevention and control measures implemented. These results may inform future European preparedness plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Nursing Homes , Europe/epidemiology
15.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(10): 776-780, 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111423

ABSTRACT

Background: Since winter 2020, excess deaths due to COVID-19 have been higher in Eastern Europe than most of Western Europe, partly because regulatory enforcement was poor. Methods: This paper analysed data from 50 countries in the WHO European Region, in addition to data from USA and Canada. Excess mMortality and vaccination data were retrieved from "Our World In Data" and regulation implementation was assessed using standard methods. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the association between mortality and each covariate. Results: Excess mortality increased by 4.1 per 100 000 (P = 0.038) for every percentage decrease in vaccination rate and with 6/100 000 (p=0.011) for every decreased unit in the regulatory implementation score a country achieved in the Rule of Law Index. Conclusion: Degree of regulation enforcement, likely including public health measure enforcement, may be an important factor in controlling COVID-19's deleterious health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Europe/epidemiology , Seasons
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18559, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106456

ABSTRACT

Both the USA and Europe experienced substantial excess mortality in 2020 and 2021 related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods used to estimate excess mortality vary, making comparisons difficult. This retrospective observational study included data on deaths from all causes occurring in the USA and 25 European countries or subnational areas participating in the network for European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action (EuroMOMO). We applied the EuroMOMO algorithm to estimate excess all-cause mortality in the USA and Europe during the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, 2020-2021, and compared excess mortality by age group and time periods reflecting three primary waves. During 2020-2021, the USA experienced 154.5 (95% Uncertainty Interval [UI]: 154.2-154.9) cumulative age-standardized excess all-cause deaths per 100,000 person years, compared with 110.4 (95% UI: 109.9-111.0) for the European countries. Excess all-cause mortality in the USA was higher than in Europe for nearly all age groups, with an additional 44.1 excess deaths per 100,000 person years overall from 2020-2021. If the USA had experienced an excess mortality rate similar to Europe, there would have been approximately 391 thousand (36%) fewer excess deaths in the USA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Europe/epidemiology , Public Health , Algorithms , Mortality
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2577-2580, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099066

ABSTRACT

We report results from serologic surveillance for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 among 1,237 wild rodents and small mammals across Europe. All samples were negative, with the possible exception of 1. Despite suspected potential for human-to-rodent spillover, no evidence of widespread SARS-CoV-2 circulation in rodent populations has been reported to date.Esitämme tulokset serologisesta tutkimuksesta, jossa seulottiin SARS-CoV-2 tartuntojen varalta 1,237 luonnonvaraista jyrsijää ja piennisäkästä eri puolilta Eurooppaa. Kaikki näytteet olivat negatiivisia, yhtä näytettä lukuun ottamatta. SARS-CoV-2:n läikkymisen ihmisistä jyrsijöihin on arveltu olevan mahdollista, mutta todisteet viruksen laajamittaisesta leviämisestä jyrsijäpopulaatioissa puuttuvat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Rodentia , Antibodies, Viral , Europe/epidemiology
18.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 94, 2020 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, is challenging healthcare systems worldwide. Little is known about problems faced by emergency medical services-particularly helicopter services-caring for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients. We aimed to describe the issues faced by air ambulance services in Europe as they transport potential COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Nine different HEMS providers in seven different countries across Europe were invited to share their experiences and to report their data regarding the care, transport, and safety measures in suspected or confirmed COVID-19 missions. Six air ambulance providers in six countries agreed and reported their data regarding development of special procedures and safety instructions in preparation for the COVID-19 pandemic. Four providers agreed to provide mission related data. Three hundred eighty-five COVID-19-related missions were analysed, including 119 primary transport missions and 266 interfacility transport missions. RESULTS: All providers had developed special procedures and safety instructions in preparation for COVID-19. Ground transport was the preferred mode of transport in primary missions, whereas air transport was preferred for interfacility transport. In some countries the transport of COVID-19 patients by regular air ambulance services was avoided. Patients in interfacility transport missions had a significantly higher median (range) NACA Score 4 (2-5) compared with 3 (1-7), needed significantly more medical interventions, were significantly younger (59.6 ± 16 vs 65 ± 21 years), and were significantly more often male (73% vs 60.5%). CONCLUSIONS: All participating air ambulance providers were prepared for COVID-19. Safe care and transport of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients is achievable. Most patients on primary missions were transported by ground. These patients were less sick than interfacility transport patients, for whom air transport was the preferred method.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Transportation of Patients/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115492, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086740

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: The coronavirus pandemic has forced governments to implement a variety of different dynamic lockdown-stringency strategies in the last two years. Extensive lockdown periods could have potential unintended consequences on mental health, at least for at-risk groups. OBJECTIVE: We present novel evidence on the heterogeneous direct and indirect effects of lockdown-stringency measures on individuals' perception of social isolation (i.e. loneliness) using panel data from five European countries (Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Sweden), which tracks changes in both in-person and remote social interactions between May 2020 and March 2021. METHOD: We combine data from the COME-HERE panel survey (University of Luxembourg) and the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT). We implement a dynamic mixture model in order to estimate the loneliness sub-population classes based on the severity of loneliness, as well as the evolution of social interactions. RESULTS: While loneliness is remarkably persistent over time, we find substantial heterogeneity across individuals, identifying four latent groups by loneliness severity. Group membership probability varies with age, gender, education and cohabitation status. Moreover, we note significant differences in the impact of social interactions on loneliness by degree of severity. Older people are less likely to feel lonely, but were more affected by lockdown measures, partly due to a reduction in face-to-face interactions. On the contrary, the younger, especially those living alone, report high levels of loneliness that are largely unaffected by changes in the pandemic after lockdown measures were initially implemented. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the heterogeneity in loneliness is key for the identification of at-risk populations that can be severely affected by extended lockdown measures. As part of public-health crisis-response systems, it is critical to develop support measures for older individuals living alone, as well as promoting continuous remote communication for individuals more likely to experience high levels of loneliness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Europe/epidemiology , Pandemics
20.
Folia Med Cracov ; 62(2): 71-92, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081393

ABSTRACT

I n t r o d u c t i o n: The COVID-19 pandemic has put healthcare systems worldwide under huge strain, resulting in a significant loss of their capacity and availability. Patients have become more reluctant to contact their doctors or call an ambulance in case of myocardial infarction (MI) symptoms onset. It has been accompanied by a significant decrease in the number of coronary angiography and PCI procedures performed. O b j e c t i v e s: The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of online health information in the patient- dependent phase of MI management during the COVID-19 lockdown in Europe. Methods: We analyzed Google Trends data on the popularity of phrases related to MI symptoms, respiratory tract infection, urological complaints, and terms unrelated to health, for the period of the first COVID-19 lockdown, along with the data from the corresponding weeks from 2017-2019 in seven European countries. R e s u l t s: The search volume for particular symptoms of myocardial infarction increased in all studied countries, compared to the analogous period from 2017-2019, with a significant increase in for chest pain, shortness of breath, fear, and palpitations in most countries. These changes have not been accompanied by increased interest in terms related to respiratory tract infection symptoms and urological complaints. C o n c l u s i o n s: Our findings suggest that during lockdown, patients with MI symptoms may have tried to manage their complaints on their own, using information from the Internet. This demonstrates the growing role of the Internet in the patient's decision-making process in the emergency situation, indicating a growing need for reliable and freely available online information provided by healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Europe/epidemiology
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